# # KEHOME/knowledge/cyc/myCyc.mkr # Feb/20/2007 Sep/27/2008 # cyc constant format: #$name CommentMode := cyc; TypeComment := ""; rdf:RDF has xmlns:daml = "http://www.daml.org/2001/03/daml+oil#", xmlns:rdf = "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#", xmlns:rdfs = "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#", xmlns:dc = "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/", xmlns = "http://opencyc.sourceforge.net/daml/cyc#"; "http://mKRmKE.net/knowledge/cyc/myCyc.mkr" has creator = "Richard H. McCullough", date = "2007/Feb/20", source = "http://xbean.cs.ccu.edu.tw/~dan/opencyc-0.6.0/cyc.daml", language = "mKR"; Ontology has about="", versionInfo = "$Id$", comment = <The Cyc Upper Ontology>; guid isu UniqueProperty; guid has label = "guid", comment = <Permanent Global Unique ID for the associated concept -- which enables concept renaming. Users should not depend upon the DAML ID nor label as fixed for all time.>, domain = Thing, range = Literal; AFewDaysDuration isu Time-Quantity; AFewDaysDuration has label = "a few days duration", comment = <Duration of 2 to 10 days>, guid = "bd58f6ee-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AFewDecadesDuration isu OrderOfMagnitudeInterval; AFewDecadesDuration has label = "a few decades duration", comment = <Duration of 2 to 10 decades>, guid = "bd58af72-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AFewHoursDuration isu OrderOfMagnitudeInterval; AFewHoursDuration has label = "a few hours duration", comment = <Duration of 2 to 10 hours>, guid = "bd58fded-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AFewMinutesDuration isu OrderOfMagnitudeInterval; AFewMinutesDuration has label = "a few minutes duration", comment = <Duration of 2 to 10 minutes>, guid = "bd5899f0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AFewMonthsDuration isu Time-Quantity; AFewMonthsDuration has label = "a few months duration", comment = <A few months 2-10>, guid = "bd59008b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AFewSecondsDuration isu OrderOfMagnitudeInterval; AFewSecondsDuration has label = "a few seconds duration", comment = <Duration of 2 to 30 seconds>, guid = "bd589ecf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AFewWeeksDuration isu Time-Quantity; AFewWeeksDuration has label = "a few weeks duration", comment = <Duration of 2 to 10 weeks>, guid = "bd58ddfa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AFewYearsDuration isu Time-Quantity; AFewYearsDuration has label = "a few years duration", comment = <Duration of 2 to 10 years>, guid = "bd589ddb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AbandoningSomething ismem Class; AbandoningSomething has label = "abandonments", comment = <The collection of events in which some #$Agent deliberately gives up possession of something, without giving it to another.>, guid = "bd67b7de-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AbandoningSomething rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss LosingUserRights, iss PurposefulAction, xor GainingUserRights; Ablation ismem Class; Ablation has label = "ablations", comment = <A collection of events. In an #$Ablation, a (usually relatively thin) layer of material is removed from the surface of an object.>, guid = "bd58b6b3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ablation rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss Separation-Complete, iss RemovingSomething; AboveGroundLevelInAConstruction ismem Class; AboveGroundLevelInAConstruction has label = "above ground levels", comment = <A specialization of #$LevelOfAConstruction whose instances are at or above ground level. See also #$BasementLevelInAConstruction and #$BalconyLevelInAConstruction.>, guid = "bd588bb2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AboveGroundLevelInAConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LevelOfAConstruction; AbradingSomething ismem Class; AbradingSomething has label = "abrading events", comment = <A collection of events. In an #$AbradingSomething event, the surface of some object is gradually worn away by scraping or similar physical contact involving friction. Devices used in elements of #$AbradingSomething include files and sand paper; elements of #$AbradingSomething would include the event in which Howard Hughes sanded down the Spruce Goose for the last time, the event in which Lucy Ricardo filed her fingernails just before her singing debut at Rickie&apos;s club, etc.>, guid = "bd5899e7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AbradingSomething rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss Ablation; AbstractInformationalThing ismem Class; AbstractInformationalThing has label = "data", comment = <A heterogeneous collection of abstract objects that pertain to information. Subsumes not only #$Proposition, but also the collections #$Sentence, #$CharacterString, #$AtomicSymbol-Abstract, #$Microtheory, #$PropositionalInformationThing, and #$ConceptualWork. Note that while all #$AbstractInformationalThings are abstract objects (this collection is disjoint with #$SpatialThing-Localized), most instances of this collection can have multiple concrete &apos;embodiments&apos;. A single instance of #$Sentence can be written on several peices of paper (see #$instantiationOfAIS); a #$PropositionalInformationThing may be the content of several concrete documents, such as instances of #$BookCopy (see #$containsInfoPropositional-IBT); and several events, such as spoken utterances, may have a certain #$Proposition as their content (see #$containsInformation). Note that some instances of #$AbstractInformationalThing have temporal extent. Examples include all instances of #$Novel-CW and #$Movie-CW. Others specs are disjoint with #$TemporalThing. Examples include all instances of #$Character-Abstract and #$Proposition.>, guid = "bdff6c64-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AbstractInformationalThing rel isu StuffType, ismem Class, iss IntangibleIndividual, xor SpatialThing, xor Agent, xor Event; AbstractProgrammingLanguage ismem Class; AbstractProgrammingLanguage has label = "programming languages", comment = <The collection of languages invented for use by computers. This includes both command languages and others which one doesn&apos;t really `program&apos; in.>, guid = "bd58c2ea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AbstractProgrammingLanguage rel isu ObjectType; AbstractShapeType ismem Class; AbstractShapeType has label = "abstract shape type", comment = <A collection of collections. An instance SHAPE of #$ShapeType (q.v.) is also an instance of #$AbstractShapeType if and only if SHAPE is a spec of #$GeometricThing-Abstract. It is distinguished from #$GenericShapeType (q.v.), which is the collection of those collections that are instances of #$ShapeType, some of whose instances are abstract, and some of whose instances are localized. There is no &apos;#$LocalizedShapeType&apos;. The instances of #$AbstractShapeType are the acceptable second-arguments of the predicate #$shape. So, if you have have a spherical ball, BALL001, it is true that (#$shape BALL001 (#$AbstractFn #$SphereShape)), but false (in fact, undefined) that (#$shape BALL001 #$SphereShape).>, guid = "c0f46e32-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AbstractShapeType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss ShapeType, xor GenericShapeType; AcademicProfessional ismem Class; AcademicProfessional has label = "academics", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$AcademicProfessional is a person whose job is to educate and/or to perform research as an affiliate of an academic institution. This includes members of the teaching and/or research staff of schools, colleges, universities, and research institutes.>, guid = "bd589db6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AcademicProfessional rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; AcademicQuarter ismem Class; AcademicQuarter has label = "academic quarters", comment = <Each instance of this collection is a #$TimeInterval defined by some educational institution: one quarter of their #$AcademicYear. Since the start dates, end dates, and duration may all vary depending on the institution, the year, etc., instances of this collection must unfortunately be time intervals like StanfordSpringQuarter1991.>, guid = "bd589441-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AcademicQuarter rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TimeInterval, xor TimePoint; AcademicSemester ismem Class; AcademicSemester has label = "semesters", comment = <Each instance of this collection is a #$TimeInterval defined by some educational institution: one half of their #$AcademicYear. Since the start dates, end dates and duration may vary depending on the institution and year, instances will be time intervals such as ``StanfordSpringSemester1990-91&apos;&apos;.>, guid = "bd58ea30-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AcademicSemester rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TimeInterval, xor TimePoint; AcademicTrimester ismem Class; AcademicTrimester has label = "trimesters", comment = <Each instance of this collection is a #$TimeInterval defined by some educational institution: one third of their #$AcademicYear. Since the start dates, end dates, and duration may all vary depending on the institution and year, instances of this collection must unfortunately be time intervals like UCLASpringTrimester1990-91.>, guid = "bd58ea73-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AcademicTrimester rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TimeInterval, xor TimePoint; AcademicYear ismem Class; AcademicYear has label = "academic years", comment = <Each instance of this collection is an annually recurring #$TimeInterval defined by an educational institution. Since the start dates, end dates, and duration may all vary depending on the institution, the year, etc., instances of this collection must unfortunately be time intervals like Stanford1989-90AcademicYear.>, guid = "bd58f188-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AcademicYear rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TimeInterval, xor TimePoint; Acceleration ismem Class; Acceleration has label = "accelerations", comment = <Acceleration is the change in speed of an object per unit time. It is a measurable physical quantity, measured in units such as MilesPerHourPerSecond.>, guid = "bd58dc89-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Acceleration rel isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval, iss PhysicalAttribute; AccessNumber ismem Class; AccessNumber has label = "access numbers", comment = <A collection of #$PhoneNumbers. Each element of #$AccessNumber is a string that a user with #$Internet connections uses to connect to his/her #$InternetServiceProvider.>, guid = "bf796ce3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AccessNumber rel isu IDStringType, iss PhoneNumber; AccessingAnIBT ismem Class; AccessingAnIBT has label = "information-accessing events", comment = <A collection of information transfer events. Each element of #$AccessingAnIBT is an action by which an agent accesses the content of some IBT (i.e., an element of #$InformationBearingThing). Examples include (getting information from) reading a newspaper, watching a film, listening to a musical performance, decoding an encrypted message, seeing a traffic police officer wave you on, or hearing your roommate ask you to take out the trash. Of course, communication conventions play a role here. In the #$NaiveInformationMt, Cyc simply assumes that an agent who accesses an IBT understands its content afterwards. In the #$InformationGMt, Cyc makes the more complicated inference that an agent who accesses an IBT understands its content afterwards only if the agent is able to get the encoded information using a convention familiar to that agent. See also #$CommunicationConvention, #$hasCommConvention, #$usesCommConventionForInfo.>, guid = "bd58d61f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AccessingAnIBT rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TransferIn, iss PurposefulAction, iss InformationTransferEvent; Account ismem Class; Account has label = "accounts", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$LegalAgreement. Each element of #$Account is a recorded obligation (of some particular type) between specified parties, consisting of `funds&apos; which typically can be added to and drawn upon. Examples include the instances of #$RetirementAccount, #$TravelExpenseAccount, and of the many types of #$FinancialAccount. Note that the contents of an account need not be monetary; for example, the contents may be amounts of time, as in the subsets #$VacationAccount or a #$SickLeaveAccount. #$Account does NOT include debt obligations of fixed face value that cannot be increased or reduced (such as a bond).>, guid = "bd588c2b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Account rel isu AccountType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss LegalAgreement, iss AuthorizedAgreement; AccountStatusAttribute ismem Class; AccountStatusAttribute has label = "account statuses", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$AccountStatusAttribute is an attribute that describes the obligational status of an #$Account; e.g.,#$PaidInFull, #$InComplianceWithPaymentSchedule, #$PaymentOverdue, #$AccountInactive.>, guid = "bd58d207-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AccountStatusAttribute rel isu AttributeType, isu SiblingDisjointAttributeType, iss AttributeValue; AccountType ismem Class; AccountType has label = "account type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$AccountType is a collection of financial accounts of some type. Examples: #$SavingsAccount, #$CreditCardAccount, #$RetirementAccount, #$SocialSecurityAccount, #$TravelExpenseAccount. Typically, accounts are denominated in units of #$Money.>, guid = "bd588be8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AccountType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, iss ExistingObjectType; Acknowledging-CommunicationAct ismem Class; Acknowledging-CommunicationAct has label = "acknowledgments", comment = <The collection of actions which are #$performedBy one #$Agent to convey information about the receipt of a prior #$CommunicationAct-Single which was #$performedBy another #$Agent. An example: Judy saying `No&apos; in response to Jane&apos;s prior act of saying `Will you clean the toaster.&apos;>, guid = "bd590c41-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Acknowledging-CommunicationAct rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss CommunicationAct-Single; AcquaintanceAttribute ismem Class; AcquaintanceAttribute has label = "acquaintance attribute", comment = <The collection of attributes that specify ways in which (and/or degrees to which) one person is acquainted with another E.g., some instances of this collection are: #$FamousPersonAcquaintance, #$TrueFanAcquaintance, #$IntimateAcquaintance, #$FrequentContactAcquaintance, etc.>, guid = "bd58f556-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AcquaintanceAttribute rel isu SocialAttributeType, ismem Class; Action ismem Class; Action has label = "actions", comment = <A collection of events. Each instance of #$Action is an event that is carried out by some &apos;doer&apos; (see #$doneBy). Actions may include any event in which one or more actor(s) effect some change(s) in the tangible or intangible state of the world, typically by some expenditure of effort or energy. But note that it is not required that any tangible object be moved, changed, produced, or destroyed for an action to occur; the effects of actions may be intangible (such as the change in a bank balance, or the intimidation of a subordinate). Depending upon the context, actors may be animate or inanimate, conscious or nonconscious. For actions that are intentional, see also #$PurposefulAction, #$performedBy.>, guid = "bd58a841-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Action rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Event; ActionOnObject ismem Class; ActionOnObject has label = "actions on an object", comment = <The collection of physical events in which some doer acts on an object. Each element of #$ActionOnObject is an action in which both the roles of #$doneBy and #$objectActedOn (qq.v.) are filled. Positive examples: someone typing on a keyboard; a tornado destroying a building. Negative examples: a person dancing; wind blowing.>, guid = "c0e7f6ca-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ActionOnObject rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Action, iss PhysicalEvent; ActorSlot ismem Class; ActorSlot has label = "actor slots", comment = <A collection of binary predicates; a specialization of #$Role. Each element of #$ActorSlot relates some instance of #$Event to a temporal thing involved in that event (here called a `participant&apos;, but that does not imply activity). The first argument of every #$ActorSlot is an instance of #$Event, and the second argument is an instance of #$SomethingExisting. All instances of #$ActorSlot have #$actors as their #$genlPreds, directly or indirectly, so that the actor slots form a kind of hierarchy. Each specialized actor slot indicates HOW its participant participates in the event, i.e., in what role (e.g., #$inputs, #$outputs, #$doneBy). Actor slots are NOT used to indicate the time of an event&apos;s occurrence, external representations of the event, and other more remotely related things that are not directly or indirectly `involved&apos; in occurrence of the event. Time and other quantities are relevant to events but are not instances of #$SomethingExisting; thus, they are related to events by some non-#$ActorSlot predicate. Things which are remotely related to the event--e.g., someone who is affected by the event but doesn&apos;t exist when the event occurs--may be related using some instance of #$Role that does not belong to #$ActorSlot, such as #$affectedAgent. See also #$Role.>, guid = "bd588029-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ActorSlot rel isu PredicateCategory; Address-LocationDesignator ismem Class; Address-LocationDesignator has label = "addresses", comment = <A collection of strings. Each element of #$Address-LocationDesignator is a string that denotes an address. Each string indicates one entire address. For example: `President Bill Clinton, White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC.>, guid = "bd590a18-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Address-LocationDesignator rel isu ObjectType, xor ContactLocation; Adjective ismem Class; Adjective has label = "adjectives", comment = <The collecton of all adjectives. Adjectives are words which can modify nouns. Many adjectives have comparative and superlative forms. Example: `red&apos;.>, guid = "bd588031-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Adjective rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu SpeechPart; Administrator ismem Class; Administrator has label = "administrators", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$Administrator is an employee of an organization who is responsible for managing its organizational affairs. Elements of #$Administrator may or may not also be required to manage people. If so, then they are also #$Managers (q.v.).>, guid = "bd58aedc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Administrator rel isu OccupationType; Admiration ismem Class; Admiration has label = "admiration", comment = <A feeling of strong approval. An intense positive attitude towards another person(s) or group. May be accompanied by emulation. #$Admiration is different than #$Respect (qv). This is a collection --- see #$Happiness for an explanation. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Admiration are #$Wonder-Admiration, #$Adulation, #$Awe, etc. >, guid = "bd58b20b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Admiration rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Respect; AdultAnimal ismem Class; AdultAnimal has label = "adult animals", comment = <The collection of all adult animals (including adult people), meaning all elements of #$Animal that are mature enough to bear offspring, or older.>, guid = "c1006731-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AdultAnimal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal, xor JuvenileAnimal; AdultFemalePerson ismem Class; AdultFemalePerson has label = "women", comment = <The collection of all women; i.e., #$Persons who are adult and female>, guid = "bd58b1f1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AdultFemalePerson rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss FemalePerson, iss HumanAdult; Adverb ismem Class; Adverb has label = "adverbs", comment = <The collection of all adverbs. Adverbs are words which can modify adverbs, verbs, or adjectives. Many adverbs are morphologically derived from adjectives. Example: `slowly&apos;.>, guid = "bd58802c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Adverb rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu SpeechPart; Advertising ismem Class; Advertising has label = "advertising events", comment = <A collection of #$CommunicationAct-Singles. In an #$Advertising event, someone is communicating, to potential customers of an #$Agent, the desire of that agent to do business with those customers (either to `do business&apos; in general or to sell them something specific.>, guid = "c10afc14-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Advertising rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss CommunicationAct-Single, iss BusinessEvent; Affection ismem Class; Affection has label = "affection", comment = <A feeling of fondness for someone or something. Sympathy, liking, warmth, tenderness. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Affection are #$Love, #$Passion, etc.>, guid = "bd58b5c7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Affection rel isu FeelingAttributeType; Afternoon ismem Class; Afternoon has label = "afternoons", comment = <An #$Afternoon is the daily #$Event where the #$Sun moves from its `highest&apos; position in the daily cycle and `sets&apos; or becomes a #$MidnightSun, i.e from noon till #$Sunset or #$MidnightSun. A #$Midday overlaps the start of an #$Afternoon, and an #$Evening is #$contiguousAfter an #$Afternoon (except when there is a #$MidnightSun in which case a #$Morning is contiguously after the #$Afternoon). Each #$Afternoon is #$temporallyFinishedBy a #$Sunset or #$MidnightSun.>, guid = "bd58863a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Afternoon rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss QualitativeTimeOfDay; Agent ismem Class; Agent has label = "agents", comment = <In the #$FunctionalRoleAnalysisMt an #$Agent is defined quite simply as any temporally extended thing that plays one or more functional roles in some #$FunctionalSystem.>, guid = "bd588007-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Agent rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject, iss Agent-Generic, xor Place, xor Surface-Generic, xor EarthStuff, xor FluidTangibleThing, xor TangibleProduct, xor Artifact, xor TextualMaterial, xor AbstractInformationalThing; Agent-Generic ismem Class; Agent-Generic has label = "agent - generic", comment = <#$Agent-Generic is the collection of all agents, or things (like #$Animals, #$Robots, #$DivineBeings, etc.) that have desires and intentions and the presumed ability to act on them. An instance of this collection may be an instance of #$AgentiveArtifact or #$Agent (but not both).>, guid = "bec69a78-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Agent-Generic rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SomethingExisting, iss PartiallyIntangible, xor Artifact-NonAgentive; AgentiveArtifact ismem Class; AgentiveArtifact has label = "agentive artifact", comment = <#$AgentiveArtifact is the collection of all artifacts (created by instances of #$Agent) that commonly possess (at least) the apparent ability to make decisions and commence actions more or less independently of those agents. The distinction here is conventional; a certain functional sophistication possessed by instances of #$Artifact that are &apos;not really living agents&apos; seems to mirror that possessed by &apos;living agents&apos;. This sense of agency derives from ability or function the artifact possesses, namely the ability to commence actions, independently of agents, based on some internal calculation or deliberation. Example subcollections include #$Computer, #$Robot, #$TrojanHorseComputerProgram.>, guid = "bfa66fc1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AgentiveArtifact rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Agent-Generic; AgentiveNoun ismem Class; AgentiveNoun has label = "agentive nouns", comment = <The collection of all nouns in the agentive form. Agentive nouns usually denote the `doer&apos; or `performer&apos; of some action, and often end in `-er&apos; or `-or&apos;. Example: `runner&apos;.>, guid = "bd588033-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AgentiveNoun rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu SpeechPart, iss DeVerbalNoun; Agility ismem Class; Agility has label = "agility", comment = <#$Agility is the #$ScriptPerformanceAttributeType for describing actions in which the performer&apos;s whole body moves precisely and in a well-coordinated fashion.>, guid = "bd58d302-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Agility rel isu ScriptPerformanceAttributeType, iss ScriptPerformanceAttribute; Agreement ismem Class; Agreement has label = "agreements", comment = <A collection of `objects&apos; with temporal extent. Each element of #$Agreement involves two or more parties, who agree that certain propositions should be true. Making the propositions true may require some action or commitment of wealth on the part of one or more of the #$agreeingAgents. Thus, elements of #$Agreement will usually involve some instances of #$Obligation. Note: Elements of #$Agreement and #$Obligation differ, however, in that an #$obligatedAgent is responsible for the truth of all of the propositions in an obligation. In an agreement, some agents may not be responsible for all of the propositions in the agreement being true. For example, in a loan agreement, the borrower agrees to give the lender back the money, but the borrower is the only #$obligatedAgent for the repayment. Note that #$obligatedAgents need not be among the #$agreeingAgents in the agreement that involves or generates the obligation. For example, the Board of Directors of XYZCorporation may agree that some non-director will assume the post and duties of President of XYZCorporation. Moreover, #$agreeingAgents aren&apos;t always obligatedAgents; e.g., Wanda and Paul may agree that Paul alone is obligated to do some task. Examples include instances of #$PeaceAccord, #$LegalAgreement, #$InformalAgreement, #$BusinessPartnershipAgreement, #$WorkAgreement, #$SalesAgreement, #$MaintenanceAgreement, #$Reservation, #$Appointment, etc.>, guid = "bd58afa3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Agreement rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss IntangibleExistingThing, iss SupposedToBeMicrotheory, iss PropositionalInformationThing; AgreementNote isu SharedNote; AgreementNote has label = "agreement note", comment = <Elements of #$Agreement (and of its subsets) are #$Microtheory instances containing propositions representing what some number of parties have agreed upon. An #$Agreement may contain a set of #$Obligations on the part of one or more of the parties. An #$Agreement may also be just a set of beliefs that the parties have decided to share. To indicate which propositions are true in an #$Agreement, regardless of whether they are true in reality, use #$ist-Agreement. (#$ist-Agreement AGREEMENT PROP) means that PROP is a #$ELSentence-Assertible expressing something that was agreed upon in AGREEMENT. Other relevant vocabulary: (#$agreeingAgents AGREEMENT AGENT) means that AGENT is one of the parties agreeing to AGREEMENT. (#$subAgreements AGREEMENT1 AGREEMENT2) means that AGREEMENT2 is a part of (is included in) AGREEMENT1. (#$governedByAgreement ACTION AGREEMENT) means that ACTION is governed by the terms of AGREEMENT. (#$agreementForbids AGREEMENT AGENT ACTION-TYPE ROLE) means that AGREEMENT forbids AGENT to play ROLE in elements of ACTION-TYPE. (#$agreementRequires AGREEMENT AGENT ACTION-TYPE ROLE) means that AGREEMENT requires AGENT to play ROLE in at least one element of ACTION-TYPE. (#$agreementPeriod AGREEMENT TIME) means that AGREEMENT is considered to be true during the time period TIME.>, guid = "bd58b208-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AilmentCondition ismem Class; AilmentCondition has label = "ailments", comment = <The most general collection of ailment events; a subset of #$PhysiologicalCondition, and a subset of #$Event. An instance of #$AilmentCondition is a dynamic state of sickness, injury, or physiological impairment. Having an ailment is an event: it has temporal aspects, it progresses dynamically, etc., it is not just `being in some static state of un-wellness.&apos; Some subsets of #$AilmentCondition are: #$RespiratoryAilment, #$HeartCondition, #$Cancer, #$MotionSickness, #$Poisoning, #$Infection, #$InjuryCondition. If a particular person suffers from asthma, that is an element of #$AilmentCondition. Each #$AilmentCondition is a state of actual, developed sickness or impairment, rather than the event of getting sick or becoming impaired. Also note that each type of ailment, such as #$Asthma, is the set of all `cases&apos; or `instances&apos; of individuals suffering from that condition.>, guid = "c10c1856-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AilmentCondition rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss PhysiologicalCondition; Air ismem Class; Air has label = "air", comment = <A collection of tangibles; a subset of #$GaseousTangibleThing. Each element of #$Air is one `piece&apos; among all the portions of the atmosphere of the Earth, considered as a substance present in various places, in various quantities, under various pressures, etc. Examples: the AirInAustin; the stuffy air in my office; the thin air atop Annapurna. See also #$TheAtmosphereQuaSinglePieceOfStuff, which is all ambient #$Air on the planet taken as a single object.>, guid = "bd58c00c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Air rel isu TangibleStuffStateType, iss Mixture, iss GaseousTangibleThing; AirForce ismem Class; AirForce has label = "air forces", comment = <A collection of military organizations. An element of #$AirForce is a military organization, modern or historical, composed mainly of airborne forces: bombers, fighters, torpedo planes, parachute troops, surveillance aircraft, etc., and having the function of defending or attacking air space, ships, or ground targets.>, guid = "c10c1acc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AirForce rel ismem Class, isu ExistingObjectType; AirForcePersonnel ismem Class; AirForcePersonnel has label = "air force people", comment = <A collection of people, a subset of #$MilitaryPerson. Each element of this collection is somebody who works for an #$AirForce.>, guid = "bd58a7cd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AirForcePersonnel rel isu OccupationType, iss MilitaryPerson; AirRespiration ismem Class; AirRespiration has label = "air respiration", comment = <A collection of activities constituting a natural #$PhysiologicalFunction; #$AirRespiration is the collection of all #$Respiration events in which an organism trades some of the carbon dioxide in its tissues for oxygen from the atmosphere.>, guid = "bd58bdb6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AirRespiration rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss Respiration; AirTransportationDevice ismem Class; AirTransportationDevice has label = "aircraft", comment = <In the #$ModernMilitaryVehiclesMt, #$AirTransportationDevice parallels the military concept of &apos;air platform&apos;; namely, an air vehicle commonly used in military operations to transport weapons, goods, or personnel by air.>, guid = "bd58ae50-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AirTransportationDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss TransportationDevice; AirlineCompany ismem Class; AirlineCompany has label = "airlines", comment = <The collection of all air transportation companies. An element of #$AirlineCompany is a #$TransportationCompany that operates airplanes to transport goods or people in exchange for money.>, guid = "bd58aaee-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AirlineCompany rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CommercialServiceOrganization, iss Business; Airplane ismem Class; Airplane has label = "airplanes", comment = <The collection of all heavier-than-air, self-powered flying machines (excluding cruise missiles) that get their lift while flying from #$AirplaneWings. Thus, #$Helicopters are excluded because the lift is caused by rotors. A borderline case are planes that take-off vertically, using a turbojet engine, so initially the lift is not due to their wings. In flight, however, such planes will need their wings to stay up in the air.>, guid = "bd58828b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Airplane rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType; AirplaneRunway ismem Class; AirplaneRunway has label = "runways", comment = <An airstrip, at an airport, on an aircraft carrier, or in some field, upon which airplanes taxi, take off, and land.>, guid = "bd58910e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AirplaneRunway rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PathForWheeledVehicles; Airport-Physical ismem Class; Airport-Physical has label = "airports", comment = <The collection of all airfields, where airplanes take off and land. An #$Airport-Physical definitely has a runway, may or may not have any other buildings. If it&apos;s the grounds of an #$AirportOrganization, some of those other features will be present.>, guid = "bd58feaf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Airport-Physical rel isu ExistingObjectType; AirportOrganization ismem Class; AirportOrganization has label = "airports", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$AirportOrganization is an organization that manages and controls particular airports and their appurtenant facilities; e.g., #$LaGuardiaAirport-Organization.>, guid = "bd589fbc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AirportOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; Alertness ismem Class; Alertness has label = "alertness", comment = <#$Alertness is an #$AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute which specifies how sleepy or alert an animal is. Levels of #$Alertness include #$Asleep, #$Sleepy, and #$Awake.>, guid = "bd58a532-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Alertness rel iss AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute, iss ScalarInterval; AllergicReaction ismem Class; AllergicReaction has label = "allergic reactions", comment = <A collection of dynamic, physiological states. An instance of #$AllergicReaction is an event in which an organism which is exposed to a particular substance (e.g., pollen, mold) develops some abnormality or impairment of its physiological condition as a result of interacting with the substance. Allergic reactions to some types of substances occur widely in members of a species; e.g., #$PoisonIvyPoisoning in humans. But other allergic reactions affect only a small proportion of a species, such as human allergies to penicillin. This concept is the set of events in which allergic reactions are `taking place&apos;, not abstract unrealized potential situations such as `John is allergic to milk.&apos; I.e., if John were allergic to milk, and he drank some, and then proceeded to have a whopping bad allergic reaction, that latter event would be an element of #$AllergicReaction.>, guid = "c0fd6b2f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AllergicReaction rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss AilmentCondition; Always-TimeInterval isu TimeInterval; Always-TimeInterval has label = "forever", comment = <The interval of time which encompasses all time. In more general MTs we remain agnostic as to whether this time interval has either a beginning or an end, but if it does, #$Always-TimeInterval begins when time itself begins and ends only when time ends completely. Every other instance of #$TimeInterval is a #$timeSlices of #$Always-TimeInterval. >, guid = "c0ea3419-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ambulance ismem Class; Ambulance has label = "ambulances", comment = <The collection of all RoadVehicles that are equipped primarily for transporting wounded, injured or sick persons.>, guid = "bd588cd2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ambulance rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss RoadVehicle; Amphibian ismem Class; Amphibian has label = "amphibians", comment = <The collection of all #$Organism-Wholes which are members of the #$BiologicalClass Amphibia, being a specialization of #$Vertebrate. Members of this class are smooth skinned #$Vertebrates which hatch from eggs to form aquatic larvae [see #$Larva]. These larvae metamorphose into an air-breathing adult [see AirBreathingVertebrate] (normally) having #$Lungs. Subsets of this collection include #$Frogs and #$Salamanders.>, guid = "bd58e024-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Amphibian rel isu BiologicalClass, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss Vertebrate, iss NonPersonAnimal; AnatomicalVessel ismem Class; AnatomicalVessel has label = "anatomical vessel", comment = <The collection of all anatomical vessels in #$Animals. Instances of this collection are tubular animal tissue which acts as a conduit for body fluids or substances passing into or out of the body.>, guid = "be425bb7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnatomicalVessel rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss Pipe-GenericConduit, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss CordlikeObject; Anesthesia ismem Class; Anesthesia has label = "anesthesia", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$DrugTherapy (q.v.). In an instance of #$Anesthesia, a #$BiologicalLivingObject undergoes the effect of some instance of #$Anesthetic, the effect of which is to eliminate the perception of pain. #$Anesthesia events occur in connection with other medical care events, so that a patient will not feel the pain or discomfort that would otherwise be associated with those medical procedures. #$Anesthetics are of various chemical kinds, work in various ways, and can be administered in various ways. They may topically numb an area, they may poison the central nervous system to the point where the animal loses consciousness, etc. The resulting anesthetic therapies thus may differ, according to the type of anesthetic used; for example, the patient may or may not be conscious during an instance of #$Anesthesia. See also #$AdministeringADrug.>, guid = "c0fd53a3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Anesthesia rel ismem Class, iss DrugTherapy; Anger ismem Class; Anger has label = "outrages", comment = <Intense feeling of displeasure and usually of antagonism. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Anger include #$Belligerence, etc.>, guid = "bd58c448-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Anger rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Frustration; Angle ismem Class; Angle has label = "angles", comment = <A subset of #$GeometricThing. Each element of #$Angle is formed by two lines diverging from the same point or two surfaces diverging from the same line. Examples include spatially localized objects, such as the angle formed by the intersection of two walls, and abstract objects, such as the angle formed by the intersection of two (abstract) lines.>, guid = "bd61bd87-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Angle rel isu GenericShapeType, iss GeometricThing; AngularAccelerationRate ismem Class; AngularAccelerationRate has label = "angular acceleration rate", comment = <#$AngularAccelerationRate is the rate at which the #$RateOfRotation of an object changes.It is a measurable physical quantity, measured in units such as radians per second per second.>, guid = "bd59080e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AngularAccelerationRate rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, isu AttributeType, isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval, iss PhysicalAttribute; Animal ismem Class; Animal has label = "animals", comment = <The collection of all animals; this large class of organisms is one instance of #$BiologicalKingdom. Animals are typically motile, living, whole organisms; they are elements of #$Heterotroph, incapable of performing instances of #$Photosynthesis. Animal cells contain cholesterol and lack cell walls made of cellulose. #$Person is a subset of #$Animal; see also #$NonPersonAnimal.>, guid = "bd58b031-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Animal rel isu BiologicalKingdom, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss PerceptualAgent, iss AnimalBLO, iss Organism-Whole, iss Agent, iss SolidTangibleThing, xor VegetableMatter, xor Plant, xor DeadAnimal; AnimalActivity ismem Class; AnimalActivity has label = "activities", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$AnimalActivity is an action whose performer(s) (see #$doneBy) belong to the collection #$Animal.>, guid = "bd588daa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalActivity rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Action; AnimalBLO ismem Class; AnimalBLO has label = "animal body parts", comment = <The subset of #$BiologicalLivingObject which includes all the elements of #$Animal and of #$AnimalBodyPart and #$AnimalBodyRegion.>, guid = "c0fe0761-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalBLO rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; AnimalBodyPart ismem Class; AnimalBodyPart has label = "body parts", comment = <The collection of all the anatomical parts and physical regions of all living animals; a subset of #$OrganismPart. Each element of #$AnimalBodyPart is a piece of some live animal and thus is itself an instance of #$BiologicalLivingObject. #$AnimalBodyPart includes both highly localized organs (e.g., hearts) and physical systems composed of parts distributed throughout an animal&apos;s body (such as its circulatory system and nervous system). By default, all elements of #$AnimalBodyPart are considered a part (see #$anatomicalParts) of some instance of #$Animal. However, there are exceptional cases, e.g., a severed limb, hair which has fallen out, detached parts of dead animals, blood which has poured out of a body.>, guid = "bd58801c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalBodyPart rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss AnimalBodyRegion, xor PlantPart; AnimalBodyPartType ismem Class; AnimalBodyPartType has label = "animal body part type", comment = <The collection of all the types of #$AnimalBodyParts. An #$AnimalBodyPartType is a characterization of body parts by structure and/or function. Some elements of this collection include #$SpinalColumn, #$Eyelash, #$NervousSystem, #$Urethra, #$Wing-AnimalBodyPart, #$HeelOfPalm, etc. As can be seen from those examples, #$AnimalBodyPartType is not organized along species/order/class/phylum/... taxonomic lines.>, guid = "bd58e7da-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalBodyPartType rel ismem CollectionType, isu SiblingDisjointCollection; AnimalBodyRegion ismem Class; AnimalBodyRegion has label = "animal body region", comment = <The set of parts of an animal&apos;s body that one might point to, operate on, photograph, transplant, etc. So this is a collection of (conceptual) spatial subdivisions of the bodies of #$Animals, generally contiguous and having some more or less clear boundary. Some elements of this collections are Einstein&apos;s head, #$SantasBeard, and Babe Ruth&apos;s right arm. Other elements of this set are what might be considered unhealthy body regions, such as a blister, a puncture wound, a bruise, etc. -- but those are still clearly a part of an animal&apos;s body, can be pointed to, photographed, bandaged up, etc. Note that this concept is quite different from an animal body `system&apos; (such as the lymph system, the nervous system, etc.) which comprises a small portion of an animal&apos;s total mass but is distributed throughout the animal&apos;s body -- see #$AnimalBodyPart. (At the naive, commonsense level of physiology, and for almost all purposes, it is perfectly acceptable to conceptualize Santa&apos;s beard as one #$AnimalBodyRegion, and the same for Farrah Fawcett&apos;s hair, etc. A borderline case of this is: Cher&apos;s fingernails. In some contexts, one would treat those as an #$AnimalBodyRegion, and in other contexts one would treat them as ten separate #$AnimalBodyRegions.)>, guid = "bd5adaa1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalBodyRegion rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss OrganismPart, iss AnimalBLO; AnimalMigration ismem Class; AnimalMigration has label = "migrations", comment = <The collection of regular, species-linked movements of an animal or group of animals from one place to another, usually with a return to the starting point after a certain period of time. In some species, the migration cycle occurs once in a lifetime, while others migrate annually on a seasonal basis. Migration is typically linked with an animal&apos;s reproductive cycle (as in salmon), but may also involve seasonal relocation to a more hospitable climate and/or more plentiful food supply. For example, many birds exhibit seasonal migration; e.g., native Northeastern U.S. birds that spend their winters in the Southern U.S.>, guid = "c1009284-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalMigration rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Translation-RoundTrip, iss LocomotionEvent-Animal; AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute ismem Class; AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute has label = "physiological attributes of animals", comment = <The broadest collection of attributes of #$Animals that describe the physiological aspects of an animal, including its physiological (1) capacities, (2) conditions, and (3) states. Examples include: (1) Capacities: #$Fertile, #$HearingImpaired, #$Paraplegic; (2) Conditions: #$Anemic, #$AthleticPhysicalBuild; (3) States: #$Intoxicated, #$Injured, #$Inflamed. #$PlantPhysiologicalAttributes, such as #$InBloom, are excluded.>, guid = "bd58a577-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute rel isu AttributeType, iss PhysiologicalAttribute; AnimalSound ismem Class; AnimalSound has label = "animal sounds", comment = <A collection of information bearing things (IBTs); a subset of #$InformationBearingWavePropagation. Each element of #$AnimalSound is a sound of a type which originally was, and typically is, made by an animal using just its body parts (though such a sound may subsequently have been reproduced by imitation or recording). For example, instances of #$Birdsong, #$NeighingSound, #$PurringSound, #$BarkingSound, #$BrayingSound. Note that the restriction to sounds produced by body parts alone excludes noises produced by moving external objects; i.e., #$AnimalSound does NOT include rustling the leaves underfoot, splashing water, or playing a musical instrument.>, guid = "bd620dbf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalSound rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss AudibleSound, iss InformationBearingWavePropagation; AnimalWalkingProcess ismem Class; AnimalWalkingProcess has label = "animal walking processes", comment = <The collection of instances of #$Walking-Generic in which the #$locomotor is an #$Animal.>, guid = "bd58d77d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnimalWalkingProcess rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu ObjectType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss SimpleWholeBodyMovement, iss SingleDoerAction, iss LocomotionProcess-Animal; AnnualClimateCycle ismem Class; AnnualClimateCycle has label = "climates", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$AnnualClimateCycle is an extended event, one year in length, which encompasses #$subEvents describing the changing of the seasons. Subsets include #$TemperateClimateCycle, #$HumidSubtropicalClimateCycle, etc. See also the comments on #$ClimateCycleType, #$hasClimateType.>, guid = "bd5901a2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnnualClimateCycle rel ismem Class, iss WeatherEvent, xor ImmediateWeatherProcess; AnnualEventType ismem Class; AnnualEventType has label = "annual event type", comment = <A collection of collections. The instances of an element of #$AnnualEventType are synchronized with the calendar. If ?X is an #$AnnualEventType, then one occurs each year. For example, #$ChristmasHoliday is an #$AnnualEventType, because one occurs each year, synchronized with the calendar.>, guid = "be1ed0b5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AnnualEventType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss TemporallyDisjointIntervalType; AntiSymmetricBinaryPredicate ismem Class; AntiSymmetricBinaryPredicate has label = "anti symmetric binary predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates; the subset of #$BinaryPredicate whose elements represent antisymmetric relations. A predicate F is an element of #$AntiSymmetricBinaryPredicate if and only if F is a binary predicate and, if both (F X Y) and (F Y X) hold, then X=Y, for every X,Y within the domain and range of F. For example, #$greaterThanOrEqualTo, #$compatibleBloodTypes. Note this additional restriction: A Cyc predicate F can be an element of #$AntiSymmetricBinaryPredicate only if the type (i.e., arg-Isa) constraint applicable to F&apos;s first argument is not disjoint with the type constraint applicable to F&apos;s second argument. See also #$NoteOnArgumentTypingAndPropertiesOfRelations.>, guid = "bdc9fb94-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AntiSymmetricBinaryPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss Property; AntiTransitiveBinaryPredicate ismem Class; AntiTransitiveBinaryPredicate has label = "anti transitive binary predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates; the subset of #$BinaryPredicate whose elements represent anti-transitive relations. A predicate F is an element of #$AntiTransitiveBinaryPredicate if and only if F is a binary predicate and, for every X,Y,Z in the domain of F, (#$not (#$and (F X Y)(F Y Z)(F X Z))). Note this additional restriction: A Cyc predicate F can be an element of #$AntiTransitiveBinaryPredicate only if the type (i.e., arg-Isa) constraint applicable to F&apos;s first argument is not disjoint with the type constraint applicable to F&apos;s second argument. See also #$NoteOnArgumentTypingAndPropertiesOfRelations.>, guid = "bf8bdc58-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AntiTransitiveBinaryPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss IrreflexiveBinaryPredicate; Anticipation-Feeling ismem Class; Anticipation-Feeling has label = "expectancies", comment = <Emotion accompanying an expectation of something pleasant in the foreseeable future. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. >, guid = "bd58cefc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Anticipation-Feeling rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Apathy ismem Class; Apathy has label = "apathy", comment = <A lack of interest or concern. If someone is feeling some measure of #$Apathy, then they typically will have little or no response to things normally expected to excite emotion or interest. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. A related #$FeelingAttributeType is #$Boredom.>, guid = "bd5893b4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Apathy rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Appendage-AnimalBodyPart ismem Class; Appendage-AnimalBodyPart has label = "appendages", comment = <The collection of all appendages of #$Animals. An appendage is an #$AnimalBodyPart that is connected to, and extends from, the animal&apos;s #$Torso (or else from another of its appendages, such as a hand extending from an arm). Each appendage is used by the #$Animal for one or more functions; altogether, appendages serve a wide variety of functions such as locomotion, manipulation, sensing, fighting, scratching, heat dissipation, balance, etc. Appendages are not crucial for the life of the animal, thus a #$Neck-AnimalBodyPart or #$Head-AnimalBodyPart is not considered to be an appendage.>, guid = "bd5882f8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Appendage-AnimalBodyPart rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; AppropriatingSomething ismem Class; AppropriatingSomething has label = "appropriations", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$TakingSomething and of #$GainingUserRights. In an instance of #$AppropriatingSomething, an #$Agent takes something that no one else has user rights over, such as air for breathing, or some object which at that time belongs to no one (e.g.,a dime lying in the street). Note: The English verb `appropriate&apos; can also mean to take something away from someone else, against their will and wrongfully, but that is not what is meant here. For that, see #$Stealing-Generic.>, guid = "bd58eea3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AppropriatingSomething rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss TakingSomething, xor TransferringPossession; Approval ismem Class; Approval has label = "sanctions", comment = <The emotion of viewing positively a state of affairs or other agent&apos;s actions. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "be00bc14-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Approval rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Satisfaction; April ismem Class; April has label = "April", comment = <The collection of all Aprils, the fourth month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c279-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; April rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; AquaticOrganism ismem Class; AquaticOrganism has label = "aquatic organisms", comment = <The collection of organisms adapted to life underwater, which spend all or most of their time immersed in water. This includes the elements of #$Fish, also many instances of #$Mollusk, #$SeaMammal, etc.>, guid = "bd589715-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AquaticOrganism rel isu OrganismTypeByHabitat, iss Organism-Whole; ArabicLanguage isu NaturalLanguage; ArabicLanguage has label = "Arabic", comment = <A Semitic language spoken by a large number of people in North Africa and the Middle East.>, guid = "bd588730-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArcShaped isu ShapeAttribute; ArcShaped has label = "arc shaped", comment = <The instance of #$ShapeAttribute held by those things whose shape is described with the arc of some segment of a circle. For instance, a section of the equator would be described as arc shaped.>, guid = "c007e4fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Area ismem Class; Area has label = "areas", comment = <A collection of physical attributes. Each element of #$Area is an amount of two-dimensional space, i.e., a surface. Elements of #$Area may be either a fixed interval, such as the area of a rectangle 5 cm x 10 cm, or a range, such as the area of a city lot. See #$UnitOfArea for the units used by Cyc to measure areas.>, guid = "bd58c301-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Area rel isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss PhysicalAttribute, iss ScalarInterval; ArgGenlAttributeBinaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgGenlAttributeBinaryPredicate has label = "arg genl attribute binary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$ArgTypeBinaryPredicate and #$ArgGenlAttributePredicate used to specify the required attribute of an argument of #$Relation. Each instance PRED of this collection is a binary predicate with the following properties: ARG1 is an instance of #$Relation, and ARG2 is an instance of #$AttributeValue. (PRED ARG1 ARG2) means that some argument of ARG1 is constrained to be a spec attribute of ARG2, where PRED determines the argument place in question.>, guid = "c0aa7393-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgGenlAttributeBinaryPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss ArgTypeBinaryPredicate; ArgGenlAttributeTernaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgGenlAttributeTernaryPredicate has label = "arg genl attribute ternary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$ArgTypeTernaryPredicate and #$ArgGenlAttributePredicate used to specify the required #$genlAttributes of an argument of a #$Relation; the arg1 is the Relation; the arg2 is the argument constrained; the arg3 is the required #$genlAttributes #$AttributeValue.>, guid = "bf4fcfa6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgGenlAttributeTernaryPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss ArgTypeTernaryPredicate; ArgGenlBinaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgGenlBinaryPredicate has label = "arg genl binary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$BinaryPredicate and #$ArgGenlPredicate used to specify the required #$genls of an argument of a #$Relation; the arg1 is the #$Relation; the arg2 is the required #$genls #$Collection.>, guid = "bf1eedc8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgGenlBinaryPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ArgTypeBinaryPredicate; ArgGenlTernaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgGenlTernaryPredicate has label = "arg genl ternary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$TernaryPredicate and #$ArgGenlPredicate used to specify the required #$genls of an argument of a #$Relation; the arg1 is the Relation; the arg2 is the argument constrained; the arg3 is the required #$genls #$Collection.>, guid = "bd97e378-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgGenlTernaryPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ArgTypeTernaryPredicate, iss TernaryPredicate; ArgIsaBinaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgIsaBinaryPredicate has label = "arg isa binary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$BinaryPredicate and #$ArgIsaPredicate used to specify the required #$isa of an argument of a #$Relation; the arg1 is the #$Relation; the arg2 is the required #$isa #$Collection.>, guid = "bfa4fe8c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgIsaBinaryPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ArgTypeBinaryPredicate; ArgIsaTernaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgIsaTernaryPredicate has label = "arg isa ternary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$TernaryPredicate and #$ArgIsaPredicate used to specify the required #$isa of an argument of a #$Relation; the arg1 is the #$Relation; the arg2 is the argument constrained; the arg3 is the required #$isa #$Collection.>, guid = "bfedab5d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgIsaTernaryPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ArgTypeTernaryPredicate, iss TernaryPredicate; ArgTypeBinaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgTypeBinaryPredicate has label = "arg type binary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$BinaryPredicate and #$ArgTypePredicate used to specify the required #$isa or #$genls or #$genlAttributes of an argument of a #$Relation; the arg1 is the #$Relation; the arg2 is the required type, a #$Collection or #$AttributeValue.>, guid = "beb5aba2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgTypeBinaryPredicate rel isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss Property; ArgTypeTernaryPredicate ismem Class; ArgTypeTernaryPredicate has label = "arg type ternary predicate", comment = <Those instances of both #$TernaryPredicate and #$ArgTypePredicate used to specify the required #$isa or #$genls or #$genlAttributes of an argument of a #$Relation; the arg1 is the Relation; the arg2 is the argument constrained; the arg3 is the required type: a #$Collection or an #$AttributeValue.>, guid = "c00a42b9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArgTypeTernaryPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss TernaryPredicate; ArgumentTypeChecking-FORTSvsNonReifiedNATS isu SharedNote; ArgumentTypeChecking-FORTSvsNonReifiedNATS has label = "argument type checking - f o r t svs non reified n at s", comment = <Arg-type checking imposes somewhat weaker constraints on non-reified function terms than it does for forts (first order reified terms). Specifically, non-reified terms are required only to be consistent with arg-isa and arg-genls constraints using disjointness reasoning constraint is satisfied when no disjointness violation can be found. This is significantly weaker than the constraints imposed on forts: forts must provably satisfy applicable arg-isa and arg-genl constraints using isa and genls reasoning.>, guid = "bd6bae41-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Arm ismem Class; Arm has label = "arms", comment = <The collection of all animal arms. An #$Arm of an animal is one of its #$AnimalBodyParts, more particularly one of its appendages, a limb which it uses for manipulation moreso than for locomotion. A #$Hand is considered part of an #$Arm.>, guid = "bd58e9e5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Arm rel isu SymmetricAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; ArmMovement ismem Class; ArmMovement has label = "arm movement", comment = <The collection of any movements of an arm that are generated by the #$Animal whose arm it is, through nerve impulses to the arm. Physically, an #$ArmMovement involves movement of the upper arm or elbow in relation to the body to which it is attached.>, guid = "bd58a69d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArmMovement rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss BodyMovementEvent; Army-BranchOfService ismem Class; Army-BranchOfService has label = "regular armies", comment = <The collection of all modern nation-states&apos; armies (the whole branch of service). This sense of &apos;army&apos; is different from an &apos;Army&apos; or &apos;Army Group&apos; in the sense of a military unit. It is customary to refer to very large military units in the fields as &apos;armies&apos;, e.g. the American 5th Army in the European Theater in WWII. This is not the sense being referred to here--&apos;the Army&apos; itself is intended.>, guid = "bf6e8301-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Army-BranchOfService rel ismem Class, isu ExistingObjectType, xor Navy; ArmyPersonnel ismem Class; ArmyPersonnel has label = "army people", comment = <A collection of people, a subset of #$MilitaryPerson. Each element of this collection is somebody who works for an #$Army-BranchOfSevice.>, guid = "bd58eecc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArmyPersonnel rel isu OccupationType, iss Soldier; ArrestingSomeone ismem Class; ArrestingSomeone has label = "arrests", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$ArrestingSomeone, a law enforcement officer arrests another person, who is thereupon taken into custody (#$HeldCaptive).>, guid = "bd66906e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArrestingSomeone rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss CapturingAnimal; ArtObject ismem Class; ArtObject has label = "works of art", comment = <A collection of information bearing objects (IBOs). Each element of #$ArtObject is a tangible object that is a work, or a reproduction of a work, in one of the representational or plastic arts, such as a painting, sculpture, ceramic piece, quilt, stained glass composition, etc. #$ArtObject does NOT include plays, movies, music, performance art, or other activities. #$ArtObject is a subset of #$InformationBearingObject, but its elements need not have propositional content, although they may. Examples of #$ArtObject: the #$StatueOfLiberty, the Mona Lisa, a poster reproduction of Van Gogh&apos;s `Starry Night&apos;, Rodin&apos;s `Burghers of Calais&apos;, a piece of Ju ware from the Sung Dynasty, the windows of Chartres Cathedral, a series of prints by Picasso.>, guid = "bd58c7b8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArtObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject, iss Artifact, iss PartiallyTangibleProduct, iss VisualInformationSource; Arthropod ismem Class; Arthropod has label = "arthropods", comment = <An instance of #$BiologicalPhylum whose #$taxonMembers include (mostly) the numerous collections of chitin-armored invertebrates that have jointed bodies and limbs, e.g., insects, spiders, crustaceans, etc.>, guid = "bd58b048-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Arthropod rel isu BiologicalPhylum, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss Animal, iss Invertebrate; Artifact ismem Class; Artifact has label = "artifacts", comment = <A collection of tangible things. An instance of #$Artifact is a tangible which was more or less intentionally created by an #$Agent (or a group of #$Agents working together) to serve some purpose or perform some function. By `created&apos;, we don&apos;t require that the matter itself be created, it is often just the result of some sort of assemblage or modification process, such as a wooden flute that&apos;s been whittled from a tree branch, a sawhorse that&apos;s been put together out of boards and nails, a coin that&apos;s been minted by embossing or by melting liquid silver into a mold, etc. Let&apos;s consider some positive and negative examples. In addition to the obvious human artifacts (buildings, tools, textiles, power lines), this collection includes certain sorts of things made by #$Animals, such as bird nests, termite mounds, and beaver dams. Something which just barely squeaks through the intended meaning of this concept is #$YaleUniversity. In addition to the abstract legal entity, it consists of a set of physical buildings, furnishings, etc. By contrast, an organization that had no headquarters building, equipment, tangible property, etc. would not be an artifact. Similarly, a fictional character such as Tom Sawyer is not an artifact (in the context of the story, Tom is not an artifact because he is a real boy; in the context of the real world, Tom is not an artifact because he has no tangible component whatsoever.) While some artifacts may be alive, or contain living subparts, we do not intend this collection to encompass all organisms which resulted from normal biological reproductive processes. Your child is not an artifact. If you do an oil painting of a house that is an artifact, but much more borderline is what you get if you take a rock and just paint it a solid color, say white. In general that won&apos;t be an artifact unless it serves some purpose, such as marking the shoulder of a roadway, but more questionable cases are if the purpose of the white rock is just `to be sold as art&apos; or `to look pretty.&apos; The white rock might thus be an artifact in certain contexts, but not in others. Not every instance of #$Path-Generic (q.v.) is necessarily an instance of #$Artifact. For example, some channels used for navigation may not be artifacts, because even though they are marked with human artifacts (i.e., channel markers) as locations where ships may safely travel, the channel itself may have been a naturally occurring pre-existing thing -- e.g., the #$EnglishChannel. If a #$ChannelOrStrait were produced or maintained only by constant dredging, it might count as an artifact. By contrast, each #$Canal, such as #$SuezCanal, is almost certain to be an #$Artifact. See also #$Product.>, guid = "bd5907fd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Artifact rel ismem Class, xor Individual, xor Agent; Artifact-NonAgentive ismem Class; Artifact-NonAgentive has label = "artifact - non agentive", comment = <#$Artifact-NonAgentive is the collection of all artifacts that in no plausible, literal sense may be considered to have a kind of agency in ordinary, non-fictional, straightforward contexts -- i.e. they are not instances of #$Agent-Generic. (Exceptions within metaphorical, fanciful, or fictional context could supersede membership in this collection: when someone says, &apos;My hairdryer hates me&apos;, the hairdryer would not be an instance of #$Artifact-NonAgentive in that special context.) Example subcollections: #$StoneStuff, #$Air, #$Tooth, #$Caffeine. #$AgentiveArtifacts like #$Robots are excluded.>, guid = "bd8e4b86-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Artifact-NonAgentive rel isu ExistingObjectType, xor BiologicalLivingObject, xor Agent-Generic; ArtificialMaterial ismem Class; ArtificialMaterial has label = "artificial substances", comment = <A collection of substances; a subset of #$Artifact. An instance of #$ArtificialMaterial is a portion of artificial stuff that was intentionally made by some agent(s), such as #$Plastic or #$SweetNLow. Since #$ArtificialMaterials are intentionally produced, this class does not normally include materials which are merely #$byProducts or #$wasteProducts of an intentional process. However, what is a byproduct at one time or in one context may be a useful material that would count as an instance of #$ArtificialMaterial in another.>, guid = "bd590222-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ArtificialMaterial rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss Artifact, xor NaturalTangibleStuff; Asleep isu Alertness; Asleep has label = "asleep", comment = <#$Asleep is the #$Alertness attribute of being asleep. #$Asleep is a specialization of #$Unconscious. (#$holdsIn (#$YearFn 1776) (#$alertnessLevel RipVanWinkle #$Asleep)).>, guid = "bd58a6ff-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AssociativeRelation ismem Class; AssociativeRelation has label = "associative relation", comment = <An important subset of #$Relation. Each element RELN of #$AssociativeRelation is a relationship such that the expressions (RELN A (RELN B C)) and (RELN (RELN A B) C) both have the same value or meaning; e.g., #$PlusFn, #$TimesFn, #$or, #$and. More generally, the truth of an asserted associative relation is unaffected by any change from one well-formed parenthesization of its use (on a given sequence of arguments) to another.>, guid = "c14862c2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AssociativeRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, iss Relation; AstronomicalObject ismem Class; AstronomicalObject has label = "astronomical objects", comment = <A collection of tangibles. Each element of #$AstronomicalObject is an object of interest to astronomers, which includes the Earth along with other objects in outer space. Some, but not all, elements of #$AstronomicalObject belong to #$CelestialObject, the collection of heavenly bodies visible from earth. Examples: #$Polaris-TheStar, the #$Sun, #$PlanetSaturn. See also: #$HeavenlyBody.>, guid = "bd58d178-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AstronomicalObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TangibleThing, iss InanimateObject-Natural; AsymmetricBinaryPredicate ismem Class; AsymmetricBinaryPredicate has label = "asymmetric binary predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates; the subset of #$AntiSymmetricBinaryPredicate whose elements represent asymmetric relations. A predicate F is an element of #$AsymmetricBinaryPredicate if and only if F is a binary predicate and (F X Y) implies (#$not (F Y X)). For example, #$northOf, #$children, #$greaterThan, #$overrides. Note this additional restriction: A Cyc predicate F can be an element of #$AsymmetricBinaryPredicate only if the type (i.e., arg-Isa) constraint applicable to F&apos;s first argument is not disjoint with the type constraint applicable to F&apos;s second argument. See also #$NoteOnArgumentTypingAndPropertiesOfRelations.>, guid = "bd6561fc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AsymmetricBinaryPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss IrreflexiveBinaryPredicate, iss AntiSymmetricBinaryPredicate, xor SymmetricBinaryPredicate; AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent ismem Class; AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent has label = "mental events", comment = <A collection of events. Each event that is an instance of #$AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent has an actor or group of actors (see #$actors) whose mental functions are involved. The collection includes such things as dreaming, perceiving, sensing, theorizing about something, having a realization, making a decision, building, designing something, and consciously carrying out a task. Some of those examples are actions as well as events (see #$doneBy or #$performedBy). Note that the above list includes both purposeful events and non-purposeful events that involve mental functions. Note also that any event that has a mental component is also an instance of this collection so that events like preparing lunch would be classified as instances of #$AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent. It is almost always possible and preferable to use one of the specs of #$AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent. If an event seems mostly mental in nature, modulo neurons firing and related brain activity, use #$StrictlyMentalEvent or one of its specs. If it essentially involves both mental and physical activity, see #$CompositePhysicalAndMentalEvent or #$PurposefulCompositePhysicalAndMentalActivity. For mental events that are intentionally and purposefully performed, see the subset #$PurposefulMentalActivity.>, guid = "bd588615-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss AnimalActivity, iss Event; Athlete ismem Class; Athlete has label = "athletes", comment = <A collection of persons. Each element of #$Athlete is a person who trains to compete in contests involving physical agility, stamina, or strength. In the #$JobMt, #$Athlete is a subset of #$Professional (q.v.), and hence in that microtheory represents the collection of professional athletes.>, guid = "bd58befb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Athlete rel isu PersonByActivityType, isu OccupationType, iss Person; AthleticActivity ismem Class; AthleticActivity has label = "athletic activities", comment = <Any athletic activity, i.e. one which involves physical exertion and tends to require strength and stamina. Not just limited to competitive sports events. Also includes spelunking, or going for a jog, or shooting a few hoops.>, guid = "be01fe5d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AthleticActivity rel ismem Class, iss HumanActivity, iss PurposefulAction, iss PhysicalEvent; AtlanticOcean isu InternationalWaters; AtlanticOcean has label = "the Atlantic Ocean", comment = <The main body of salt water primarily in the #$WesternHemisphere-Region, bordering on five #$Continents (or three #$TrueContinents -- Western coasts of Europe and Africa, Antarctica, Eastern coasts of North and South America).>, guid = "bd5901d2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Atom ismem Class; Atom has label = "atoms", comment = <A collection of microscopic-scale objects. Each instance of #$Atom has one atomic nucleus and some number of electrons. As a default, we assume that an instance of #$Atom has no net charge, i.e., that it has as many instances of #$Electrons as it does of #$Protons in its #$AtomicNucleus; but note there are exceptions, e.g., those which are instances of #$Ion.>, guid = "bd5891ef-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Atom rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss ChemicalObject; AtomicNucleus ismem Class; AtomicNucleus has label = "nuclei", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$MicroscopicScaleObject. Each instance of #$AtomicNucleus is an object composed of some definite number of instances of #$Proton and some definite number of instances of #$Neutron. Instances of the collection #$Atom are each composed of one member of #$AtomicNucleus and some number of electrons.>, guid = "bd58a3d9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AtomicNucleus rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MicroscopicScaleObject; AttributeType ismem Class; AttributeType has label = "attribute type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$AttributeType is a collection of attributes. Each element of #$AttributeType is a subset of #$AttributeValue (q.v.). Examples include #$SensoryAttribute, #$BodyPartPosition, #$OrientationAttribute, #$SecurityClearanceLevel, #$ComputerVideoResolution, #$ForceVector, and many more.>, guid = "bd590364-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AttributeType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ObjectType, xor AttributeValue; AttributeValue ismem Class; AttributeValue has label = "attributes", comment = <The set of all attributes represented in Cyc. #$AttributeValue includes quantities, such as 5 inches (i.e., (#$Inch 5)) or 1000 dollars per year (i.e., (#$DollarsPerYear 1000)), as well as qualities like #$Hilly, #$Rough, #$DeviceOn, etc., which can be used to make assertions about the state of some tangible object.>, guid = "bd5880c5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AttributeValue rel isu AttributeType, ismem CoreConstant, iss IntangibleIndividual, xor Relation, xor Proposition, xor Class, xor AttributeType, xor Microtheory, xor TemporalThing, xor Language, xor SpatialThing; AudibleSound ismem Class; AudibleSound has label = "sounds", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$Sound. Each element of #$AudibleSound is a sound within the #$Frequency range of human hearing.>, guid = "bd5906fc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AudibleSound rel isu WavePropagationType, iss WavePropagation, iss Sound; AudioCommunicating ismem Class; AudioCommunicating has label = "audio-communicating events", comment = <A collection of information transfer events; a subset of #$Communicating. Each element of #$AudioCommunicating is a transmission of sound-borne information between two (or more) agents; e.g., talking, clapping, or performing music.>, guid = "bd58c907-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AudioCommunicating rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss Communicating; August ismem Class; August has label = "August", comment = <The collection of all Augusts, the eighth month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c170-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; August rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; Australia isu Country; Australia has label = "Australia", comment = <Australia, the country that occupies the #$ContinentOfAustralia (and also #$TasmaniaIslandAustralia) dividing the eastern #$IndianOcean from the southwestern #$PacificOcean. In the #$DualistGeopoliticalMt, this constant includes both physical and political aspects of Australia.>, guid = "bd5894b3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AuthorizedAgreement ismem Class; AuthorizedAgreement has label = "authorized agreements", comment = <The collection of generic agreements that are authorized by one of the agreeing parties (typically by the issuer of the document embodying the agreement). #$AuthorizedAgreements are generic in the sense that their authorizing agents are party to many similar agreements; for that reason, an #$AuthorizedAgreement is typically given a unique identification number. Examples: bank accounts, driver&apos;s licenses, stock certificates.>, guid = "bd58b01c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AuthorizedAgreement rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Agreement; AutoDealership ismem Class; AutoDealership has label = "car dealerships", comment = <Each instance is an establishment (an organization located at one site) that sells automobiles and other types of road vehicles to consumers.>, guid = "bd58eed7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; AutoDealership rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SingleSiteOrganization, iss RetailStore, iss Business; Automobile ismem Class; Automobile has label = "cars", comment = <A collection of transportation devices -- those commonly known as `passenger cars.&apos; An instance of #$Automobile is an element of #$RoadVehicle which was designed for carrying about 4 passengers (give or take a factor of 2). In addition to midsize cars, #$Automobile includes elements belonging to the subsets #$SportsCar, #$PickupTruck and #$Van. This collection does NOT include motorcycles, buses, tractors, etc.>, guid = "bd5895c1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Automobile rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss RoadVehicle, iss ContactLocation, iss HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject; Awake isu Alertness; Awake has label = "awake", comment = <#$Awake is the #$Alertness attribute of being awake.>, guid = "bd58a5fa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BackSide ismem Class; BackSide has label = "backs", comment = <The collection of all the entire back sides (as conventionally understood) of all objects that have distinct #$Sides, one of which faces in the backwards direction.>, guid = "bd59048d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BackSide rel isu RegionType, iss Side; Backward-AssertionDirection isu CycLAssertionDirection; Backward-AssertionDirection has label = "backward - assertion direction", comment = <The backward direction for Cyc assertions; the assertion is not forward propagated.>, guid = "bd674278-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Baked isu PreparationAttribute; Baked has label = "baked", comment = <The attribute #$Baked is a specialized form of #$Cooked. Food that is #$Baked has been prepared in an event of #$BakingFood, using a $#RegularOven.>, guid = "bd5886dd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BakingFood ismem Class; BakingFood has label = "baking food", comment = <A collection of events in which food is baked in a #$RegularOven. After an event of #$BakingFood, the food involved has been #$Baked.>, guid = "bd58aed0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BakingFood rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss CookingFood; BalconyLevelInAConstruction ismem Class; BalconyLevelInAConstruction has label = "balconies", comment = <A specialization of #$LevelOfAConstruction whose instances are balconies in the style of those overhanging levels sometimes found in churches, theatres, etc. Such balconies are often approximately one-third the size of the floor or level below them, and therefore can be considered legitimate levels themselves. They usually contain a mob of seats. Note that this collection does _not_ include the kind of balcony that protrudes from a window or door on an already existing level. See also #$AboveGroundLevelInAConstruction and #$BasementLevelInAConstruction.>, guid = "bd5894f5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BalconyLevelInAConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LevelOfAConstruction; Bangladesh isu Entity; Bangladesh has label = "Bangladesh", comment = <Country near the eastern end of the Indian subcontinent, separated from #$Nepal by a narrow corridor of #$India, and sharing part of its border with #$Burma. Considered a part of India&apos;s territory during the period of British colonial rule.>, guid = "bd590173-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BankDebitCard ismem Class; BankDebitCard has label = "debit cards", comment = <A collection of official `documents&apos;. Each element of #$BankDebitCard is a plastic card that enables the holder to access the account with which the card is associated; typically used to withdraw funds from the account. Cf. #$CreditCard.>, guid = "c0fd4920-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BankDebitCard rel isu MoneyTenderType, iss Plastic, iss Card, iss IDDocument, iss TenderObject; Bartering ismem Class; Bartering has label = "barters", comment = <The collection of transactions between two #$Agents in which one #$Agent gives items or services to another #$Agent, and the other #$Agent gives items or services in return, and neither of the items or services is money, credit, or payment of money.>, guid = "bd58b2e0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Bartering rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss ExchangeOfUserRights, iss Transaction, xor MonetaryExchangeOfUserRights; BaseKB isu BroadMicrotheory; BaseKB has label = "base k b", comment = <#$BaseKB is the most general #$Microtheory currently in use. Assertions in this context are `accessible&apos; from any other #$Microtheory via the #$genlMt relation. In the partial order of microtheories, all microtheories have access to #$BaseKB. An assertion which is true here will by default be true in every context. The `content&apos; of #$BaseKB consists of very general assertions which are expected to be usable in most or all applications of Cyc, as well as Cyc&apos;s most fundamental assertions that it uses in inference, and all completely universal, timeless truths.>, guid = "bd588111-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BasementLevelInAConstruction ismem Class; BasementLevelInAConstruction has label = "basements", comment = <A specialization of #$LevelOfAConstruction whose instances are below ground level. See also #$AboveGroundLevelInAConstruction and #$BalconyLevelInAConstruction.>, guid = "bd58ce1a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BasementLevelInAConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LevelOfAConstruction; Battle ismem Class; Battle has label = "battles", comment = <The collection of events in which two or more large groups of #$Persons meet and fight one another, each group seeking to vanquish (some of) the others. #$Battles are often conducted by #$MilitaryOrganizations, and they may influence the outcomes of #$WagingWar. A #$Battle will have as #$subEvents at least two #$PhysicallyAttackingAnAgent events, in which one of the fighting groups attacks the other.>, guid = "bd58aeb0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Battle rel isu TemporalObjectType; BeamShaped isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; BeamShaped has label = "beam shaped", comment = <The attribute shared by all objects that have the attribute #$Rectangular3DShaped and for which one dimension is many times greater than the other two dimensions.>, guid = "c138a988-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Belgium isu Agent; Belgium has label = "Belgium", comment = <Belgium, a small #$IndependentCountry in the west of the #$ContinentOfEurope. It is a kingdom. The constant includes the nation of Belgium as it has existed throughout time, including both its physical and its political aspects.>, guid = "bd58df47-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BeliefSystem ismem Class; BeliefSystem has label = "systems of belief", comment = <The collection of ideologies (systems of belief) in terms of which an agent characterizes (i.e., makes sense of) their world. Elements of this set include: #$VegetarianBeliefs, #$GermanNaziIdeology, #$RepublicanPartyIdeology, #$CommunistIdeology, #$PacifistIdeology, #$Atheism, etc. See also #$ConventionalClassificationSystem.>, guid = "bd58bd47-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BeliefSystem rel isu BeliefSystemType, iss AbstractInformationalThing; BeliefSystemType ismem Class; BeliefSystemType has label = "belief system type", comment = <The collection of all the kinds of #$BeliefSystems: religious, philosophical, political, ethical, cultural, and scientific. Some elements of this collection include #$Religion, #$PhilosophyBeliefs, etc. The most general member of this set is #$BeliefSystems (qv).>, guid = "bd590588-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BeliefSystemType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType; Bendable isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Bendable has label = "bendable", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Bendable is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute of an object that tends to stay in the contorted shape when contorted. Note: for something to be bendable, it must be #$Flexible.>, guid = "bd58874c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Bicycle ismem Class; Bicycle has label = "bicycles", comment = <The collection of all bicycles, personal wheeled transport devices powered by human peddling. Most Bicycles have two main wheels arranged in-line, but some tandem bicycles have more than two wheels.>, guid = "bd58e8d0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Bicycle rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Device-UserPowered; BidirectedPathSystem ismem Class; BidirectedPathSystem has label = "bidirected path system", comment = <An instance of #$PathSystemType-Structural and a subcollection of #$Semi-DirectedPathSystem. For each instance SYS of #$BidirectedPathSystem, every link in SYS is given two directions.>, guid = "beffe753-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BidirectedPathSystem rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss Semi-DirectedPathSystem, xor DirectedPathSystem; BilaterallySymmetricObject ismem Class; BilaterallySymmetricObject has label = "bilaterally symmetric object", comment = <The collection of objects which are symmetric on both sides of a bisecting axis, as are most vertebrates.>, guid = "bd58b94b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BilaterallySymmetricObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SpatialThing; Bill-PaymentRequest ismem Class; Bill-PaymentRequest has label = "bills", comment = <A collection of documents. Each element of #$Bill-PaymentRequest is a notification, demand, or request made by a creditor (or its agent) to a debtor, for payment of a debt previously incurred for some loan, goods, or services. Examples: telephone bills, tax bills, department store bills, cleaning bills, fuel bills.>, guid = "bd58d7b1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Bill-PaymentRequest rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TextualMaterial; BillingLocation ismem Class; BillingLocation has label = "billing locations", comment = <A collection of places; a subset of #$ContactLocation. Each element of #$BillingLocation is a location to which invoices are sent. For most private individuals, their billing location is their home address.>, guid = "be0184e0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BillingLocation rel isu ContactLocationType, iss MailingLocation; BinaryFunction ismem Class; BinaryFunction has label = "binary function", comment = <#$BinaryFunction is the collection of all Cyc functions which take two arguments.>, guid = "c0e7247c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BinaryFunction rel ismem CoreConstant, iss BinaryRelation, iss Function-Denotational; BinaryPredicate ismem Class; BinaryPredicate has label = "binary predicates", comment = <#$BinaryPredicate is the collection of all Cyc predicates which take two arguments.>, guid = "bd588102-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BinaryPredicate rel is Property, isu PredicateCategory, ismem CoreConstant, iss Predicate, iss BinaryRelation, xor SubLObject; BinaryRelation ismem Class; BinaryRelation has label = "binary relation", comment = <The collection of all #$Relations of arity 2 in CycL. This collection was created in order to implement automatic conclusion of arity for relations in CycL, regardless of whether they are predicates or functions.>, guid = "be75c8f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BinaryRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, iss FixedArityRelation, xor PartiallyCommutativeRelation; BioDeteriorationResistance ismem Class; BioDeteriorationResistance has label = "bio deterioration resistance", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$BioDeteriorationResistance represents a specific capacity of a tangible object to resist biological deterioration. Degrees of #$BioDeteriorationResistance may be represented using #$GenericValueFunctions. Indicate a particular object&apos;s #$BioDeteriorationResistance with the predicate #$resistanceToBioDeterioration.>, guid = "be00bf59-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BioDeteriorationResistance rel iss ScalarInterval; BiologicalCatabolismEvent ismem Class; BiologicalCatabolismEvent has label = "catabolisms", comment = <A collection of events. Each #$BiologicalCatabolismEvent involve the destruction of larger molecules. E.g., the degradation of glucose into carbon dioxide and water, which releases energy used to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate).>, guid = "bd58ef47-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalCatabolismEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss BiologicalDestructionEvent, iss BiologicalMetabolismEvent; BiologicalClass ismem Class; BiologicalClass has label = "classes", comment = <The collection of taxonomic subdivisions directly under #$BiologicalPhylum (for animals and for the animal-like organisms in the #$ProtistaKingdom), or #$BiologicalDivision (for the plants and for the plant-like organisms within the #$ProtistaKingdom).>, guid = "bd58974c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalClass rel isu BiologicalTaxonType, ismem CollectionType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalDecompositionEvent ismem Class; BiologicalDecompositionEvent has label = "biological decomposition event", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$BiologicalDecompositionEvent, some living structures are decomposed.>, guid = "bd58b294-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalDecompositionEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss BiologicalDestructionEvent, iss DecompositionEvent; BiologicalDestructionEvent ismem Class; BiologicalDestructionEvent has label = "biological destruction event", comment = <A collection of events. In each element of #$BiologicalDestructionEvent, something is destroyed by some element(s) of #$BiologicalLivingObject. For example, #$DigestingInStomach is a subset of #$BiologicalDestructionEvent.>, guid = "bd58b316-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalDestructionEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss BiologicalEvent; BiologicalDevelopmentEvent ismem Class; BiologicalDevelopmentEvent has label = "biological development event", comment = <A collection of events, and a subset of #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvents. In each #$BiologicalDevelopmentEvent, one or more living things undergo biological changes in which they progress from one developmental stage to another. For example, the germination of a seed, the opening of a flower, the pupating of a caterpillar, a teenager reaching puberty. Some borderline non-examples include: Groucho Marx being born, Groucho Marx dying.>, guid = "bd58d906-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalDevelopmentEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, iss BiologicalEvent; BiologicalDivision ismem Class; BiologicalDivision has label = "divisions", comment = <The collection of main taxonomic subdivisions of #$BiologicalKingdom (or #$BiologicalSubkingdom) for the members of the #$MoneraKingdom (i.e., prokaryotes), #$Fungus Kingdom, #$Plant Kingdom, and for the plant-like organisms within the #$ProtistaKingdom. In the #$Animal Kingdom, however, the main taxonomic subdivisions are elements of #$BiologicalPhylum (q.v.) rather than #$BiologicalDivision.>, guid = "bd58978f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalDivision rel isu BiologicalTaxonType, ismem CollectionType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalEvent ismem Class; BiologicalEvent has label = "biological processes", comment = <An event in which a biological thing is a #$bodilyDoer.>, guid = "bd5902b7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss PhysicalEvent; BiologicalFamily ismem Class; BiologicalFamily has label = "taxonomic families", comment = <The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions below #$BiologicalOrder (or #$BiologicalSuborder) and above #$BiologicalGenus. Especially important in Botanical classification.>, guid = "bd58cb2c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalFamily rel ismem CollectionType, isu BiologicalTaxonType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalGenus ismem Class; BiologicalGenus has label = "genera", comment = <The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions below #$BiologicalFamily and above #$BiologicalSpecies. Sometimes, hybrids are possible between different instances of #$BiologicalSpecies that belong to the same #$BiologicalGenus.>, guid = "bd589a9f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalGenus rel isu BiologicalTaxonType, ismem CollectionType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalIntakeEvent ismem Class; BiologicalIntakeEvent has label = "biological intake event", comment = <A collection of processes. In each element of #$BiologicalIntakeEvent, some object(s) are taken into some living structure.>, guid = "bd588866-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalIntakeEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss BiologicalTransportationEvent; BiologicalKingdom ismem Class; BiologicalKingdom has label = "kingdoms", comment = <The collection of the highest, most general taxonomic divisions of organisms. Traditionally, it has included the elements of #$Animal and of #$Plant and may include separate kingdoms for the elements of #$ProkaryoticCell, single-celled eukaryotes (protists), and fungi.>, guid = "bd58989a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalKingdom rel isu BiologicalTaxonType, ismem CollectionType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalLivingObject ismem Class; BiologicalLivingObject has label = "living things", comment = <A collection of all structures that are composed of one or more living cells (see #$Cell). Biological living objects (BLOs) may be either elements of #$Organism-Whole (like dogs or pine trees) or are components of such whole organisms (like noses, tails, and pine needles). The healthy leg of a living person is a BLO (as is the person), but an amputated leg is not a BLO. Every element of #$BiologicalLivingObject is either capable of biological reproduction itself or has components which are capable of biological reproduction (such as the cells in a living arm).>, guid = "bd58a6ed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalLivingObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss OrganicStuff, iss CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject, iss NaturalTangibleStuff, xor Organization, xor InanimateThing, xor Place, xor Artifact-NonAgentive; BiologicalMetabolismEvent ismem Class; BiologicalMetabolismEvent has label = "biological metabolism event", comment = <The collection of biological processes in which substrates are converted into metabolites. The metabolites may be more or less complex than the substrates.>, guid = "bd58ee48-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalMetabolismEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss BiologicalEvent; BiologicalOrder ismem Class; BiologicalOrder has label = "orders", comment = <The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions below #$BiologicalClass (or #$BiologicalSubclass) and above #$BiologicalFamily.>, guid = "bd58e329-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalOrder rel ismem CollectionType, isu BiologicalTaxonType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalPhylum ismem Class; BiologicalPhylum has label = "phyla", comment = <The collection of main taxonomic subdivisions of #$BiologicalKingdom (or #$BiologicalSubkingdom if present) for the #$Animal kingdom and for the animal-like organisms within the #$ProtistaKingdom. The other elements of #$BiologicalKingdom have divisions belonging to #$BiologicalDivision instead of Phyla (Phyla is the plural of Phylum).>, guid = "bd589813-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalPhylum rel ismem CollectionType, isu BiologicalTaxonType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalProductionEvent ismem Class; BiologicalProductionEvent has label = "biological production event", comment = <A collection of events. In each element of #$BiologicalProductionEvent, raw materials are combined to produce a product, and some element(s) of #$BiologicalLivingObject is the producer. E.g., the production of honey by honeybees, the growth of a seedling into a tree, the secretion of sweat by a marathon runner, etc. Note: This is a very general collection, and for most purposes one of its subsets will better capture what is intended.>, guid = "bd58c40f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalProductionEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss BiologicalEvent; BiologicalReproductionEvent ismem Class; BiologicalReproductionEvent has label = "procreations", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$BiologicalReproductionEvent is an event in which one or more biological organisms (the #$parentActors) produce new organisms (the #$offspringActors) generally of the same kind as the parents.>, guid = "bd58d8c5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalReproductionEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss BiologicalProductionEvent; BiologicalSpecies ismem Class; BiologicalSpecies has label = "species", comment = <A collection of the lowest taxons (#$BiologicalTaxon, q.v.) that are necessarily common to both parents of fertile offspring, or, in the case of asexual reproduction, necessarily common to parent and child. Members of different species cannot produce fertile offspring by interbreeding. An element of #$BiologicalSpecies has members who all have significant traits in common, and members of each biological species have other members as parents. In biological taxonomy, related species are grouped into a particular element of #$BiologicalGenus (q.v.).>, guid = "bd58caeb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalSpecies rel ismem CollectionType, isu BiologicalTaxonType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalSubclass ismem Class; BiologicalSubclass has label = "subclasses", comment = <The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions more specific than #$BiologicalClass but more general than #$BiologicalOrder.>, guid = "bd58cba7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalSubclass rel ismem CollectionType, isu BiologicalTaxonType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalSubfamily ismem Class; BiologicalSubfamily has label = "biological subfamily", comment = <The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions below #$BiologicalFamily and above #$BiologicalGenus.>, guid = "bf7063f7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalSubfamily rel ismem CollectionType, isu BiologicalTaxonType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalSubkingdom ismem Class; BiologicalSubkingdom has label = "subkingdoms", comment = <The collection of biological subkingdoms, the biological taxonomic divisions of organisms immediately below #$BiologicalKingdom.>, guid = "bd589857-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalSubkingdom rel ismem CollectionType, isu BiologicalTaxonType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalSuborder ismem Class; BiologicalSuborder has label = "biological suborder", comment = <The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions below #$BiologicalOrder and above #$BiologicalFamily.>, guid = "bdf83894-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalSuborder rel isu BiologicalTaxonType, ismem CollectionType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalSubphylum ismem Class; BiologicalSubphylum has label = "biological subphylum", comment = <A collection of #$BiologicalTaxons that is more restrictive than #$BiologicalPhylum. All instances of a particular #$BiologicalSubspecies have significant traits or collections of traits in common which are not shared by all other members of the same #$BiologicalPhylum.>, guid = "bed637c5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalSubphylum rel isu BiologicalTaxonType, ismem CollectionType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalSubspecies ismem Class; BiologicalSubspecies has label = "subspecies", comment = <A collection of #$BiologicalTaxons that is more restrictive than #$BiologicalSpecies. Members of different subspecies can produce fertile offspring by interbreeding, but the offspring are not members of the parental subspecies although they are members of the common #$BiologicalSpecies. All instances of a particular #$BiologicalSubspecies have significant traits or collections of traits in common which are not shared by all other members of the same #$BiologicalSpecies. A #$BiologicalSubspecies is formed by inbreeding of a restricted group of members of a single species. This can happen naturally through geographic isolation or intentionally through controlled reproduction to create, for example, #$Dog breeds or crop strains.>, guid = "c0b6222b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalSubspecies rel isu BiologicalTaxonType, ismem CollectionType, iss BiologicalTaxon; BiologicalTaxon ismem Class; BiologicalTaxon has label = "taxonomic groups", comment = <The collection of ranked categories accepted by biologists for the biological classification of organisms according to their suspected evolutionary relationships. Includes all levels of taxons. See also #$BiologicalTaxonType and #$OrganismClassificationType.>, guid = "bd58e2e8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalTaxon rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, iss OrganismClassificationType; BiologicalTaxonType ismem Class; BiologicalTaxonType has label = "biological taxon type", comment = <A collection of collections of collections; #$BiologicalTaxonType contains the classes of organism types (i.e., taxons) that biologists recognize, including #$BiologicalSpecies, #$BiologicalPhylum, etc. The naive classes that non-biologists use may be instances of some element of #$BiologicalTaxonType, though often they are not. When they coincide, the commonsense class of organism (e.g., #$Person) is an instance of some #$BiologicalTaxonType (#$BiologicalSpecies, for example). See also #$OrganismClassificationType.>, guid = "bd588dc6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalTaxonType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType; BiologicalTransportationEvent ismem Class; BiologicalTransportationEvent has label = "biological transportation event", comment = <The collection of processes involving living structures in which objects are transported.>, guid = "bd58fce2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BiologicalTransportationEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss TransportationEvent; Bird ismem Class; Bird has label = "birds", comment = <The collection of birds; a subset of #$Vertebrate. Each element of #$Bird is an air-breathing, warm-blooded animal, covered with feathers, having forelimbs modified as wings and a beak rather than teeth. Members of most, but not all, species of bird can fly. #$Bird is an instance of #$BiologicalClass.>, guid = "bd58bc48-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Bird rel isu BiologicalClass, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss TerrestrialOrganism, iss Vertebrate, iss NonPersonAnimal; BirthEvent ismem Class; BirthEvent has label = "births", comment = <The collection of events in which one animal (prototypically, a #$Mammal) gives birth to another. The mother is the #$birthParent and the child is the #$birthChild. Both are #$objectOfStateChange; the mother goes from being pregnant to not pregnant (therefore a #$BirthEvent is an instance of #$PregnancyEndingEvent), while the child changes from being inside the mother and relying on the mother for nutritional, respiratory, and excretory needs (called in CYC the #$Embryo life stage, although different English terms apply to different stages of in utero development in mammals and not all of these terms apply to live-born #$Fish) to the #$JuvenileAnimal life stage (see #$BiologicalStageOfDevelopment).>, guid = "bd58b30c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BirthEvent rel ismem Class, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss MedicalCareEvent, iss BiologicalDevelopmentEvent, iss EmittingAnObject, iss PregnancyEndingEvent; BlimpTheAirship ismem Class; BlimpTheAirship has label = "blimps", comment = <The collection of all dirigible, motorized, lighter-than-air craft (airships). Each generally consists of a gas-filled gas-sack from which a control and passenger cabin hangs (the gas-sack may or may not have rigid reinforcement such as ribs). A BlimpTheAirship flies more slowly than an #$Airplane. They are also called blimps, dirigibles and Zeppelins.>, guid = "bd5892ea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BlimpTheAirship rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss TransportationDevice-Vehicle; BlueCollar isu JobAttribute; BlueCollar has label = "working class", comment = <An attribute; an element of #$JobAttribute. Blue collar jobs are those requiring a relatively high proportion of manual/physical labor.>, guid = "bd58ca03-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BlueCollarWorker ismem Class; BlueCollarWorker has label = "workmen", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$BlueCollarWorker is a person whose occupation is manual-labor intensive, sometimes demanding physical strength and, in some jobs, considerable skill, practical judgment, and work experience. Types of blue-collar workers include miners, truck drivers, steelworkers, construction workers, agricultural workers, laborers, mechanics, garbage collectors, assembly line workers, janitorial workers, etc. Their jobs may require some specialized training or apprenticeship but don&apos;t require a college degree.>, guid = "bd58aecd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BlueCollarWorker rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; BodilyFunctionEvent ismem Class; BodilyFunctionEvent has label = "bodily function events", comment = <The collection of animal activities that, from an evolutionary standpoint, the body of the doer was &apos;designed&apos; to do, and that are instances of action types that can be and often are done without conscious volition. It includes dreaming but not rational thought, and breathing but not holding one&apos;s breath. If an instance of #$BodilyFunctionEvent involves the doer moving all or part of its body, either volitionally or as a reflex, it is also an instance of #$BodyMovementEvent.>, guid = "bd58f3d9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BodilyFunctionEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss PhysiologicalProcess, iss AnimalActivity, iss SingleDoerAction; BodilyFunctionEvent-Involuntary ismem Class; BodilyFunctionEvent-Involuntary has label = "involuntary bodily functions", comment = <This is the subset of #$BodilyFunctionEvent whose elements are actions in which the `doer&apos; is, by definition, a #$nonDeliberateActors. Specializations (subsets) of #$BodilyFunctionEvent-Involuntary include #$HavingASeizure, #$Blushing, #$Bleeding, #$ExperiencingHunger, etc. Note: if the `doer&apos; of an involuntary bodily function is an #$Organism-Whole, then use #$bodilyDoer to describe its role in the event.>, guid = "bd59f763-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BodilyFunctionEvent-Involuntary rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss BodilyFunctionEvent, iss BiologicalEvent, xor PurposefulAction; BodyMovementEvent ismem Class; BodyMovementEvent has label = "body movements", comment = <The collection of activities in which an #$Animal agent moves a part of its own body, whether consciously and intentionally or reflexively. #$BodyMovementEvent includes subsets such as #$TakingAStep, #$BlockingAPunch, #$Hiccoughing, and #$BlinkingOnesEyes.>, guid = "bd58f6e3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BodyMovementEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss SingleDoerAction, iss AnimalActivity; BodyOfWater ismem Class; BodyOfWater has label = "bodies of water", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each element of #$BodyOfWater is a natural or artificial body of water. Elements may belong to specialized subsets such as #$Lake, #$Stream, and #$Ocean. #$BodyOfWater includes reservoirs, #$Canals, and navigation channels that are developed and/or enlarged by humans. However, it does not include smaller purely-artificial bodies of water such as #$SwimmingPools or tanks of water. Examples of #$BodyOfWater: #$HudsonBay, #$PanamaCanal, #$AdriaticSea, #$BayOfBengal, #$NiagaraFalls.>, guid = "bd5884fc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BodyOfWater rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TopographicalFeature, iss InanimateThing; BodyPartPosition ismem Class; BodyPartPosition has label = "body positions", comment = <The collection of attributes describing the position of a body part (or a whole body). A #$BodyPartPosition may be determined relative to the body&apos;s environment (as with #$Postures) or merely with respect to the body part itself (e.g., #$Flexed, #$Extended).>, guid = "bd5907ae-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BodyPartPosition rel isu AttributeType, ismem Class, iss PhysiologicalAttribute; Boiling ismem Class; Boiling has label = "boiling events", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$Boiling, a piece of liquid matter is raised to its #$boilingPoint and is thereby changed from being in the #$LiquidStateOfMatter to being in the #$GaseousStateOfMatter. Note: this is not intended to cover the cases of heat/evacuation causing a solid to sublime directly into a gas.>, guid = "bd589c37-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Boiling rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss PhysicalStateChangeEvent; Book-CW ismem Class; Book-CW has label = "books", comment = <A collection of #$ConceptualWorks. Instantiations may be either hardcopy or electronic. Traditional hardcopy instantiations are instances of #$BookCopy, but in the later half of the Twentieth Century of the Common Era additional formats were created (books on (audio) tape, computer media containing instantiations of textual computer files, etc. Instances of #$Book-CW are usually #$TextualMaterial, but some may contain only arrangements of images.>, guid = "bd58e6ab-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Book-CW rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss PublishedMaterial, iss BookGeneric-CW; BookGeneric-CW ismem Class; BookGeneric-CW has label = "book generic - c w", comment = <A collection of #$ConceptualWorks. Instantiations may be either hardcopy or electronic. Traditional hardcopy instantiations are instances of #$BookCopy, but in the later half of the Twentieth Century of the Common Era additional formats were created (books on (audio) tape, computer media containing instantiations of textual computer files, etc. Instances of #$Book-CW are usually #$TextualMaterial, but some may contain only arrangements of images.>, guid = "c0290c9b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BookGeneric-CW rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss PublishedMaterial; BookkeepingMt isu BroadMicrotheory; BookkeepingMt has label = "bookkeeping mt", comment = <A #$Microtheory for stating basic #$Cyc bookkeeping information, such as assertions using #$myCreator and #$myCreationTime.>, guid = "beaed5bd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BookkeepingPredicate ismem Class; BookkeepingPredicate has label = "bookkeeping predicates", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$BookkeepingPredicate is a predicate used to form assertions about the creation and internal representation of a Cyc constant. Bookkeeping predicates neither specify nor constrain the semantics of Cyc constants. Examples: #$myCreator, #$myCreationTime, #$termOfUnit, #$multiplicationUnits, #$defnSufficient.>, guid = "bd5880ef-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BookkeepingPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, ismem CoreConstant, iss Predicate; Border ismem Class; Border has label = "borders", comment = <The collection of all lines, linear regions, or dividing planes or surfaces--physical or abstract--that each constitutes the boundary between (#$formsBorderBetween) two regions (i.e., two elements of #$SpatialThing).>, guid = "bd62894d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Border rel isu ObjectType; Boredom ismem Class; Boredom has label = "boredom", comment = <A state of dissatisfaction, weariness, or restlessness accompanied by a lack of interest. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. A related #$FeelingAttributeType is #$Apathy.>, guid = "bd58a612-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Boredom rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Apathy; BorrowingSomething ismem Class; BorrowingSomething has label = "borrowing events", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$TemporaryChangeOfUserRights. In an instance of #$BorrowingSomething, an #$Agent takes temporary control of something, usually with the permission of its owner(s). Generally, the lending agent expects the borrowing agent to use the object for one of its normal functions (#$intendedBehaviorCapable).>, guid = "bd58cf42-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BorrowingSomething rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TransferringPossession, iss TemporaryChangeOfUserRights; BotanicalOrgan ismem Class; BotanicalOrgan has label = "botanical organs", comment = <A subset of #$PlantPart, the collection #$BotanicalOrgan includes parts of a plant which are major morphological and functional divisions of individual plants, typically consisting of stems, flowers, roots, leaves, etc.>, guid = "bd58f8f8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BotanicalOrgan rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PlantPart; BottomSide ismem Class; BottomSide has label = "undersides", comment = <The collection of all the entire bottom sides (as conventionally understood) of all objects that have distinct #$Sides, one of which faces down.>, guid = "bd58d673-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BottomSide rel isu RegionType, iss Side; Brain ismem Class; Brain has label = "brains", comment = <The collection of all #$Animal brains. An individual #$Brain is an #$Organ which controls most bodily movement, receives sensory input from the body and objects outside the body, and in which the mind operates, being the locus for all #$MentalSituations.>, guid = "bd58d3eb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Brain rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; Brazil isu IndependentCountry; Brazil has label = "Brazil", comment = <Brazil throughout time, both political and physical aspects.>, guid = "bd588f01-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Breathing ismem Class; Breathing has label = "breathing events", comment = <A collection of activities constituting a natural #$PhysiologicalFunction; #$Breathing is the collection of #$AirRespiration events in which the respiring organism takes air into its internal #$Lungs, where the gas exchange occurs. See also #$Respiration.>, guid = "bd58b773-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Breathing rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss AirRespiration, iss PhysiologicalFunction; Brittle isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Brittle has label = "brittle", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Brittle is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute of a substance which breaks easily when subjected to a low or moderate impact or application of force, such as most instances of #$Glass.>, guid = "bd58d4cb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BroadMicrotheory ismem Class; BroadMicrotheory has label = "broad microtheory", comment = <The collection of those microtheories that contain so many assertions that they are not useful for `relevance&apos; focusing during inference. (A #$BroadMicrotheory is not used internally in Cyc&apos;s indexing scheme during inference.) Examples: #$BaseKB and #$EnglishMt.>, guid = "bd5c0498-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BroadMicrotheory rel isu MicrotheoryType, ismem CoreConstant, iss Microtheory; Broadcast-CoABS ismem Class; Broadcast-CoABS has label = "broadcast - co a b s", comment = <The collection of instances of requests for problem resolution that are posted on the CoABS grid. An instance of #$Broadcast-CoABS will have to include the #$GridAddress-CoABS of the broadcaster, who can then assemble a #$Community-CoABS of agents to solve the problem. A #$Broadcast-CoABS together with a broadcaster forms a degenerate instance of #$Community-CoABS.>, guid = "bf84c310-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Broadcast-CoABS rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss InformationBearingThing; Building ismem Class; Building has label = "buildings", comment = <A collection of artifacts; a subset of #$FixedStructure and of #$HumanShelterConstruction. An instance of #$Building is typically a substantial structure and must have walls and a roof, with rooms inside or at least some area designed to be occupied by humans (but not necessarily as a residence). Examples include the Empire State Building, Michael Jackson&apos;s house in L.A., King Arthur&apos;s castle, an #$AircraftHangar at O&apos;Hare, a #$Lighthouse in the Mediterranean sea, the #$SydneyOperaHouse, the #$WashingtonMonumentInWashingtonDC, etc.>, guid = "bd58fb28-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Building rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss RealEstate, iss HumanShelterConstruction, iss FixedStructure; BuildingMaterial ismem Class; BuildingMaterial has label = "building material", comment = <A collection of tangible things. An instance of #$BuildingMaterial is a material thing typically used in making new structures. Instances of #$BuildingMaterial include a piece of lumber, a brick, a slab of concrete, a roof shingle, a copper nail, a double-paned storm window, etc.>, guid = "c10af48b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BuildingMaterial rel isu ProductType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss Artifact, iss PartiallyTangibleProduct; Bus-RoadVehicle ismem Class; Bus-RoadVehicle has label = "buses", comment = <The collection of all buses, transport vehicles for ground transportation of many (they have room for at least 10, probably fewer than 60) people. A bus usually is driven by a professional bus driver.>, guid = "bd58b4bf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Bus-RoadVehicle rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss RoadVehicle; Bush ismem Class; Bush has label = "bushes", comment = <A collection of plants; a subset of #$Plant-Woody. The collection #$Bush includes all bushes, i.e., woody plants of branching growth habit that lack substantial trunks and are not usually taller than a person (and they are shorter than most specimens of #$Tree-ThePlant). This is a commonsense collection without distinct boundaries.>, guid = "bd589a2d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Bush rel isu OrganismClassificationType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Plant-Woody; Business ismem Class; Business has label = "businesses", comment = <The collection of #$Organizations intended to make profits, i.e., make money for agents that own them. All #$Businesses are #$CommercialOrganizations (they must buy or sell something), but not all #$CommercialOrganizations are #$Businesses. In a franchise #$Organization, the #$parentCompany is regarded as a #$Business, while the #$subOrganizations are merely instances of #$CommercialOrganization. #$Businesses are typically #$LegalAgents, while #$CommercialOrganizations need not be.>, guid = "bd58d036-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Business rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CommercialOrganization; BusinessEvent ismem Class; BusinessEvent has label = "business events", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$BusinessEvent is an intentional occurrence that is closely associated with, and either helps or hinders, the business purpose of some agent. Examples include: the development of General Motors&apos; business plan for 1996; an individual sales call on a particular customer; printing the 1996 Yellow Pages directory for the Austin, TX, area; selling a newspaper; designing and manufacturing a new memory chip. #$BusinessEvent does NOT include purely social or recreational occurrences.>, guid = "bd588c38-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BusinessEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss HumanActivity, iss SocialOccurrence; BusinessPerson ismem Class; BusinessPerson has label = "businesspeople", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$BusinessPerson is a person whose occupation is primarily in the ownership and/or operation of a business.>, guid = "c0fcd0ea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BusinessPerson rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; BusinessRelationshipActivity ismem Class; BusinessRelationshipActivity has label = "activities in a business relationship", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of both #$BusinessEvent and #$SocialOccurrence. Each instance of #$BusinessRelationshipActivity is a (usually long-term) social activity whose participants are related by some business relationship. The social events constituting a #$BusinessRelationshipActivity further, either directly or indirectly, the (usually mutual) business interests of the participants. A #$BusinessRelationshipActivity is typically carried out over multiple social occasions and may consist of many #$subEvents.>, guid = "c10afcc8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BusinessRelationshipActivity rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss BusinessEvent; Buying ismem Class; Buying has label = "purchases", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$Buying is an event in which an agent voluntarily pays to acquire something tangible or intangible, or for the performance of a service, which another agent sells in the event. Payment may be in money or other exchange of wealth. Elements of #$Buying may include #$subEvents of negotiation, the act of paying, and the transfer of the purchased thing to the buyer. Examples of #$Buying include: purchasing fighter jets for the Navy; buying a Pepsi from a vending machine; ordering dinner at a restaurant; acquiring a personal life insurance policy for oneself; mail-ordering clothes from Sears; shopping at a farmers&apos; market.>, guid = "bd58cbda-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Buying rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss MonetaryExchangeOfUserRights, iss BuyingActivity; BuyingActivity ismem Class; BuyingActivity has label = "buying activities", comment = <A collection of events. #$BuyingActivity very generally includes events related to purchasing goods or services. Each element of #$BuyingActivity is an event that is either (i) a common prelude to buying (i.e., the kinds of activities that contribute to their doers becoming buyers), or (ii) an element of #$Buying itself. Examples of #$BuyingActivity include shopping for, or ordering, something very specific, and also general expressions of interest in purchasing something, such as placing an `Item Wanted&apos; ad in a newspaper.>, guid = "bd588f8e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; BuyingActivity rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss CommercialActivity; CGSUnitOfMeasure ismem Class; CGSUnitOfMeasure has label = "centimeter-gram-second units of measure", comment = <A subset of #$UnitOfMeasure. #$CGSUnitOfMeasure is the collection of all the measurement functions whose results use the CGS (i.e., centimeter-gram-second) system of measure to describe physical quantities. Examples: #$CentimetersPerSecond, #$CubicCentimeter, #$Gram, #$SecondsDuration.>, guid = "bd589a3d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CGSUnitOfMeasure rel isu RelationshipType, iss UnitOfMeasure; CalendarAutumn ismem Class; CalendarAutumn has label = "autumns", comment = <The calendar season that begins at autumnal equinox and runs until winter solstice.>, guid = "be011790-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarAutumn rel isu CalendarSeasonType, iss CalendarSeason; CalendarCentury ismem Class; CalendarCentury has label = "centuries", comment = <The collection of centuries that make up the calendar (1900&apos;s, 1700&apos;s etc.) An example of such a constant in Cyc is #$TheNineteenthCenturyAD >, guid = "bd58b8f6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarCentury rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarCoveringType ismem Class; CalendarCoveringType has label = "calendar covering type", comment = <#$CalendarCoveringType is a collection of collections. An element CC of #$CalendarCoveringType is itself a collection, a type of time interval, such that the union of all the instances of CC would completely cover all of time without overlap. Thus, #$CalendarYear is a #$CalendarCoveringType because all of time consists of a sequence of non-overlapping #$CalendarYears. Similarly #$CalendarMonth, #$CalendarDay, #$CalendarHour, etc. Notice that #$Monday and #$December are NOT instances of #$CalendarCoveringType, because all of time is not a sequence of Mondays, or Decembers. Also notice that a collection Week -- defined as the set of all seven-day-long-periods-of-time -- would not be an instance of #$CalendarCoveringType, since several different Weeks could overlap; e.g., the week beginning today and the week beginning yesterday and the week beginning tomorrow.>, guid = "bd58a30c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarCoveringType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, iss TemporallyDisjointIntervalType; CalendarDay ismem Class; CalendarDay has label = "days", comment = <The collection of days that make up the calendar. This is a collection of disjoint but contiguous time intervals. One of its elements is Thursday, August 1, 1996.>, guid = "bd58de08-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarDay rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarDecade ismem Class; CalendarDecade has label = "decades", comment = <The collection of decades that make up the calendar; e.g., #$The1970s.>, guid = "bd58b937-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarDecade rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarHalfCentury ismem Class; CalendarHalfCentury has label = "calendar half centuries", comment = <The collection of exact half-centuries on the calendar, such as #$FirstHalfOf20thCenturyAD>, guid = "c0f71f9e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarHalfCentury rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarHour ismem Class; CalendarHour has label = "calendar hours", comment = <The collection of hours that make up the calendar. These are contiguous and disjoint time intervals, except of course for particular instances that represent exactly the same 60-minute-long time interval. See #$CalendarDay.>, guid = "bd58933b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarHour rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, iss TimeOfDay, xor TimePoint; CalendarMinute ismem Class; CalendarMinute has label = "calendar minutes", comment = <The collection of minutes that make up the calendar. These are contiguous and disjoint time intervals, except of course for particular instances that represent exactly the same 60-second-long time interval. See #$CalendarDay. Sixty of these partition each #$CalendarHour>, guid = "bd58b9fc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarMinute rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarMonth ismem Class; CalendarMonth has label = "months", comment = <The collection of months that make up the calendar. This is a collection of disjoint but contiguous time intervals. One of its subsets is #$February, which is the set of all Februaries; one of its elements is February 1992 (#$MonthFn #$February (#$YearFn 1992)), a particular time interval.>, guid = "bd58c029-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarMonth rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarQuarter ismem Class; CalendarQuarter has label = "calendar quarters", comment = <The collection of calendar quarters that divide up a calendar year into four parts. For each year, the first of its four quarters includes January, February, and March; the second includes April, May, and June, and so on.>, guid = "c10ae4c7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarQuarter rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarSeason ismem Class; CalendarSeason has label = "calendar seasons", comment = <This is the set of all calendar seasons. Four of its largest subsets are #$CalendarWinter, #$CalendarSpring, #$CalendarSummer, and #$CalendarAutumn>, guid = "be0114e6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarSeason rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss TimeInterval, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarSeasonType ismem Class; CalendarSeasonType has label = "seasons", comment = <This is the collection whose four elements are #$CalendarWinter, #$CalendarSpring, #$CalendarSummer, and #$CalendarAutumn.>, guid = "be01141f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarSeasonType rel ismem CollectionType, isu CyclicalIntervalGroupType, iss AnnualEventType; CalendarSecond ismem Class; CalendarSecond has label = "seconds", comment = <The collection of seconds that make up the calendar. Sixty of these #$TimeIntervals contiguously divide up each #$CalendarMinute (qv)>, guid = "bd58823e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarSecond rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; CalendarSpring ismem Class; CalendarSpring has label = "springs", comment = <The calendar season that begins at vernal equinox and runs until summer solstice.>, guid = "be011735-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarSpring rel isu CalendarSeasonType, iss CalendarSeason; CalendarSummer ismem Class; CalendarSummer has label = "summers", comment = <The calendar season that begins at summer solstice and runs until autumnal equinox.>, guid = "be011768-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarSummer rel isu CalendarSeasonType, iss CalendarSeason; CalendarWeek ismem Class; CalendarWeek has label = "weeks", comment = <The collection of weeks that make up the calendar. This is a collection of disjoint but contiguous time intervals. One of its elements is WeekOf2-14-1994.>, guid = "bd58c064-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarWeek rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date; CalendarWinter ismem Class; CalendarWinter has label = "winters", comment = <The calendar season that begins at winter solstice and runs until vernal equinox.>, guid = "be0116f3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarWinter rel isu CalendarSeasonType, iss CalendarSeason; CalendarYear ismem Class; CalendarYear has label = "calendar years", comment = <The collection of years that make up the calendar. For example, #$TheYear1972, #$TheYear494BC.>, guid = "bd58f257-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CalendarYear rel isu CalendarCoveringType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; Calm ismem Class; Calm has label = "calm", comment = <A feeling of calmness or serenity, being quiet and free from disturbance. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. A related #$FeelingAttributeType is #$Calm.>, guid = "bd58892c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Calm rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Relaxed-Emotion; Canal ismem Class; Canal has label = "canals", comment = <The collection of all canals, artificial waterways created to be paths for boats, or for irrigation (e.g., the #$PanamaCanal).>, guid = "bd58f371-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Canal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BodyOfWater, iss FlowPath; Cancer ismem Class; Cancer has label = "cancer", comment = <The collection of all particular cases of cancer. Instances of #$Cancer may belong to any one of the many different types of disease that are studied and treated by oncologists. Cancer is characterized by abnormal (and usually rapid) growth of cells in some organ or system of the body; these growths are then prone to dispersal (metastesis) into other body regions. See also #$CancerFn --- the expression (#$CancerFn #$Lung) represents a subset of #$Cancer, namely the set of all lung cancers.>, guid = "c0fd6a1a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cancer rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss AilmentCondition, iss TerminalPhysiologicalCondition; Canoe ismem Class; Canoe has label = "canoes", comment = <The collection of all canoes, small, narrow watercraft that are powered by human paddling, poling or by a small boat-engine.>, guid = "bd58ab49-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Canoe rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss Device-UserPowered; CapacityAttribute ismem Class; CapacityAttribute has label = "capacity attribute", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$CapacityAttribute is an attribute representing a specific capacity in which an agent does an action. For example, an action might be done as an agent&apos;s job (#$JobCapacity) or hobby (#$HobbyCapacity), as its main function (#$MainFunction) or an auxiliary function (#$SupportFunction).>, guid = "bd59013f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CapacityAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, iss AttributeValue; CapitalCityOfRegion ismem Class; CapitalCityOfRegion has label = "capitals", comment = <A collection of cities. Each element of #$CapitalCityOfRegion is an element of #$City (q.v.) that is the capital of its surrounding region. This includes both capitals of countries and capitals of subregions. Examples: #$CityOfRomeItaly, #$CityOfCardiffWales, #$CityOfAustinTX, #$CityOfAbidjanIvoryCoast, #$CityOfLhasaTibet, #$CityOfColumbusOH (#$FranklinCountyOhio). See also #$capitalCity, #$capitalCityOfThisState.>, guid = "bd58f295-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CapitalCityOfRegion rel isu SpatiallyDisjointRegionType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss City; CaptiveAnimal ismem Class; CaptiveAnimal has label = "captive animals", comment = <The collection of all animals that are caged, tied, kept in an animal container, or otherwise held captive. There is some intersection here with #$DomesticPet, but not complete. Some elements of #$Person are members of #$CaptiveAnimal, e.g., political detainees, imprisoned criminals, kidnap victims.>, guid = "c100573e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CaptiveAnimal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal; CapturingAnimal ismem Class; CapturingAnimal has label = "apprehensions", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$CapturingAnimal, an #$Agent takes physical control of a (human or non-human) animal. This collection includes trapping animals, kidnapping people (or animals), and also what the police do after they arrest a person for a crime. The animal may or may not be taken alive.>, guid = "bd5c0f37-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CapturingAnimal rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TakingSomething, iss PhysicalEvent; Card ismem Class; Card has label = "cards", comment = <A collection of objects; a subcollection of #$HardcopyInformationBearingObject. Each element of #$Card is a small, sturdy sheet of stuff--usually cardstock paper, but could be plastic or thin metal--bearing some kind of information. Some kinds are folded. Examples: #$CreditCard, #$BusinessCard, and #$PostCard. Note that electronic objects that perform some of the same functions are not subcollections of #$Card.>, guid = "c0fd456f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Card rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SheetOfSomeStuff, iss HardcopyInformationBearingObject; CargoShip ismem Class; CargoShip has label = "cargo vessels", comment = <The collection of all cargo ships, i.e., ships that by design can transport a large amount of goods. See also #$TankerShip.>, guid = "c1009191-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CargoShip rel ismem Class, isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Ship; Carnivore ismem Class; Carnivore has label = "carnivores", comment = <A #$Collection of organisms classified by their typical source of food. Elements of #$Carnivore feed on animals. Note: #$Carnivore is not an instance of #$BiologicalTaxon; e.g., #$Carnivore contains #$Dog as a subset but is not its biological taxon. Note that a #$Carnivore is not necessarily a #$Heterotroph, as carnivorous plants both digest insects and produce food using #$Chlorophyll.>, guid = "bd5904f5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Carnivore rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organism-Whole; CausingAnotherObjectsTranslationalMotion ismem Class; CausingAnotherObjectsTranslationalMotion has label = "events of causing another object&apos;s translational motion", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$CausingAnotherObjectsTranslationalMotion, one object causes another object to undergo a translational motion. The object causing the motion is the #$providerOfMotiveForce. The object which is caused to move is the #$objectActedOn (and also the #$objectMoving) in the event. One way to cause another object&apos;s motion is by carrying it along with one (see the subset #$CarryingWhileLocomoting), but there are many others, such as throwing, kicking, or knocking it away. Some elements of #$CausingAnotherObjectsTranslationalMotion may be elements of #$Translation-Complete (such as elements of #$CarryingWhileLocomoting) whereas others (such as elements of #$PumpingFluid) may be elements of #$Translation-Flow. Examples: a train transporting passengers; a person pushing a coin into a vending machine; the release of a bowstring which propels an arrow; a magnet attracting a nail.>, guid = "bd58d844-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CausingAnotherObjectsTranslationalMotion rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss ActionOnObject, iss Movement-TranslationEvent; Cavity ismem Class; Cavity has label = "cavities", comment = <The collection of all cavities, including #$Crevices, deep concavities or holes, and cavities of containers (e.g. the interior of a box). Instances of #$Cavity, unlike those of its specialization #$CavityInteriorRegion, can include walls as parts, in which case they are instances of #$CavityWithWalls. Instances of #$Cavity, unlike those of #$Container, do not have well defined outside walls.>, guid = "bd5891a8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cavity rel isu ExistingObjectType; CavityInteriorRegion ismem Class; CavityInteriorRegion has label = "interiors", comment = <The collection of space regions that constitute cavities inside the walls or boundaries of solid objects. Such regions need not be completely sealed off. As a space region, an instance of #$CavityInteriorRegion is intangible, and thus not to be confused with the partially tangible matter that might fill or occupy it (see #$CavityInteriorContent). See also #$Cavity, whose instances, unlike those of #$CavityInteriorRegion, can include walls (in which cases they are also instances of #$CavityWithWalls).>, guid = "bd58a8e9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CavityInteriorRegion rel isu RegionType, iss Cavity, iss SpaceRegion; CeilingOfARoom ismem Class; CeilingOfARoom has label = "ceilings", comment = <The collection of all ceilings of every instance of #$RoomInAConstruction. Note that, unlike walls, ceilings are conventionally considered to be &apos;one-sided&apos; objects. The other side of a #$CeilingOfARoom may be a #$RoofOfAConstruction, or in a #$ModernShelterConstruction, more probably the #$FloorInAConstruction in another room.>, guid = "bd58f743-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CeilingOfARoom rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartOfBuilding; Cell ismem Class; Cell has label = "cells", comment = <The collection of living cells; a subset of #$BiologicalLivingObject. Each element of #$Cell is one of the basic structural units of nearly all living things, consisting (at least) of cytoplasm bounded by a cell membrane. Only the living structures viruses, mitochondria, and plastids are not composed of cells.>, guid = "bd58ee63-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cell rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; CellPart ismem Class; CellPart has label = "cell parts", comment = <The collection of structures which are typically found and formed as parts of #$Cells. This covers components of both #$EukaryoticCells and #$ProkaryoticCells. It includes organelles, vesicles, cell walls, extracellular matrix, plasma membranes, receptors, cellular humours, microtubules, etc.>, guid = "c10c2471-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CellPart rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MicroscopicScaleObject, iss OrganismPart; CerealFoodGroup ismem Class; CerealFoodGroup has label = "cereals", comment = <The food group consisting of grain products such as breads and cereals. Food that contains a significant amount of grain products should be specs of this.>, guid = "bd58ccbd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CerealFoodGroup rel isu FoodGroupType, isu ExistingStuffType, isu ProductType, iss EdibleStuff, iss VegetableMatter; CerealPlant ismem Class; CerealPlant has label = "cereal plants", comment = <The collection of individual plants like corn, wheat, etc., which bear grains.>, guid = "bd589beb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CerealPlant rel isu OrganismClassificationType; ChainOrganization ismem Class; ChainOrganization has label = "chains", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$ChainOrganization is a parent business which comes into contact with its customers or clients primarily through its geographically dispersed sub-organizations, which typically are (mostly) homogeneous in product line, style of physical quarters, local organizational structure, etc. Examples include the parent organizations of McDonald&apos;s and Midas Muffler.>, guid = "bd58e960-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChainOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, xor SingleSiteOrganization, xor IndependentOrganization; ChangeInUserRights ismem Class; ChangeInUserRights has label = "change in user rights", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$ChangeInUserRights is an event in which some instance of #$Agent either gains or loses possession of something. `Possession&apos; means having some right to use a thing that one has in hand or otherwise has access to. Different types of possession (e.g., ownership, rental, borrowings) can be specified by the using the appropriate element(s) of #$UserRightsAttribute (q.v.). Changes in an agent&apos;s user rights can come about in various ways: through buying and selling, renting, borrowing or lending, giving, repossession, etc. Some subsets of this kind of change are #$LosingUserRights, #$GainingUserRights, and #$ExchangeOfUserRights; in the latter class, there is an alteration in the rights of two (or more) agents to use two (or more) items -- as in a purchase, when one agent gets full use rights to an object by turning over a sum of money to the object&apos;s previous owner. In addition, some changes in user rights are classified explicitly in #$TemporaryChangeOfUserRights (e.g., borrowing, renting), while others are permanent. Events that involve such changes in user rights all belong in the collection of events, #$ChangeInUserRights. In any particular #$ChangeInUserRights event, the item which is changing hands is identified as the #$objectOfPossessionTransfer.>, guid = "bd5e7431-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChangeInUserRights rel iss GeneralizedTransfer; ChangingDeviceState ismem Class; ChangingDeviceState has label = "changes of device state", comment = <The collection of actions in which a device goes from one state (the #$fromState) to another state (the #$toState). A change of #$DeviceState may be due to an outside #$Agent adjusting a device, or it may happen automatically due to the behavior of a device. The two most general state changes (for powered devices) are from #$DeviceOn to #$DeviceOff, and vice versa. Many other states peculiar to specific devices can be identified; for example, the states of a #$Dishwasher: #$DeviceState-Washing and #$DeviceState-Rinsing; or the states that a trapping device may be in: #$TrapArmed, #$TrapTripped, #$TrapIdle. Note that a change in the state of a device is an intrinsic change in the device; i.e., #$ChangingDeviceState is a subset of #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvent.>, guid = "bd58d12d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChangingDeviceState rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss PhysicalEvent, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, iss Action; CharacterString ismem Class; CharacterString has label = "character sequences", comment = <The collection of all strings of characters (in any languages or in no known language). Each element of the collection #$CharacterString is a string of characters or an abstract sequence of symbols. Note: it is NOT any particular physical, tangible representation; different encodings may represent the characters. An element of #$CharacterString has characters from some fixed character set. The characters are instances of #$Character-Abstract. An element of #$CharacterString may be any length, including zero (i.e., empty strings, which have no characters). If elements of #$CharacterString are concatenated, the result is also an element of #$CharacterString. The length of the resulting string is equal to the sum of the lengths of the concatenated strings. Some types (subsets) of #$CharacterString include #$EMailAddress, #$AreaCode, #$PhoneNumber, #$PhoneCountryCode, etc. Note that a #$CharacterString is ordered formally as a #$List (rather than physically left-to-right or top-to-bottom); thus the &apos;first&apos; character in the #$CharacterString for an Arabic word happens to be the rightmost (first pronounced) character, not the leftmost character, due to the letter-order and word-order convention for Arabic writing.>, guid = "bd6100db-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CharacterString rel isu StuffType; Check-TenderObject ismem Class; Check-TenderObject has label = "checks", comment = <A collection of documents; a subset of #$TenderObject. Each element of #$Check-TenderObject is a financial instrument, drawn on a particular account at some instance of #$FinancialOrganization, which is redeemable for a monetary value by the agent who is the payee. The financial organization pays the payee funds from the account, upon proper presentation of the check.>, guid = "bd58cea8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Check-TenderObject rel isu MoneyTenderType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss TenderObject, iss IDDocument, iss Form-StandardizedIBO, iss FinancialAccountTenderObject; ChemicalCompoundType ismem Class; ChemicalCompoundType has label = "chemical compounds", comment = <A collection of collections; a subset of #$TangibleStuffCompositionType. Every instance of #$ChemicalCompoundType is a subset of #$TangibleThing whose instances are defined ONLY by their chemical composition, and not by their physical state or any other property. In Cyc&apos;s current representation, #$ChemicalCompoundTypes can be of two varieties: (1) Collections whose instances are completely uniform with each other in terms of chemical composition; this includes (a) the chemical elements -- such as #$Carbon, #$Oxygen, and #$Hydrogen -- which are instances of #$ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons (thus, the latter is a subset of #$ChemicalCompoundType), and (b) compounds constituted of more than one substance chemically bonded, e.g., #$Water, #$Caffeine, and #$IronOxide. (2) Substances which have a general chemical specification, that is, whose instances do not have exactly the same chemical composition but fall within certain specifications, e.g., #$DNAStuff. Cyc&apos;s current theory includes those cases in #$ChemicalCompoundType, though they are arguably borderline. (Future work may require the creation of type collections to identify various levels of chemical specification, such as `exact formula&apos; or `exact structure&apos;.) Note: Collections which Cyc does NOT classify as #$ChemicalCompoundTypes include collections of substances which have some component which is of overriding significance in some context, so that in everyday language such substances are frequently referred to by the name of their important component (e.g., `penicillin&apos; applied to a tablet containing penicillin), but which have significant admixtures of other substances. Our representation distinguishes between the chemical compound (here, instances of #$Penicillin) and the mixture of substances in a tablet containing some #$Penicillin for pharmaceutical use. Thus, #$Penicillin is an instance of #$ChemicalCompoundType, but the collection of tablets containing penicillin and including other ingredients are not. Also, subsets of #$Mixture, such as #$Lemonade, are not instances of #$ChemicalCompoundType, because mixtures are determined by their physical state rather than solely by their chemical composition.>, guid = "bd58cd95-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChemicalCompoundType rel ismem CollectionType, isu SiblingDisjointCollection, iss TangibleStuffCompositionType; ChemicalObject ismem Class; ChemicalObject has label = "chemical objects", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$MicroscopicScaleObject. Each instance of #$ChemicalObject is an object whose behavior is typically described in terms of its outer cloud of #$Electrons. Subsets of #$ChemicalObject include the collections #$Atom and #$Molecule and #$Ion, the set of chemical radicals, and the set of molecular fragments.>, guid = "bd58916a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChemicalObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MicroscopicScaleObject, iss InanimateThing; ChemicalReaction ismem Class; ChemicalReaction has label = "chemical reactions", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$TransformationEvent. Each instance of #$ChemicalReaction is an event in which two or more substances undergo a chemical change, i.e., some portions of the substances involved are transformed into different #$ChemicalCompoundTypes. The transformations are brought about by purely chemical (including biochemical) means which affect chemical bonds between atoms in the molecules of stuff, rather than by physical means, biological means, or purposeful planning, etc. Examples of #$ChemicalReaction: instances of #$CombustionProcess; instances of #$Photosynthesis-Generic.>, guid = "bd589bc8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChemicalReaction rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TransformationEvent; Chest-BodyPart ismem Class; Chest-BodyPart has label = "chests", comment = <The collection of the chests of #$Animals. The animal&apos;s chest is its #$AnimalBodyPart region located between its neck and its abdomen. For people and many other types of animals, the chest is bounded by (defined by, given shape by) the animal&apos;s ribcage.>, guid = "bd58a415-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Chest-BodyPart rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; China-PeoplesRepublic isu IndependentCountry; China-PeoplesRepublic has label = "China", comment = <China, governed as the Peoples&apos; Republic of China, is a country which claims to be the government of all of China. #$Taiwan-RepublicOfChina also makes this claim. #$China-PeoplesRepublic #$controls all of China except Taiwan Province on the #$Island of #$Formosa (or &apos;Taiwan&apos;) and #$QuemoyIsland and #$MatsuIsland of Fujian Province a few kilometers off the coast. These territories are controlled by #$Taiwan-RepublicOfChina. China borders the #$EastChinaSea and the #$SouthChinaSea. De facto, #$Taiwan-RepublicOfChina and #$China-PeoplesRepublic are two separate independent countries each with their own territory, while de jure there is a single #$IndependentCountry of China, but two governments with separate regions of control.>, guid = "bd58a341-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChordataPhylum ismem Class; ChordataPhylum has label = "chordates", comment = <An instance of #$BiologicalPhylum within the #$BiologicalKingdom #$Animal, the #$ChordataPhylum contains the many chordate taxa. All have members who have a notochord (a flexible rod running the length of the body) at some stage of development and pharyngeal gills at some stage of development. The #$ChordataPhylum has as #$taxonMembers all the subsets of #$Vertebrate (including #$Person), as well as some non-vertebrate chordates like Amphioxus.>, guid = "bd59063b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChordataPhylum rel isu BiologicalPhylum, iss SolidTangibleThing, iss Animal; ChronicCondition ismem Class; ChronicCondition has label = "chronic conditions", comment = <A collection of ailments. An instance of #$ChronicCondition is an ailment that lingers or recurs in an organism throughout its life. In some cases, the symptoms of a chronic condition may abate with treatment. The condition may never go away completely. #$Asthma is a subset of #$ChronicCondition.>, guid = "c0fd4e54-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ChronicCondition rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss PhysiologicalCondition; Circular isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; Circular has label = "circular", comment = <#$Circular is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all circular objects.>, guid = "bd646240-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CirculatorySystem ismem Class; CirculatorySystem has label = "circulatory systems", comment = <The collection of all animals&apos; circulatory systems. A #$CirculatorySystem is a system of organs and body parts, found in #$Vertebrates and some other animals, which function together to circulate the animal&apos;s blood throughout its body, supplying needed substances to its cells and removing waste products from them. A #$CirculatorySystem is generally composed of #$BloodVessels, #$Heart, #$Spleen, etc., considered as an interrelated functional system of each animal. Note: It generally has a close linkage to the respiration system, as the blood comes in contact with fresh air to divest itself of the waste products it has collected from the body&apos;s cells and to acquire new needed substances to take to the body&apos;s cells.>, guid = "bd58f31b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CirculatorySystem rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss ConnectedPathSystem, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; City ismem Class; City has label = "cities", comment = <A collection of geopolitical entities. An element of #$City is a local human settlement which has its own government. This includes cities, towns, suburbs, villages, hamlets, and townships, as long as they have their own governments. A city government is usually mostly autonomous from the governments of its surrounding regions, rather than being a sub-organization of them.>, guid = "bd58e767-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; City rel isu SpatiallyDisjointRegionType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss UrbanArea, iss GeopoliticalEntity, xor ContactLocation; CityOfWashingtonDC isu CountrySubsidiary; CityOfWashingtonDC has label = "Washington D.C.", comment = <The capital city (#$CapitalCityOfRegion) of the #$UnitedStatesOfAmerica, seat of its Federal government, which is located in the #$DistrictOfColumbia, a specially created Federal district between the States of Maryland and Virginia. Currently, the #$CityOfWashingtonDC and the #$DistrictOfColumbia are coextensive.>, guid = "bd590b3c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cleaning ismem Class; Cleaning has label = "sanitations", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$Cleaning event, dirt (or other unwanted substances) is removed from the #$objectOfStateChange of that event. If a #$Cleaning event is successful, then the #$Dirtiness level of the object will have been lowered.>, guid = "bd58c9de-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cleaning rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss RemovingSomething; CleaningDevice ismem Class; CleaningDevice has label = "cleaning tools", comment = <A collection of devices. An instance of #$CleaningDevice is any device, manually powered or otherwise, whose #$primaryFunction is to be used in cleaning things. Instances include each #$Mop, each #$RegularWindshieldWiper, each #$FacialTissue, each #$ShoeBrush, each #$ClothesWasher, each #$Dishwasher, etc.>, guid = "bd58b64c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CleaningDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice, iss SolidTangibleProduct; CleaningImplement ismem Class; CleaningImplement has label = "cleaning implements", comment = <A collection of tools; a subset of #$HandTool and also of #$CleaningDevice. An instance of #$CleaningImplement is any hand-held tool used for cleaning something. Cleaning implements are used in a wide variety of activities and settings; some subsets include the collections #$Mop, #$DentalPick, #$ElectricToothBrush, #$WashCloth, #$FacialTissue, #$ShoeBrush. Many cleaning implements are intended for wiping, scrubbing, or polishing surfaces to remove patches of #$Dirt.>, guid = "bd589192-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CleaningImplement rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss HandTool, iss CleaningDevice; ClimateCycleType ismem Class; ClimateCycleType has label = "climate cycle type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$ClimateCycleType is a collection of (extended) events which are weather processes of one type or another. Examples of elements of #$ClimateCycleType are #$TemperateClimateCycle and #$SteppeClimateCycle. Note: in practice, there is little need to create terms denoting members of the collections belonging to #$ClimateCycleType; so long as one just wants to state what TYPE of climate a particular region has, simply use the predicate #$hasClimateType with the appropriate subset of #$AnnualClimateCycle (q.v.). See also #$hasClimateType.>, guid = "bd58b5f6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ClimateCycleType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss TemporalObjectType; Cloth ismem Class; Cloth has label = "textiles", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Cloth is a piece of textile sheet woven or knitted or pressed out of fibers. Pieces of #$Cloth are commonly used as material inputs to the manufacture of clothing items, towels, sails for sailing craft, parachutes, draperies, etc. Excludes #$Leather (q.v.).>, guid = "bd590909-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cloth rel isu ExistingStuffType, isu ProductType, iss FreeSheet, iss TextileProduct; ClothingAccessory ismem Class; ClothingAccessory has label = "accessories", comment = <A collection of tangible objects. Each element of #$ClothingAccessory is something that is worn as an accessory with other clothing items. Examples include elements of the collections #$Jewelry, #$Scarf, #$NeckTie, #$Belt-Clothing, #$Suspenders, and suchlike.>, guid = "bd58cee4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ClothingAccessory rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss ClothingItem; ClothingItem ismem Class; ClothingItem has label = "items of clothing", comment = <A collection of tangible objects. Each element of #$ClothingItem is something that a person wears as a protective and/or decorative covering or ornament. Items of clothing are usually made of flexible materials, such as cloth, leather, or yarn. The collection #$ClothingItem contains primarily individual garments (e.g., elements of the collections #$Pants, #$Shirt, #$Coat, #$Shoe), together with pairs of shoes, socks, and gloves (since each wearer needs a pair). Jewelry, suspenders, belts, etc., are in the subset #$ClothingAccessory. Note: outfits (esp. specialized outfits) made up of several individual items worn together belong to the collection #$ClothingOutfit, which is NOT a subset of #$ClothingItem but IS a subset of the broader collection, #$SomethingToWear.>, guid = "bd5903d5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ClothingItem rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss BilaterallySymmetricObject; ClothingOutfit ismem Class; ClothingOutfit has label = "outfits", comment = <A collection of objects. Every element of #$ClothingOutfit is a group of `coordinated&apos; items that are intended to be worn together; e.g., an instance of #$ThreePieceSuit, consisting of one suit jacket, one vest, and one pair of long pants. Clothing outfits are often sold or provided together as a set; e.g., military uniforms, business suits, scuba gear. A clothing outfit may include some accessories, as well as garments. Cf. #$ClothingItem.>, guid = "bd59033c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ClothingOutfit rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Group; CloudInSky ismem Class; CloudInSky has label = "clouds", comment = <The collection of clouds (instances of #$CloudOfH2O) in the sky over some #$GeographicalRegion (as opposed to being at ground-level).>, guid = "c0fba044-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CloudInSky rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CloudOfH2O; CloudOfH2O ismem Class; CloudOfH2O has label = "cloud of h 2 o", comment = <A cloud of particles of liquid or solid water in the atmosphere covering a #$GeographicalRegion.>, guid = "bd58f48d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CloudOfH2O rel isu ExistingStuffType; Cloudiness ismem Class; Cloudiness has label = "levels of cloudiness", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$ScalarInterval. The elements of #$Cloudiness characterize the amount of cloud cover at an #$OutdoorLocation. A higher value indicates more clouds or more dense cover. Degrees of cloudiness may be represented qualitatively (e.g., #$PartialCloudCover, #$CompleteCloudCover), or using #$GenericValueFunctions. The cloudiness of a location can be described with the predicate #$cloudinessOfRegion.>, guid = "bd590706-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cloudiness rel iss WeatherAttribute, iss PhysicalAttribute, iss ScalarInterval; Cloudless isu WeatherAttribute; Cloudless has label = "cloudless", comment = <#$Cloudless is a #$WeatherAttribute representing a specific degree of #$Cloudiness. (#$cloudinessOfRegion LOC #$Cloudless) means that the #$OutdoorLocation LOC has no cloud cover.>, guid = "bd58e1f4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cloudy isu WeatherAttribute; Cloudy has label = "cloudy", comment = <#$Cloudy is a #$WeatherAttribute that characterizes an #$OutdoorLocation which has at least some cloud cover -- this cloud cover not being situated at ground-level (in which case #$Foggy would be the applicable #$WeatherAttribute).>, guid = "bd590748-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Code-AssertionDirection isu CycLAssertionDirection; Code-AssertionDirection has label = "code - assertion direction", comment = <The direction for Cyc assertions which are implemented in code; the assertion is not actually used in either forward or backward inference.>, guid = "bfe9f22d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CodeOfConduct ismem Class; CodeOfConduct has label = "codes of conduct", comment = <A collection of microtheories; a subset of both #$Obligation and #$SupposedToBeMicrotheory. Each element of #$CodeOfConduct is a microtheory which contains rules and/or expectations governing the behavior of those agents subject to it in certain kinds of situations.>, guid = "bd5895c7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CodeOfConduct rel isu MicrotheoryType, isu ExistingObjectType; CohabitationUnit ismem Class; CohabitationUnit has label = "households", comment = <A collection of organizations. Within the #$NaiveBiologicalDescentMt, each instance of #$CohabitationUnit is an animal domestic group, i.e., a group of animals which live together in the same domestic or living group. This domestic group is assumed (by default) to be of a single species.>, guid = "bd5891e0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CohabitationUnit rel isu ExistingObjectType; Cohesiveness ismem Class; Cohesiveness has label = "cohesiveness", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Cohesiveness represents a specific capacity of a physical object to cohere; e.g., #$RigidlyCohesive, #$LiquidCohesiveness, #$HumanlySeparable. Cohesiveness of objects is indicated with the predicate #$cohesivenessOfObject.>, guid = "be00bb30-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cohesiveness rel iss ScalarInterval; Class isu Collection; Collection has label = "collections", comment = <The collection of all Cyc collections. Cyc collections are natural kinds or classes, as opposed to mathematical sets; their elements have some common attribute(s). Each Cyc collection is like a set in so far as it may have elements, subsets, and supersets, and may not have parts or spatial or temporal properties. Sets, however, differ from collections in that a mathematical set may be an arbitrary set of things which have nothing in common (see #$Set-Mathematical). In contrast, the elements of a collection will all have in common some feature(s), some `intensional&apos; qualities. In addition, two instances of #$Collection can be co-extensional (i.e., have all the same elements) without being identical, whereas if two arbitrary sets had the same elements, they would be considered equal. As with any Cyc constant, an instance of #$Collection should be created only if it is expected to have some purpose or utility. Moreover, the `best&apos; collections to create are the ones which are impossible to define precisely, yet about which there are rules and other things to say. E.g., `WhiteCat&apos; is not a good element of #$Collection to create, because it&apos;s easy to define with other Cyc concepts, and there&apos;s not much to say about the collection of white cats; but `WhiteCollarWorker&apos; could be a good element of #$Collection, because it is hard to define exactly, yet there are many things to say about it.>, guid = "bd5880cc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Collection rel isp Class, ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, ismem CoreConstant, iss SetOrCollection, xor Set-Mathematical, xor AttributeValue, xor Microtheory; CollectionDenotingFunction ismem Class; CollectionDenotingFunction has label = "collection - denoting functions", comment = <The subcollection of #$Function-Denotational whose instances, when applied to any appropriate (sequences of) arguments, return instances of #$Collection. Examples include #$SwimmingEventFn, #$GroupFn, and #$MoleculeFn; (#$MoleculeFn #$Oxygen) denotes the collection of all oxygen molecules. Cf. #$IndividualDenotingFunction and #$SetDenotingFunction.>, guid = "bd58806a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CollectionDenotingFunction rel isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss Function-Denotational, xor IndividualDenotingFunction; CollectionEvent ismem Class; CollectionEvent has label = "collections", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$CollectionEvent is an event in which tangible or intangible objects are collected together at a single place . The objects might come from various sources, and might be gathered via some collection network.>, guid = "bd58dc1e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CollectionEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TransferIn; CollectionType ismem Class; CollectionType has label = "collection type", comment = <#$CollectionType is by definition the collection of all types of #$Collections.>, guid = "beda6953-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CollectionType rel ismem Class; Color ismem Class; Color has label = "colors", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subcollection of both #$PhysicalAttribute and #$SensoryAttribute. Each element of #$Color represents a specific color attribute of some object or substance; e.g., #$GoldColor, #$VividRed-Color, #$Auburn-HairColor, #$Olive-FleshColor. Elements of #$Color are #$CompositeAttributes, since they can vary along several dimensions (e.g., hue, brightness, chroma). Indicate a particular object&apos;s #$Color with one of the following predicates: #$objectHasColor, #$mainColorOfObject, or #$uniformColorOfObject.>, guid = "bd588231-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Color rel isu CompositeAttributeType, iss AttributeValue, iss CompositeAttribute, iss SensoryAttribute, iss PhysicalAttribute; CombustionProcess ismem Class; CombustionProcess has label = "fires", comment = <A collection of events. Each #$CombustionProcess is an event in which rapid oxidation is taking place. These always have heat as an output and often involve emission of light as well (typically, flames). The #$objectActedOn in a #$CombustionProcess is at least partly consumed. See also #$Flammability.>, guid = "bd58c04e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CombustionProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss DecompositionProcess, iss EnergyConversionProcess; CommercialActivity ismem Class; CommercialActivity has label = "commercial activities", comment = <This is a large collection of events. As can be seen from its subsets, it embraces all types of buying, selling, offering to sell, offering to buy, requesting bids, performing services for hire, advertising, manufacturing for sale, etc.>, guid = "bd5887a4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommercialActivity rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss Transaction, iss HumanActivity; CommercialFishingBoat ismem Class; CommercialFishingBoat has label = "commercial fishing boat", comment = <The subcollection of #$Watercraft that contains all fishing boats, including trawlers, seiners, junks etc. that are marine-life-catching devices, and the main purpose of the fishing is commercial. Note that not all instances of CommercialFishingBoat have to be used exclusively in the ocean--they can also be used in rivers and lakes, etc.>, guid = "be059efb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommercialFishingBoat rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType; CommercialOrganization ismem Class; CommercialOrganization has label = "commercial organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$CommercialOrganization is an organization which buys or sells goods or services for a profit. It may also be an element of #$Business or it may merely be a sub-organization of a #$Business entity.>, guid = "bd5892d3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommercialOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, iss LegalAgent, xor NonProfitOrganization, xor GeographicalRegion; CommercialServiceOrganization ismem Class; CommercialServiceOrganization has label = "service companies", comment = <A collection of organizations; a subset of #$CommercialOrganization. An instance of #$CommercialServiceOrganization is a commercial organization which sells its services as its main product (rather than tangible goods), for commercial gain. Some tangible goods may accompany or supplement the main service sold, but only as side products; e.g., some elements of #$HairSalon sell hair care products.>, guid = "bd58f1b9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommercialServiceOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CommercialOrganization, iss ServiceOrganization; Commissioned isu WorkStatus; Commissioned has label = "commissioned", comment = <An attribute; an element of #$WorkStatus. The attribute of being paid on a commission basis for work done.>, guid = "bd58b8d7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Communicating ismem Class; Communicating has label = "communicating", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$Communicating is an event in which the transfer of information between or among agents is a focal action; communicating is the main purpose and/or goal in the event. That may be contrasted with events which involve communication but wherein the focus is different, e.g., playing cards (wherein the progressive actions -- and winning -- of the game are focal). Since #$Communicating is a subset of #$PurposefulAction, each #$Communicating event must be intentional on the part of the #$senderOfInfo; it may or may not be intentional on the part of the #$recipientOfInfo. Hence, a speaker on a soapbox haranguing an indifferent crowd is performing an instance of #$Communicating. In contrast, Juliet soliloquizing on her balcony, unaware that Romeo is listening to her, is not #$Communicating; this #$InformationTransferEvent would be an instance of #$Eavesdropping. Communicating may be either a one-way or a two-way transfer of information (cf. #$CommunicationAct-Single, #$MultiDirectionalCommunication). Every event belonging to #$Communicating contains at least one transfer of information between at least two agents who participate in the event. (Note that the latter requirement excludes reading and writing from #$Communicating, when those events are just the private accessing or generating of information.) Communicating may be specialized in various ways, such as, by the method or medium used (e.g., #$AudioCommunicating, #$NonVerbalCommunicating, #$FaceToFacePresenceCommunicating); by the type of information involved (e.g., #$MakingAnAgreement); by the purpose of the communication (e.g., #$Teaching, #$Negotiating); by the agents involved (e.g., #$IntraOrganizationCommunication, #$StageProduction). Examples of #$Communicating include a symphony performance, an email message, a telephone call, a speech, a handshake, issuing a traffic ticket -- all of which normally, and focally, involve communication between two or more agents.>, guid = "bd589ec5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Communicating rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss InformationTransferEvent, iss Action; CommunicationAct-Single ismem Class; CommunicationAct-Single has label = "communication acts", comment = <A collection of information transfer events; a subset of #$Communicating. Each element of #$CommunicationAct-Single is a single-source transmission of information from ONE #$senderOfInfo to one or more recipients; such acts may be one-to-one or one-to-many. Every element of #$CommunicationAct-Single has a transmission sub-event (which is an element of #$IBTGeneration-Original) and one or more reception #$subEvents (which are elements of #$AccessingAnIBT). An element of #$CommunicationAct-Single starts when its transmission sub-event starts and ends when its accessing sub-event(s) end. Notes: (1) For exchanges of information between or among multiple agents, see #$MultiDirectionalCommunication. (2) An important distinction is made between elements of #$CommunicationAct-Single on the one hand, and their #$subEvents which are elements of #$IBTGeneration-Original and #$AccessingAnIBT, on the other hand; e.g., #$Speaking and #$Writing are NOT subsets of #$CommunicationAct-Single, but rather are subsets of #$IBTGeneration-Original (because instances of both represent only the generation of information and can even occur without actual communication of it), and #$ListeningDeliberately and #$Reading are subsets of #$AccessingAnIBT, NOT of #$CommunicationAct-Single, because instances of both represent only the accessing of information (even if by default they imply a prior generation of information).>, guid = "bd589e83-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommunicationAct-Single rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Communicating, xor MultiDirectionalCommunication; CommunicationConvention ismem Class; CommunicationConvention has label = "communication convention", comment = <The collection of conventions used to encode and interpret things which bear information; a syntax together with a semantic mapping. Instances include natural languages like French or English, database data formats, and computer languages or idiosyncratic systems of gestures or symbols known only by a small group of people.>, guid = "bd58f43f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommunicationConvention rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss AbstractInformationalThing, xor Relation; CommunityOrganization ismem Class; CommunityOrganization has label = "community groups", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$CommunityOrganization is a group that consists of residents of a #$Neighborhood or apartment building or condominium complex, and which is concerned with issues affecting the #$Neighborhood or complex.>, guid = "bd58852b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommunityOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType; CommutativeRelation ismem Class; CommutativeRelation has label = "commutative relation", comment = <An important subset of #$Relation. Each element of #$CommutativeRelation is a relationship whose argument order can be changed without changing the value or meaning of the expression; e.g., #$PlusFn, #$TimesFn, #$or, #$bordersOn, #$temporallyIntersects, #$teammates. Most #$Relations are NOT commutative: if (#$isa EL COL) is true, it is rare that (#$isa COL EL) is also true.>, guid = "bd6449a2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CommutativeRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, iss Relation, xor PartiallyCommutativeRelation, xor UnaryRelation; Competence ismem Class; Competence has label = "crafts", comment = <One of the most general attributes for describing the level of skill with which an agent performs some task. Knowledge enterers will usually want to use some more specific attribute.>, guid = "bd58ade0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Competence rel isu ScriptPerformanceAttributeType, iss ScriptPerformanceAttribute; Competition ismem Class; Competition has label = "competitions", comment = <The collection of situations in which one or more #$Agents are striving to be the sole exemplar of some high value judgement, or the highest value along some comparative or metric scale. Arm wrestling, football, fighting for prey, competitive courting, racing, rodeo events, etc. are examples. See also #$competitionExpr. Note: `striving&apos; may be a bit of overstatement, as sometimes the competitors may even be unaware that a competition has been going on until after it is over, such as the first year a `Best Restaurant in Austin&apos; award is given out.>, guid = "bd58801a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Competition rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss PurposefulAction; CompleteCloudCover isu Cloudiness; CompleteCloudCover has label = "complete cloud cover", comment = <#$CompleteCloudCover is a #$WeatherAttribute representing a specific degree of #$Cloudiness. This attribute describes a location as so clouded over with a uniform layer grey or white clouds that direct sunlight is blocked out. There are no shadows, the shape or exact location of the sun or moon is impossible to identify.>, guid = "bd588622-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ComplexTemporalRelation ismem Class; ComplexTemporalRelation has label = "complex temporal relation", comment = <Instances of #$ComplexTemporalRelation are predicates used to interrelate instances of #$TemporalThing in time. Some of them (e.g., #$startsAfterEndingOf) make statements about the relationship of the beginning and/or end of their first argument to the beginning and/or end of their second argument. One can think of this as an interval-based theory of time. Some of them (e.g., #$temporallyIntersects and #$temporallySubsumes) make statements about the relationship of the entire set of points that is their first argument to the entire set of points that is their second argument. One can think of this as a set-theoretic theory of time.>, guid = "bd58ec70-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ComplexTemporalRelation rel isu PredicateCategory, iss TemporalRelation; CompositeAttribute ismem Class; CompositeAttribute has label = "composite attribute", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$CompositeAttribute is an attribute that is essentially a vector with many dimensions. Instances of #$Color are good examples; colors have intensity, hue, and saturation as independent dimensions. See also #$primitiveAttributeTypes, #$PrimitiveAttributeType.>, guid = "bd58d8d8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CompositeAttribute rel isu AttributeType, iss AttributeValue; CompositeAttributeType ismem Class; CompositeAttributeType has label = "composite attribute types", comment = <A collection of collections. Every element of #$CompositeAttributeType is a collection of attributes which is a subset of #$CompositeAttribute (q.v.).>, guid = "bd588238-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CompositeAttributeType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss AttributeType; CompositePhysicalAndMentalEvent ismem Class; CompositePhysicalAndMentalEvent has label = "composite physical and mental event", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$CompositePhysicalAndMentalEvent is an event that involves both some mental event(s) and an interaction of physical objects. Examples include a news broadcast program, a court trial, inheriting property, writing a letter, a physical examination, a charity ball, traffic on some section of highway during rush hour. Note that this collection does NOT imply that the events which are its instances have doers (see #$doneBy). Subsets of #$CompositePhysicalAndMentalEvent whose elements all have doers (or performers) -- and there will be many of them -- should have as a second genls #$Action or the appropriate subset of #$Action (qq.v.).>, guid = "bd588d27-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CompositePhysicalAndMentalEvent rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss PhysicalEvent, iss AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent; CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject ismem Class; CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject has label = "composite tangible and intangible object", comment = <The collection of things which have both a tangible and an intangible component -- e.g., people (with bodies and minds), information bearing objects (intangible information encoded on a tangible substrate, such as music on a CD, or text in a book) and so on. Like anything else that has at least some tangible component, each element of #$CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject exists in time. Our representation allows us to separately reify the tangible and intangible components of an object; this is sometimes necessary (e.g., to state that the age of the Frankenstein monster&apos;s mind is x, the age of his body is y, and the age of the new composite is z) but not very often needed --- usually one can just reify the #$CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject and state things about it.>, guid = "bd58f771-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartiallyIntangibleIndividual, iss PartiallyTangible, iss PartiallyIntangible; CompositionPredicate ismem Class; CompositionPredicate has label = "composition predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates; one of several subsets of #$PartPredicate. The collection #$CompositionPredicate contains predicates which are used to relate #$PartiallyTangible things to the substances (pieces of stuffs) which compose them. #$CompositionPredicates are instance-level (i.e, they relate #$Individuals, not #$Collections), although typically they are used in inferences about specific kinds of things. Examples include #$constituents, #$mainConstituent #$solvent, #$solute, #$suspendingFluid, #$suspendedPart.>, guid = "bd58f321-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CompositionPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss PhysicalPartPredicate; Compressibility ismem Class; Compressibility has label = "levels of compressibility", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Compressibility represents a specific capacity of a physical object to be compressed. Compressibility may be measured with a #$GenericValueFunction. Compressibilities of objects are indicated with the predicate #$compressibilityOfObject.>, guid = "be00ba02-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Compressibility rel iss ScalarInterval; ComputationalObject ismem Class; ComputationalObject has label = "computational objects", comment = <A collection of abstract objects; a subset of #$IntangibleIndividual. Each element of #$ComputationalObject is a syntactically structured form, such as a Cyc system expression, a Lisp string, a C variable name, or an equation in a particular canonical form format.>, guid = "bd58803b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ComputationalObject rel isu ObjectType, iss IntangibleIndividual, iss MathematicalOrComputationalThing, xor SpatialThing; Concave isu CurvatureOfSurface; Concave has label = "concavity", comment = <An attribute of a surface meaning that it is bumped or indented inward. A concave surface has a pair of points which are both closer to a viewer than points on the surface between them. Depending on the context, it may have relatively small subregions which have convexities (e.g. wrinkles, small dents, corrugations) or are flat so long as the overall shape is concave. Saddle-shapes, although convex in certain dimensions, are concave in others and are therefore concave.>, guid = "c0f2b614-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConcludingEqualsNote isu SharedNote; ConcludingEqualsNote has label = "concluding equals note", comment = <#$differentSymbols is useful for constraining rules that conclude #$equals. Most rules which would conclude #$equals would fire for identical symbols, and would thus conclude superfluous identity statement, e.g., (#$equals #$Cicero #$Cicero). By placing a conjunct in the antecedent of such rules, (#$differentSymbols ?X ?Y), such superfluous identity statements will not be deduced.>, guid = "bdffd8f1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Concrete ismem Class; Concrete has label = "concrete", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Concrete is a piece of an artificial mixture of cement, gravel, sand, and (during mixture, pouring, and forming) water. Used widely in construction, pieces of concrete are formed into the desired shape while fluid and afterward hardened into a sturdy, durable material. Examples: bridge pilings, foundations of houses, sidewalks, pieces of IH-35.>, guid = "bd590360-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Concrete rel isu ProductType, isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss BuildingMaterial, iss ArtificialMaterial; Condensing ismem Class; Condensing has label = "condensation processes", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of #$Condensing, a gas is cooled to (or its pressure lowered to) the point where the relative humidity (or similar partial pressure measure if something other than water is condensing) is greater than 100%, changing part of a component of the gas from the #$GaseousStateOfMatter to the #$LiquidStateOfMatter.>, guid = "be01163d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Condensing rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss PhysicalStateChangeEvent; ConductorResistance isu ElectricalResistance; ConductorResistance has label = "conductor resistance", comment = <A measurable physical attribute. #$ConductorResistance is the element of #$ElectricalResistance that represents a very low level of electrical resistance. An object having #$ConductorResistance readily conducts electricity. See also #$resistanceOfObject.>, guid = "be00f83b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConductsHeatPoorly isu ThermalConductivity; ConductsHeatPoorly has label = "conducts heat poorly", comment = <A measurable physical attribute. #$ConductsHeatPoorly is the element of #$ThermalConductivity that represents the level of thermal conductivity in an object that conducts virtually no heat.>, guid = "be00f69f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConductsHeatWell isu ThermalConductivity; ConductsHeatWell has label = "conducts heat well", comment = <A measurable physical attribute. #$ConductsHeatWell is the element of #$ThermalConductivity that represents the level of thermal conductivity in an object that conducts heat very quickly.>, guid = "be00f6b5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConductsSomeHeat isu ThermalConductivity; ConductsSomeHeat has label = "conducts some heat", comment = <A measurable physical attribute. #$ConductsSomeHeat is the element of #$ThermalConductivity that represents the level of thermal conductivity in an object which conducts heat, but slowly.>, guid = "be00f6ab-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Confidence ismem Class; Confidence has label = "certainties", comment = <The positive emotion felt when one is free from doubt about an event or object from which the agent feeling #$Confidence expects positive contingencies. For example, one might say &apos;I feel confident that tomorrow it will not be rainy&apos;. Do not confuse this with a personality disposition, e.g. &apos;Joe is a confident person.&apos; (See #$PersonalityAttribute.) This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. More specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes include #$Grief, #$SelfConfidence, etc.>, guid = "bd589c8b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Confidence rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Configuration ismem Class; Configuration has label = "configurations", comment = <A specialization of #$StaticSituation. Each instance of #$Configuration is a static situation involving two or more #$PartiallyTangible things standing in some sort of spatial relationship(s). For example, a #$Pile involves a bunch of things piled on top of each other, a #$FlowerArrangement involves an arrangement of multiple #$CutFlowers, and a #$KnotConfiguration might involve a particular intertwining of several segments of a single #$CordlikeObject. For configurations like the second example, which involve objects that are all of the same kind, see the specialization #$ArrangementOfLikeObjects. For configurations like the third example, which involve relationships between different parts of a single salient object, see #$ConfigurationOfComplexObject. Note that a static situation involving an #$Agent might be a configuration, but only so long as it&apos;s just the agent&apos;s _spatial_ relationship(s) to other partially tangibles that matters (see e.g. #$WearingSomething); static situations in which an agent&apos;s agency or sentience is crucial, on the other hand, are not configurations (see e.g. #$AgentRelationship and #$InterAgentRelationship).>, guid = "bd58ee23-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Configuration rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss StaticSituation; CongenitalCondition ismem Class; CongenitalCondition has label = "congenital conditions", comment = <A collection of ailments. An instance of #$CongenitalCondition is an #$AilmentCondition that is present in an afflicted organism from the time of gestation (i.e. before birth), whether or not it is a #$GeneticCondition. Two example types of #$CongenitalCondition are congenital herpes and congenital heroin addiction. A #$CongenitalCondition may be caused by behavior of the mother during pregnancy. Birth defects (such as having an extra toe) are #$CongenitalConditions. Injuries sustained during the delivery itself are not #$CongenitalConditions. Thus if forceps are used and the infant is scarred, brain-damaged or killed as a result, the situation is not an element of this collection.>, guid = "c0fd5c28-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CongenitalCondition rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss PhysiologicalCondition; Conical isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; Conical has label = "conical", comment = <#$Conical is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all conical objects in virtue of their shape.>, guid = "c150e5ed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConnectedPathSystem ismem Class; ConnectedPathSystem has label = "connected path system", comment = <The collection of all connected #$PathSystems that are not in separate pieces. For any different points X and Y in such a system SYS, there is a path PATH in SYS that both X and Y are on. Another way to put this is that SYS is an instance of #$ConnectedPathSystem iff for any different points X and Y in SYS, there is a path PATH in SYS such that (#$pathBetweenInSystem PATH X Y SYS) holds. Note that according to this definition, a connected path system does not have to contain a link--a path system containing a single node will be a connected path system. If a connected path system contains a link, nevertheless, every two different points must be connected by a path. Note also that because of our treatment of path (see #$pathInSystem) and our restriction of points in SYS that are not nodes (see #$nodeInSystem), that there is a path between every two points in SYS is equivalent to that there is a path between every two nodes in Sys.>, guid = "bd73edb5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConnectedPathSystem rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss PathSystem; ConnectingTogether ismem Class; ConnectingTogether has label = "links", comment = <A collection of events. In a #$ConnectingTogether event, two or more tangible things get physically connected together (attached) by means of some sort of connector or fastener. Some specializations of this include welding, buckling-up, using nailing, tying-up, etc. #$ConnectingTogether need not be a spec of #$Movement-TranslationEvent since two objects being connected may be already at rest with each other.>, guid = "bd589c6d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConnectingTogether rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss ActionOnObject; ConnectionPredicate ismem Class; ConnectionPredicate has label = "connection predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$ConnectionPredicate is a predicate that specifies physical connections between objects. Examples: #$nailedTo, #$rivetedTo, #$connectedTo-Rigidly, #$rotationallyConnectedTo, #$hangsFrom, #$in-Embedded.>, guid = "bd60da90-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConnectionPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, isu RelationshipType, iss CotemporalPredicate; Connector ismem Class; Connector has label = "clasps", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$Connector is a device which connects two objects. A connector (or part of it) may be a part incorporated into one or both of the objects connected, or a connector may be a totally separate device. Examples include elements of the collections #$ButtonTheFastener, #$Staple, #$Nail, and many more.>, guid = "bd58b973-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Connector rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss NonPoweredDevice; Constructing ismem Class; Constructing has label = "construction events", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$Constructing event, one or more #$ConstructionArtifacts, such as a house, are made or incrementally enlarged or remodeled.>, guid = "bd58c896-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Constructing rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, ismem Class, iss MakingSomething, iss Product, iss ServiceEvent; ConstructionArtifact ismem Class; ConstructionArtifact has label = "structures", comment = <A collection of artificial tangible objects. Each element of #$ConstructionArtifact is a structure designed and built by humans. This collection includes buildings and parts of buildings, as well as things like dams, railroad lines, and roads. Examples: the #$RomanColiseum, the #$ArcDeTriomphe, #$HooverDam, the #$WorldTradeCenter, #$HollywoodBowl. For further information, see #$FixedStructure, an important subset.>, guid = "bd589da5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConstructionArtifact rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SolidTangibleProduct, iss Artifact, xor SomethingToWear; ConstructionCompany ismem Class; ConstructionCompany has label = "construction companies", comment = <A collection of businesses. An element of #$ConstructionCompany is a business whose #$MainFunction is constructing or remodeling buildings, houses, dams, bridges, or other construction artifacts.>, guid = "bd58f6d2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConstructionCompany rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CommercialServiceOrganization, iss Business; Consultant ismem Class; Consultant has label = "consultants", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$Consultant works with some business in a consulting capacity. Consultants can be self employed, or they can work for a consulting company.>, guid = "c0fdc41c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Consultant rel isu OccupationType, iss BusinessPerson, iss Professional; ConsumableProduct ismem Class; ConsumableProduct has label = "consumable products", comment = <A collection of tangible stuff; a subset of #$TangibleProduct. Each element of #$ConsumableProduct is a product of which any portion can be used only once. A portion of a #$ConsumableProduct is `used up&apos;, i.e., destroyed or transformed into an unusable or waste form, during normal use. Note: `consumable&apos; here does not necessarily mean consumed by mouth; the consumption may be any use of the product.>, guid = "bd58e656-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConsumableProduct rel isu ExistingStuffType, isu ProductType, iss TangibleProduct; ConsumingFoodOrDrink ismem Class; ConsumingFoodOrDrink has label = "events in which food or drink is consumed", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$ConsumingFoodOrDrink is an event in which a person or other animal ingests some portion of food or drink through its mouth. This collection generically covers eating or drinking, by a single person, of a meal- or snack-sized portion of food. For more detail, see the subsets #$EatingEvent and #$DrinkingEvent. For eating or drinking with a social group, see #$HavingAMeal. Note: #$ConsumingFoodOrDrink does NOT include intravenous infusion of nutrients or chewing of gum.>, guid = "bd58cbb4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConsumingFoodOrDrink rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss Ingesting; ContactLocation ismem Class; ContactLocation has label = "contact locations", comment = <A collection of spatial objects. Each element of #$ContactLocation is a point at which some particular agent (e.g., corporation or person) may be contacted by any of several means, for any of several purposes. #$ContactLocation includes any place to which one may direct one or more of the following: letters, packages, phone calls or voice messages, bills, email, faxes, pages, subpoenas. Contact locations must be particular--e.g., my house or my office or even my secretary, but not simply `Austin&apos;.>, guid = "bd58d337-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContactLocation rel isu ContactLocationType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor StreetAddress, xor Address-LocationDesignator, xor State-Geopolitical, xor PostalCode, xor City; ContactLocationType ismem Class; ContactLocationType has label = "contact location type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$ContactLocationType is a collection of places at which a particular agent may be contacted; such collections may be characterized in several different ways: (a) by method of contact (e.g., #$VoicePhoneLocation, #$FaxLocation); (b) by purpose of contact (e.g., #$BillingLocation, #$ShippingLocation, #$EmergencyContact); (c) by the agent&apos;s relationship to those places (e.g., #$HumanResidence, #$Workplace). Note that particular places may fall under different subsets of #$ContactLocationType for different agents; for example, one person&apos;s home might be another&apos;s vacation location.>, guid = "bd58d0a1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContactLocationType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ExistingObjectType; ContainerProduct ismem Class; ContainerProduct has label = "container products", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$ContainerProduct is an object whose #$primaryFunction (or one of whose main functions) is to be a container. Examples are of staggering variety, including storage containers for books, office records, food, clothing, tools, and materials; containers for transporting the same; passenger compartments of various kinds of vehicles; artificial constructs for housing humans and animals; etc., etc. Instances of #$Crib, #$Sandbox, #$OfficeSpace, and #$Coffin.>, guid = "bd58cd8e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContainerProduct rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; Contempt ismem Class; Contempt has label = "contempts", comment = <Emotion characterized by vehement condemnation of its object as being low, vile, feeble, or ignominious. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Contempt are #$Hate, #$Abhorrence, etc. >, guid = "bd58a597-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Contempt rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Dislike, iss Disapproval; Continent ismem Class; Continent has label = "continents", comment = <A collection of topographical features. The elements of #$Continent on the #$PlanetEarth are the six traditional main land masses on the surface of the earth (plus the two #$geographicalSubRegions of Eurasia, Europe and Asia). Elements: #$ContinentOfAfrica, #$ContinentOfAntarctica, #$ContinentOfAsia, #$ContinentOfAustralia, #$ContinentOfEurasia, #$ContinentOfEurope, #$ContinentOfNorthAmerica, #$ContinentOfSouthAmerica. Former elements of this collection include Pangaea and the two continents it broke up into Gondwanaland and Laurasia (all of which are instances of #$TrueContinent (q.v.)).>, guid = "bd590bbb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Continent rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LandTopographicalFeature; ContinentOfAfrica isu Continent; ContinentOfAfrica has label = "Africa", comment = <The second largest continent, located north and south of the #$Equator in the #$EasternHemisphere-Region. Africa is connected to Asia by the narrow #$Isthmus of Suez; it includes #$Madagascar and other offshore islands.>, guid = "bd58ed27-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContinentOfAsia isu Entity; ContinentOfAsia has label = "Asia", comment = <The world&apos;s largest continent, joined in the west with Europe (which may be considered a peninsula of Asia) to form the Eurasian land mass (#$ContinentOfEurasia). The #$ContinentOfAsia occupies much of the northern half of the #$EasternHemisphere-Region.>, guid = "bd58ea12-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContinentOfEurope isu Entity; ContinentOfEurope has label = "Europe", comment = <The sixth largest continent; includes adjacent islands. The #$ContinentOfEurope is separated from the #$ContinentOfAsia by the #$UralMountains.>, guid = "bd58dd74-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContinentOfNorthAmerica isu GeographicalRegion; ContinentOfNorthAmerica has label = "North America", comment = <The continent in the northern and #$WesternHemisphere-Region. North America includes #$CentralAmerica as well as the #$WestIndies-Archipelago as #$geographicalSubRegions.>, guid = "bd58f882-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContinentOfSouthAmerica isu GeographicalRegion; ContinentOfSouthAmerica has label = "South America", comment = <The continent in the western and southern hemisphere.>, guid = "bd59004b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContractNegotiation ismem Class; ContractNegotiation has label = "contract negotiations", comment = <The collection of negotiations intended to lead to the formation of a contract between the participants (or the parties they represent in the negotiations).>, guid = "bd5ad3ec-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ContractNegotiation rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss PurposefulAction, iss Negotiating; ControlDevice ismem Class; ControlDevice has label = "control devices", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$ControlDevice is a device whose #$primaryFunction is to control the behavior/functioning/properties of another thing (usually another instance of #$PhysicalDevice). Obvious instances of #$ControlDevice include: the remote control for your TV (an instance of #$RemoteControlDevice), the brake pedal on your car (an instance of #$Pedal-ControlDevice), the light switch on your bedroom wall (an instance of #$ElectricalSwitch); a less obvious instance of #$ControlDevice is #$HooverDam (an instance of #$Dam).>, guid = "bd59097b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ControlDevice rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; ControlledLand ismem Class; ControlledLand has label = "controlled land", comment = <A collection of geopolitical entities. Each element of #$ControlledLand is a geopolitical entity that is controlled to some extent by a foreign power. Examples: #$PuertoRico, #$Bermuda, #$Guadeloupe-TheDependency, #$Tibet.>, guid = "bd58a21e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ControlledLand rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CountrySubsidiary; ControllingSomething ismem Class; ControllingSomething has label = "controlling events", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$PurposefulAction. An instance of #$ControllingSomething is a purposeful action in which some #$Agent intentionally controls some object. It is not necessary that the agent touch the #$objectControlled, only that s/he have an efficacious means of controlling its action -- thus, instances of #$ControllingSomething include all instances of #$GuidingAMovingObject (some of which involve a #$RemoteControlDevice). Further subsets: #$HandlingAnObject, #$Braking, #$SteeringADeviceByHand, #$PlayingAMusicalInstrument, #$CuttingFabric, #$CarryingWhileLocomoting, #$FlushingAToilet, etc. Whenever a #$ControlDevice (qv) is being used, for its primary function, presumably a #$ControllingSomething event is taking place. Borderline examples include having a conversation by telephone, doing the dishes by hand, and having a cat as a pet.>, guid = "bd588c1d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ControllingSomething rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss PurposefulAction; ConventionalClassificationSystem ismem Class; ConventionalClassificationSystem has label = "conventional classification systems", comment = <The collection of all agreed-upon or conventional classification systems, each consisting of #$ConventionalClassificationTypes. In such systems, a change or reclassification is possible by a decision of an authority, or by a changed social agreement, without changing the intrinsic facts about the actual objects in the category. (This applies only to named or known classification systems or schemas, and not to everything under the sun as might be urged by some 1990&apos;s-era postmodernist deconstructionist literary criticism theorists.) #$ConventionalClassificationSystems would include biological taxonomies, standard classifications, data dictionaries, thesauri, cultural taboo systems, military doctrinal systems, calendar systems, etc.>, guid = "c0d808c9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConventionalClassificationSystem rel isu ObjectType, iss AbstractInformationalThing; ConventionalClassificationType ismem Class; ConventionalClassificationType has label = "conventional classification type", comment = <The collection of all those collections that each correspond to a category in some agreed-upon or conventional classification system (a #$ConventionalClassificationSystem) used by people. In such systems, a change or reclassification is possible by a decision of an authority, or by a changed social agreement or custom, without changing the intrinsic facts about the actual objects in the category. (This applies only to named, known classification systems or schemas, and not to everything under the sun as might be urged by some 1990&apos;s-era postmodernist deconstructionist literary criticism theorists.) #$ConventionalClassificationType would include categories in biological taxonomy, standard classifications, data dictionaries, thesauri, cultural taboo classes, military doctrinal classes, named calendar intervals, etc.>, guid = "bee6da31-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConventionalClassificationType rel ismem CollectionType, isu ObjectType; Convex isu CurvatureOfSurface; Convex has label = "bulge", comment = <A surface attribute meaning that the surface&apos;s overall shape is dominated by an outward bulge or mound, or consists of projecting corners between planes. In most contexts, it may have relatively small subregions which are concave or flat, etc., so long as overall shape is convex. Viewing something as convex assumes a perspective. From the opposite perspective, on the `other side&apos;, a #$Convex surface would look #$Concave.>, guid = "c0f2b67b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConvexTangibleObject ismem Class; ConvexTangibleObject has label = "convex tangible object", comment = <The collection of all #$TangibleThings that are #$Convex, i.e. have no significant #$Concave surfaces, cavities or #$Crevices. A #$ConvexTangibleObject occupies about the same space as its convex hull; see #$ConvexHullFn and #$ConvexHullSpaceFn. A solid physical sphere or cube are #$ConvexTangibleObjects but a cup or doughnut cannot be. The size of allowable minor concavities depends on the context.>, guid = "c0b9215a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ConvexTangibleObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor Path-Cyclic; Conveyance ismem Class; Conveyance has label = "conveyances", comment = <A collection of concrete physical objects. Each instance of #$Conveyance is intended for moving partially tangible things --- it could be a car, ship, plane, or other vehicle for transporting people; it could be a conveyor belt or a grocery bag for moving goods; it could be a gun, a bow, or a cannon for launching projectiles. See also #$TransportationDevice which are objects that actually move along with the thing they are transporting, and #$Conveyance-Stationary where the object doing the moving remains stationary. See #$Conveying-Generic, #$TransportationEvent and #$Conveying-Stationary for the different kinds of conveying events. Some positive exemplars: a gun, a car, a horse. A wire can be considered to be a #$Conveyance, in those microtheories were #$Electricity, #$Signals, etc. are considered to be things that move.>, guid = "bd58d480-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Conveyance rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SolidTangibleThing, xor InformationBearingThing; Cooked isu PreparationAttribute; Cooked has label = "cooked", comment = <The attribute #$Cooked is a #$PreparationAttribute (q.v.), describing how a given item of #$Food has been prepared. Food becomes #$Cooked as the result of an event of #$CookingFood. Specialized forms of #$Cooked include #$Steamed, #$Baked, #$Microwaved and #$Grilled.>, guid = "bd58f510-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CookingFood ismem Class; CookingFood has label = "cooking events", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$CookingFood is an event in which some item of #$Food is prepared by heating it. Typically, the foodstuff is heated until it reaches a certain temperature over some period of time, during which chemical and/or physical changes occur which are supposed to make the foodstuff healthier or tastier (or, in some cases, ethically acceptable). A #$CookingFood event may last from a few minutes (e.g., #$SteamingFood (vegetables), #$MakingToast) to several hours (e.g., #$RoastingFood). Note: #$SmokingFood is not a subset of #$CookingFood. Food prepared by smoking (e.g., smoked ham, bacon) is `cured&apos; by a chemical reaction with nitrates in the smoke, rather than being cooked by heat. Cf. #$SmokingFood, #$SaltingFood.>, guid = "bd58ad09-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CookingFood rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss HeatingProcess; CoolingProcess ismem Class; CoolingProcess has label = "cooling process", comment = <#$CoolingProcess is a collection of events, and a subset of #$TemperatureChangingProcess. During each #$CoolingProcess event, the temperature of the #$objectOfStateChange is decreased by removing heat from the object.>, guid = "bd58f7dc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CoolingProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TemperatureChangingProcess; CordlikeObject ismem Class; CordlikeObject has label = "cords", comment = <Read #$cyclistNotes. A generic long flexible skinny thing like string, electrical extension cords, rope, wicks.>, guid = "bd58f581-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CordlikeObject rel isu StuffType, iss PartiallyTangible, iss Path-Simple, iss Path-Customary; CoreConstant isu Collection; CoreConstant has label = "core constant", comment = <The collection of constants that are required to be defined in order to support the implementation of CycL itself. These constants are the minimal &apos;core&apos; of the Cyc knowledge base which must be assumed to be defined in order for the inference engine to function.>, guid = "c0dd1b7c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CoreConstant rel isu Collection; Corner-2d ismem Class; Corner-2d has label = "two-dimensional corners", comment = <The collection of all regions wherein two linear edges of a two dimensional or sheet-shaped object (i.e., considered in this context to be sheet shaped) meet to form an angle of substantially less than 180 degrees. Polygons have at least three corners each.>, guid = "c0fbbe43-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Corner-2d rel isu RegionType, iss Corner-2or3d; Corner-2or3d ismem Class; Corner-2or3d has label = "corners", comment = <The collection of all regions centered around a point where two edges of a sheet-like object meet at an angle or where three or more surfaces (together with three or more solid edges dividing them) meet at one place forming a solid angle. Includes 2-dimensional corners and 3 dimensional corners. Corners are either #$Convex or #$Concave with respect to some perspective.>, guid = "c0fba90e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Corner-2or3d rel isu RegionType, iss PartiallyTangible; Corner-3d ismem Class; Corner-3d has label = "corner - 3d", comment = <The collection of all regions where three or more surfaces of an object (which is considered three dimensional in current context), and three or more #$EdgeOnObjects, meet. This includes corners of boxes, the tops of pyramids, etc. Each #$Corner-3d includes some solid angle of part of the object.>, guid = "c0fba450-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Corner-3d rel isu RegionType, iss Corner-2or3d; CorporateOfficer ismem Class; CorporateOfficer has label = "officers", comment = <A collection of people. An instance of #$CorporateOfficer is a person who is recognized as an officer of a corporation, as officially recorded in the corporate records of that corporation. Common types of #$CorporateOfficer include #$President-CorporateOfficer, #$VicePresident-CorporateOfficer, Secretary and Treasurer of a corporation.>, guid = "c10aec18-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CorporateOfficer rel isu PositionType, isu OccupationType, iss Administrator, iss Leader; CorrosionResistance ismem Class; CorrosionResistance has label = "corrosion resistance", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$CorrosionResistance represents a specific level of resistance to corrosion of some tangible object. Degrees of #$CorrosionResistance may be represented using #$GenericValueFunctions. Indicate a particular object&apos;s #$CorrosionResistance with the predicate #$resistanceToCorrosion.>, guid = "be00bd14-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CorrosionResistance rel iss ScalarInterval; CostBreakdownSlot ismem Class; CostBreakdownSlot has label = "cost breakdown slot", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$CostBreakdownSlot is a binary predicate used to describe some pecuniary aspect of an instance of #$Buying. The first argument to every #$CostBreakdownSlot is an element of #$Buying and the second argument is always an instance of #$Money. Examples: #$moneyTransferred, #$discount, #$salesTax, #$salesCommission.>, guid = "bd5896b1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CostBreakdownSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss Property; CotemporalObjectsSlot ismem Class; CotemporalObjectsSlot has label = "cotemporal objects slot", comment = <#$CotemporalObjectsSlot is the collection of #$BinaryPredicates PRED such that whenever a formula without free variables (PRED ARG1 ARG2) is true at a moment in time, it will be the case that the moment belongs to the temporal extent of both ARG1 and ARG2 (i.e., that ARG1 and ARG2 are #$TemporalThings which temporally subsume the moment). For example, #$owns is a #$CotemporalObjectsSlot. So from the assertion (#$holdsIn (#$YearFn 1992) (#$owns Nick Spot)), we can conclude that Nick and Spot were alive throughout (temporally subsume) 1992. In contrast, consider the predicate #$awareOf, which is not a #$CotemporalObjectsSlot. The assertion (#$holdsIn (#$YearFn 1992) (#$awareOf Fred #$GeorgeWashington)) doesn&apos;t justify the conclusion (#$temporallySubsumes #$GeorgeWashington (#$YearFn 1992)). In general (with the qualifications indicated below), a closed assertion (#$holdsIn TIME (PRED ARG1 ARG2)), with PRED a #$CotemporalObjectsSlot, licenses the conclusions (#$temporallySubsumes ARG1 TIME) and (#$temporallySubsumes ARG2 TIME). And a closed assertion (#$holdsSometimeDuring TIME (PRED ARG1 ARG2)) licenses the conclusions (#$temporallyIntersects ARG1 TIME) and (#$temporallyIntersects ARG2 TIME). Although what constitutes a moment can vary with context, for most microtheories explicit considerations of temporal granularity (in this sense) don&apos;t come into play. In particular, in the case of most microtheories, one doesn&apos;t have to worry about the possibility of gaps in the fabric of time between moments. (Such gaps would undermine the conclusions above about temporal subsumption.) Another qualification is that ARG1 and ARG2 are not #$TemporallyIndexicalFirstOrderTerms; in practice, they almost never are. See also the generalization of #$CotemporalObjectsSlot, #$CotemporalPredicate, and the predicate #$contemporaryInArg.>, guid = "bd58af35-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CotemporalObjectsSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss CotemporalPredicate, iss Property; CotemporalPredicate ismem Class; CotemporalPredicate has label = "cotemporal predicate", comment = <#$CotemporalPredicate is the collection of #$Predicates PRED such that whenever a formula (PRED ARG1 ... ARGN) is true at a moment in time, it will be the case that the moment belongs to the temporal extent of each ARG among ARG1, ..., ARGN that is a #$TemporalThing (i.e., that each such ARG temporally subsumes the moment). For example, #$owns is a #$CotemporalPredicate. So from the assertion (#$holdsIn (#$YearFn 1992) (#$owns Nick Spot)), we can conclude (given that Nick and Spot are #$TemporalThings) that Nick and Spot were alive throughout (temporally subsume) 1992. In contrast, consider the predicate #$awareOf, which is not a #$CotemporalPredicate. The assertion (#$holdsIn (#$YearFn 1992) (#$awareOf Fred #$GeorgeWashington)) doesn&apos;t justify the conclusion (#$temporallySubsumes #$GeorgeWashington (#$YearFn 1992)). In general (with the qualifications indicated below), an assertion (#$holdsIn TIME (PRED ARG1 ... ARGN)), with PRED a #$CotemporalPredicate and ARG among ARG1, ..., ARGN a #$TemporalThing, licenses the conclusion (#$temporallySubsumes ARG TIME). And an assertion (#$holdsSometimeDuring TIME (PRED ARG1 ... ARGN)) licenses the conclusion (#$temporallyIntersects ARG TIME). Although what constitutes a moment can vary with context, for most microtheories explicit considerations of temporal granularity (in this sense) don&apos;t come into play. In particular, in the case of most microtheories, one doesn&apos;t have to worry about the possibility of gaps in the fabric of time between moments. (Such gaps would undermine the conclusion above about temporal subsumption.) Another qualification is that ARG is not a #$TemporallyIndexicalFirstOrderTerm; in practice, it almost never is. In order to bar predicates that would otherwise trivially qualify as instances of #$CotemporalPredicate, the argument-type of at least one of the argument-places of a #$CotemporalPredicate PRED must be non-disjoint with #$TemporalThing (or, more generally, the intersection of the argument-types of at least one of the argument-places of PRED must be non-disjoint with #$TemporalThing). See also the specialization of #$CotemporalPredicate, #$CotemporalObjectsSlot, and the predicate #$contemporaryInArg.>, guid = "bd5981b7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CotemporalPredicate rel isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; CountNoun-Generic ismem Class; CountNoun-Generic has label = "count noun - generic", comment = <The collection of all mass nouns. Mass nouns are syntactically singular, and often they denote stufflike things. Example: &apos;water&apos;. This collection also includes proper mass nouns like &apos;Pepsi&apos;, agentive mass nouns like &apos;moisturizer&apos;, etc.>, guid = "c0e918e2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CountNoun-Generic rel isu SpeechPart, iss Noun; CounterfactualContext ismem Class; CounterfactualContext has label = "counterfactual context", comment = <The collection of microtheories that are each assumed to include at least one counterfactual assertion: an assertion which is believed to be untrue in the real world. It may be, however, that there is no explicit counterfactual assertion in a given #$CounterfactualContext. In particular, it is not required that there be any explicit contradiction of assertions in the #$genlMts of the #$CounterfactualContext. But intuitively speaking, most adults would be reticent about trusting too strongly in a propositon whose only justification was in a #$CounterfactualContext. All works of fiction relate events that transpire in counterfactual contexts. Examples: #$WorldMythologyMt, #$PaddingtonBearStoriesMt, #$ChristmasMythologyMt.>, guid = "bd58f4b8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CounterfactualContext rel isu MicrotheoryType, isu ObjectType, iss Microtheory; Country ismem Class; Country has label = "countries", comment = <A collection of geopolitical entities. An element of #$Country is a nation-state having its own territory, population, and government, whether or not it is fully independent. For example, #$Scotland is an element of #$Country, even though it is a part of the #$UnitedKingdomOfGreatBritainAndNorthernIreland. Cf. #$IndependentCountry.>, guid = "bd588879-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Country rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss GeopoliticalEntity, xor InternationalOrganizationOfCountries; CountrySubsidiary ismem Class; CountrySubsidiary has label = "districts", comment = <A collection of geopolitical entities. Each element of #$CountrySubsidiary is a political region that is a direct subsidiary of some country. This collection includes states, provinces, territories, and some special districts such as Washington, D.C. This class is somewhat artificial but is useful when representing addresses.>, guid = "c0c0184c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CountrySubsidiary rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss GeopoliticalEntity, xor IndependentCountry; County ismem Class; County has label = "counties", comment = <A collection of geopolitical entities. An element of #$County is a lesser geopolitical region, having an area typically larger than a #$City but smaller than a #$State-Geopolitical. Traditionally, a #$County area was within one day&apos;s horseback ride from the County Seat.>, guid = "bd58e498-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; County rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu SpatiallyDisjointRegionType, iss GeopoliticalEntity; CountyGovernment ismem Class; CountyGovernment has label = "county governments", comment = <The collection of all #$County governments.>, guid = "bd67f8fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CountyGovernment rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss RegionalGovernment; CourseDuringAMeal ismem Class; CourseDuringAMeal has label = "course during a meal", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$CourseDuringAMeal is an event in which one or more diners at a meal consume a single course. Examples include the elements of #$AppetizerCourse, #$MainCourse, #$DessertCourse.>, guid = "c1008170-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CourseDuringAMeal rel ismem Class; Court-Judicial ismem Class; Court-Judicial has label = "courts", comment = <A collection of organizations which are judicial agents. An element of #$Court-Judicial is an established judicial court, i.e., an enduring governmental #$Organization whose #$primaryFunction is to settle disputes by means of legal reasoning by one or more #$Judges. Typically, a court&apos;s orders are enforced by some other agency belonging to the government of which that court is a part. The collection #$Court-Judicial includes federal, state, county, and municipal courts, appellate and chancery courts, tax courts, courts of claims, courts-martial (if non-temporary), admiralty courts, courts of chivalry, American Indian tribal courts, and the Permanent Court of International Justice. It excludes Gypsy/Rom Kris courts, nonjudicial administrative county courts, stannaries, and temporary #$Tribunals.>, guid = "c08b79f4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Court-Judicial rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; CourtesyTitle ismem Class; CourtesyTitle has label = "courtesy title", comment = <The collection of #$Titles, such as Mr., Ms., Mrs., Miss, Dr., etc., which precede names in Anglo-American addressing custom.>, guid = "bd58fa97-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CourtesyTitle rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss Title; Cracking ismem Class; Cracking has label = "cracking events", comment = <A collection of change events. In each #$Cracking, something becomes cracked. I.e., two or more areas of the thing are separated from one another (though perhaps not divided wholly into parts). In order to undergo a #$Cracking, the #$objectOfStateChange must be in a #$SolidStateOfMatter.>, guid = "bd58f8e2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cracking rel ismem Class, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, iss SeparationEvent; CreationEvent ismem Class; CreationEvent has label = "creation events", comment = <A collection of events. In each element of #$CreationEvent, at least one instance of #$Entity (the #$outputsCreated) is brought into existence.>, guid = "bd58de89-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CreationEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss CreationOrDestructionEvent, iss Action; CreationOrDestructionEvent ismem Class; CreationOrDestructionEvent has label = "creation or destruction events", comment = <A collection of events. During each element of #$CreationOrDestructionEvent, one or more instances of #$Entity come into or go out of existence. Elements of this collection are the sorts of events that have #$inputs, #$outputs, #$products, #$wasteProducts, and #$byProducts. Examples of #$CreationOrDestructionEvent would include a particular campfire (a #$CombustionProcess), manufacturing a particular car, etc.>, guid = "bd675149-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CreationOrDestructionEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType; Credential ismem Class; Credential has label = "credentials", comment = <A collection of intangible objects which consist of propositional information about an agent. #$Credential is a subset of #$PropositionalInformationThing (q.v.). Each element of #$Credential is specific information about one agent, provided by another agent; the information content of a credential consists of favorable, enabling, or empowering propositional declarations. As represented in Cyc, credentials are intangible information, but each element of #$Credential usually has some associated physical document (e.g., a diploma associated with a college degree, a driver&apos;s license). A credential may certify that the holder (i.e., the subject of the credential) has a particular skill (e.g., legal bar certification, ability to drive); has completed certain training (e.g., GED schooling, Ph.D. requirements; is allowed to do a certain thing (e.g., travel visa, permission slip); and so on. Recommendations are considered a kind of credential.>, guid = "bd58b0a1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Credential rel isu ObjectType, iss TemporalThing, iss AbstractInformationalThing, iss PropositionalInformationThing; CreditCard ismem Class; CreditCard has label = "credit cards", comment = <A collection of plastic cards. Each element of #$CreditCard is a piece of plastic that enables authorized users to spend the card-issuing company&apos;s money, drawn as a (usually unsecured) loan through an associated instance of #$CreditCardAccount under a pre-arranged credit agreement. The credit card company credits the vendor of the purchased goods or services and bills the card user, usually with interest.>, guid = "bd58ceea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CreditCard rel isu MoneyTenderType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Plastic, iss IDDocument, iss Card, iss TenderObject, iss FinancialAccountTenderObject; Crevice ismem Class; Crevice has label = "crevices", comment = <The collection of all long, slender cavities or cracks or furrows in otherwise solid objects. The width of a crevice is significantly less than its length. The depth of a crevice is often greater than its width, and is never significantly less than its width.>, guid = "c0fcdf4c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Crevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Cavity; Crevice-Topographical-Earth ismem Class; Crevice-Topographical-Earth has label = "crevice - topographical - earth", comment = <The collection of topographical features of the planet Earth characterized by long, slender cavities or cracks or furrows. The width of a crevice is significantly less than its length. The depth of a crevice is often greater than its width, and is never significantly less than its width.>, guid = "bf4d23f7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Crevice-Topographical-Earth rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LandTopographicalFeature; CrimeDetection ismem Class; CrimeDetection has label = "crime detection", comment = <This is the actual act of detecting a crime.>, guid = "bd6857bf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CrimeDetection rel isu TemporalObjectType; CrucifixShaped isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; CrucifixShaped has label = "crucifix shaped", comment = <#$CrucifixShaped is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all three dimensional cross-shaped objects.>, guid = "c0514749-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cubical isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; Cubical has label = "cubical", comment = <#$Cubical is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all three-dimensional objects for which each face it is the case that (#$shapeOfObject ?FACE #$SquareShaped).>, guid = "c14b222b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Currency ismem Class; Currency has label = "items of currency", comment = <A collection of physical objects. An instance of #$Currency is a physical object generally accepted as legal tender (i.e., not checks or credit cards) and used as a means of transferring a quantity of #$Money between some elements of #$Agent. Elements of #$Currency may be coins, items of precious metal, paper bills for which precious objects are payable by a government to the bearer on demand, or unbacked paper bills required by a government to be accepted for payment of debts. Elements of #$Currency are typically backed by and issued by national governments. Note: This collection includes all instances of legal tender, worldwide and historically. But, for better or worse, the notion of legal tender is context-dependent. Normally what counts as currency is relative to the country one is in; legal tender in the United States is not the same as legal tender in China. (Though US dollars may have excellent value on the black market.) What counts as legal tender depends on historical events as well, since a government may change, withdraw, or cancel some types of currency it previously authorized. Also, conquest of one country by another usually brings about the collapse of the loser&apos;s currency. A Confederate ten dollar bill, e.g., is not an element of #$Currency in the context of twentieth century Alabama, even though it belongs to #$Currency in a different context.>, guid = "bd58cc42-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Currency rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu MoneyTenderType, iss TenderObject, iss PortableObject; CurvatureOfSurface ismem Class; CurvatureOfSurface has label = "curvature of surface", comment = <The collection of all surface curvature attributes. These may apply to a particular piece of a surface of an object, or to the whole surface. For real-world (non-mathematical) surfaces, there is ordinarily some tolerance for minor surface deviations that depends on the context. Thus a &apos;flat&apos; surface may have relatively small bumps and crevices.>, guid = "c0f2ab26-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CurvatureOfSurface rel isu AttributeType, iss ShapeAttribute; CustomarySystemOfLinks ismem Class; CustomarySystemOfLinks has label = "customary system of links", comment = <The collection of all customary or conventional network systems consisting of interconnected links (instances of #$Path-Customary) and nodes of obvious types, where the elements of the system can be assumed without specifying them as sets. Examples include pipe systems, road systems, vascular systems, wiring systems, mechanical linkages, etc. The links of any #$CustomarySystemOfLinks are assumed to share characteristics, e.g. in a road system, pipes are not links nor are streetlights, road paint, or other non-roadways, just the roadways forming the network. Also, what constitutes a #$JunctionOfPaths or #$pathTerminus in the system should be obvious from the system type. The links are related to the assumed system by #$linksOfCustomarySystem. This is in contrast to #$PathSystem in which the sets of point, nodes, links, and loops (if any) have to be specified for the system.>, guid = "c0ee5ac3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CustomarySystemOfLinks rel isu ObjectType, iss StaticSituation; CuttingDevice ismem Class; CuttingDevice has label = "cutting implements", comment = <A collection of devices. An instance of #$CuttingDevice is a device whose #$primaryFunction is to (enable its user to) cut another object. Subsets of #$CuttingDevice include the collections #$Razors, #$Scissors, #$LawnMowers,and more.>, guid = "bd589153-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CuttingDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; CycAdministrator isu HumanCyclist; CycAdministrator has label = "Cyc administrator", comment = <This constant is for use by Cyc administrators responsible for installation, setup and maintenance of Cyc images.>, guid = "c0bf7a98-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycHLTruthValue ismem Class; CycHLTruthValue has label = "cyc h l truth value", comment = <The truth/strength combinations used in the Cyc HL implementation of #$CycLAssertions and arguments.>, guid = "bd58f7f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycHLTruthValue rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ComputationalObject; CycLAssertedAssertion ismem Class; CycLAssertedAssertion has label = "cyc l asserted assertion", comment = <The subcollection of semantically well-formed #$CycLAssertions which are supported by at least one belief argument, meaning that the assertion was explicitly asserted to Cyc, as opposed to having been deduced by Cyc&apos;s inference engine. An assertion can have more than one argument, and can therefore be both a #$CycLAssertedAssertion and a #$CycLDeducedAssertion.>, guid = "bed06ab6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLAssertedAssertion rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLAssertion; CycLAssertion ismem Class; CycLAssertion has label = "CycL assertions", comment = <A collection of semantically well-formed #$CycLSentences which express some proposition in the Cyc Knowledge Base. Each instance of #$CycLAssertion is either (1) an #$HLAssertion: an assertion reified in the Cyc Knowledge Base (i.e., a formula and its associated datastructure, actually in the Cyc KB), or (2) an #$ELAssertion: an Epistemological Level #$CycLSentence that can be canonicalized into one or more already extant #$HLAssertions. #$CycLAssertion is used as an argument type for meta-predicates such as #$overrides.>, guid = "bd5dbcd4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLAssertion rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ComputationalObject, iss CycLIndexedTerm, iss AbstractInformationalThing, iss CycLPropositionalSentence, xor Relation, xor HLReifiedDenotationalTerm; CycLAssertionDirection ismem Class; CycLAssertionDirection has label = "cyc l assertion direction", comment = <The set of possible directions for Cyc #$CycLAssertions; the direction indicates how the #$CycLAssertion will be propagated during inference.>, guid = "bd58e1fc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLAssertionDirection rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu UnorderedAttributeType, isu SiblingDisjointAttributeType, ismem CoreConstant, iss AttributeValue, iss ComputationalObject; CycLAtomicAssertion ismem Class; CycLAtomicAssertion has label = "cyc l atomic assertion", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLAssertions which have a #$Predicate as their operator. Excludes assertions with logical operators in the arg0 position.>, guid = "bfd86bf1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLAtomicAssertion rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLAssertion, iss CycLAtomicSentence; CycLAtomicSentence ismem Class; CycLAtomicSentence has label = "cyc l atomic sentence", comment = <The collection of syntactically well-formed atomic sentences, also called &apos;atomic logical formulas&apos;, in the CycL language. Each instance of #$CycLAtomicSentence involves the application of a #$Predicate to some arguments.>, guid = "c130750e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLAtomicSentence rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss CycLSentence; CycLAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLAtomicTerm has label = "cyc l atomic term", comment = <The collection of all atomic denotational terms in the CycL language. All such terms may denote something in the universe of discourse if semantically meaningful and fully bound (variables are #$CycLAtomicTerms). They are also atomic, meaning that they cannot be broken down via the CycL syntax. The string aabaab is a #$CycLAtomicTerm even though it can be broken down into substrings, just as 212 is a #$CycLAtomicTerm even though it can be broken down into digits. This notion of atomicity is only with respect to the CycL grammar, and digits and substrings are not part of the CycL grammar.>, guid = "be1d78c8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLAtomicTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression, iss CycLTerm, iss CycLDenotationalTerm; CycLClosedAtomicSentence ismem Class; CycLClosedAtomicSentence has label = "cyc l closed atomic sentence", comment = <The collection of syntactically well-formed atomic sentences in the CycL language which have no free variables. Each instance of #$CycLClosedAtomicSentence involves the application of a #$Predicate to some arguments.>, guid = "bdcc8689-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLClosedAtomicSentence rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLClosedSentence, iss CycLAtomicSentence; CycLClosedAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLClosedAtomicTerm has label = "cyc l closed atomic term", comment = <The collection of all atomic closed denotational terms in the CycL language. All such terms may denote something in the universe of discourse if semantically meaningful. They are also atomic, meaning that they cannot be broken down via the CycL syntax. The string aabaab is a #$CycLClosedAtomicTerm even though it can be broken down into substrings, just as 212 is a #$CycLClosedAtomicTerm even though it can be broken down into digits. This notion of atomicity is only with respect to the CycL grammar, and digits and substrings are not part of the CycL grammar.>, guid = "bda21728-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLClosedAtomicTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLClosedDenotationalTerm, iss CycLAtomicTerm; CycLClosedDenotationalTerm ismem Class; CycLClosedDenotationalTerm has label = "cyc l closed denotational term", comment = <The collection of all CycL expressions which may denote something in the universe of discourse. #$CycLSentences are not considered part of the universe of discourse in this way. Not all closed denotational terms pick out something in the universe of discourse; counterexamples are (#$BorderBetweenFn #$Canada #$Mexico) and (#$JuvenileFn #$isa #$genls #$JuvenileFn). Other examples of closed denotational terms include #$Muffet, (#$JuvenileFn #$Dog), (#$TheSetOf ?X (#$objectHasColor ?X GreenColor)), and 212.>, guid = "c04da45a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLClosedDenotationalTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLClosedExpression, iss CycLDenotationalTerm; CycLClosedExpression ismem Class; CycLClosedExpression has label = "cyc l closed expression", comment = <The collection of CycL expressions which have no free variables.>, guid = "c03209e1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLClosedExpression rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression, iss CycLTerm, xor CycLOpenExpression; CycLClosedFormula ismem Class; CycLClosedFormula has label = "cyc l closed formula", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLFormulas which have no free variables.>, guid = "c017ff79-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLClosedFormula rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLClosedExpression, iss CycLFormula; CycLClosedNonAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLClosedNonAtomicTerm has label = "cyc l closed non atomic term", comment = <The subcollection of denotational #$CycLNonAtomicTerms which have no free variables. Examples: (#$JuvenileFn #$Platypus), (#$JuvenileFn #$isa #$genls), (#$TheSetOf ?X (#$objectHasColor ?X #$GreenColor)). Counterexamples: (#$JuvenileFn ?X).>, guid = "c0cc2458-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLClosedNonAtomicTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm-ClosedFunctor, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm, iss CycLClosedDenotationalTerm; CycLClosedSentence ismem Class; CycLClosedSentence has label = "cyc l closed sentence", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLSentences which have no free variables. Implicitly universally quantified sentences are not instances of #$CycLClosedSentence.>, guid = "be27a8ec-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLClosedSentence rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLSentence, iss CycLClosedExpression, iss CycLSentence-ClosedPredicate; CycLConstant ismem Class; CycLConstant has label = "ART", comment = <#$CycLConstant is the collection of all CycL named constants used to denote terms. Colloquially, CycL constants are those atomic terms which are prefixed by &apos;#$&apos; in their printed representation. For example, #$Dog is an instance of #$CycLConstant while other terms like (#$GovernmentFn #$France) and the number 42 are not.>, guid = "bf3491c4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLConstant rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, iss HLIndexedTerm, iss CycLIndexedTerm, iss CycLAtomicTerm, iss CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm, iss HLReifiedDenotationalTerm, iss CycLRepresentedAtomicTerm, iss ELExpression, iss CycLClosedAtomicTerm, iss HLExpression, xor HLNonAtomicReifiedTerm; CycLDeducedAssertion ismem Class; CycLDeducedAssertion has label = "cyc l deduced assertion", comment = <The subcollection of semantically well-formed #$CycLAssertions which are supported by at least one argument which is a dedction by Cyc&apos;s inference engine, as opposed to having been explicitly asserted to Cyc. An assertion can have more than one argument, and can therefore be both a #$CycLAssertedAssertion and a #$CycLDeducedAssertion.>, guid = "beff1a9a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLDeducedAssertion rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLAssertion; CycLDenotationalTerm ismem Class; CycLDenotationalTerm has label = "cyc l denotational term", comment = <The collection of all CycL expressions which may denote something in the universe of discourse if they are meaningful and closed (having no free variables). Semantic well-formedness is not a requirement; (#$JuvenileFn #$isa ?X #$genls #$JuvenileFn) is a denotational term. However, if a #$CycLFormula, semantic properties of the arg0 may determine its membership in this collection. e.g. (#$JuvenileFn #$Dog) is a denotational term, but (#$Dog #$JuvenileFn) is not. Other examples of denotational terms include #$Muffet, ?X, (#$JuvenileFn ?X), (#$TheSetOf ?X (#$objectHasColor ?X GreenColor)), and 212.>, guid = "bd9733c2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLDenotationalTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLTerm, iss CycLExpression; CycLExpression ismem Class; CycLExpression has label = "cyc l expression", comment = <The collection of all syntactically well-formed expressions in the CycL language. This includes formulas, sentences, denotational terms, etc.>, guid = "be90c21d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLExpression rel ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss CycLTerm, is CycLTerm; CycLExpression-Askable ismem Class; CycLExpression-Askable has label = "cyc l expression - askable", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically well-formed #$CycLExpressions which obey arity constraints, but but do not necessarily obey other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints). The name &apos;Askable&apos; derives from #$CycLSentence-Askable, but instances of #$CycLExpression-Askable are not necessarily askable as a query unless they are also instances of #$CycLSentence-Askable. See #$CycLQuery for more details.>, guid = "bd601781-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLExpression-Askable rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression; CycLExpression-Assertible ismem Class; CycLExpression-Assertible has label = "cyc l expression - assertible", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically and semantically well-formed #$CycLExpressions. The name &apos;Assertible&apos; derives from #$CycLSentence-Assertible, but instances of #$CycLExpression-Assertible are not necessarily assertible into the KB unless they are also instances of #$CycLSentence-Assertible.>, guid = "c091e184-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLExpression-Assertible rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression-Askable; CycLFormula ismem Class; CycLFormula has label = "cyc l formula", comment = <The collection of CycL expressions which involve the application of a relation to some arguments; e.g., (#$isa #$Muffet #$Poodle) and (#$BirthFn #$Muffet) are both instances of #$CycLFormula. Two important specs of #$CycLFormula are #$CycLNonAtomicTerms, also called &apos;denotational formulas&apos;, and #$CycLSentences, also called &apos;logical formulas&apos;. Note that this notion of a CycL formula may differ from standard definitions of &apos;formula&apos; in formal logic, which define a formula as either any string of symbols, or a syntactically well-formed string of symbols. A CycL formula is a relation applied to some arguments.>, guid = "c03ec3ba-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLFormula rel ismem CoreConstant, ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss CycLExpression, iss CycLTerm; CycLGAFAssertion ismem Class; CycLGAFAssertion has label = "cyc l g a f assertion", comment = <The subcollection of semantically well-formed atomic #$CycLAssertions which have no free variables. GAF stands for Ground Atomic Formula. Atomic Formula (or, more specifically, atomic sentence) means a #$Predicate applied to some arguments. Ground means no variables. GAF Assertions are ground at the HL (no HL variables) and closed at the EL (no free EL variables). For example, (#$isa (#$TheSetOf ?X (#$colorOfObject ?X #$GreenColor)) #$Thing) is ground at the HL and closed (but not ground) at the EL. GAF assertions typically express facts about the world.>, guid = "c0f63e9a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLGAFAssertion rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLAssertion, iss CycLClosedAtomicSentence, iss CycLAtomicAssertion, xor CycLRuleAssertion; CycLGenericRelationFormula ismem Class; CycLGenericRelationFormula has label = "cyc l generic relation formula", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLFormulas which have a #$Relation in their arg0 position which is not known to be either a function, predicate, or logical operator. Examples: (?RELATION #$Dog #$Cat), ((RelationDenotingFn #$Muffet) #$Dog).>, guid = "be2eb4e1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLGenericRelationFormula rel ismem CoreConstant, iss ELFormula, iss CycLFormula; CycLIndexedTerm ismem Class; CycLIndexedTerm has label = "cyc l indexed term", comment = <Elements of #$CycLIndexedTerm are objects that are indexed in the Cyc kb (i.e., forts and assertions).>, guid = "bd84623c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLIndexedTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss CycLClosedExpression; CycLNonAtomicReifiedTerm ismem Class; CycLNonAtomicReifiedTerm has label = "NART", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerms that are reified in the KB. Example: (#$JuvenileFn #$Dog). Counterexample: (#$JuvenileFn #$Platypus), because that term is not currently reified in the KB. These are often called NARTs, which stands for &apos;non-atomic reified term&apos;.>, guid = "c0c6b0d2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLNonAtomicReifiedTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLReifiedDenotationalTerm, iss CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm; CycLNonAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLNonAtomicTerm has label = "NAT", comment = <The collection of non-atomic denotational terms in the CycL language. Also called &apos;denotational formulas&apos;. A non-atomic term, or &apos;NAT&apos;, is a term which is neither a variable nor a constant. NATs are terms formed by applying a function to its (zero or more) arguments. Like constants, each NAT denotes some thing in the universe of discourse. Currently, there are two main kinds of NAT: #$HLNonAtomicReifiedTerms, or &apos;NARTs&apos;, which are a type of #$HLReifiedDenotationalTerm, and are implemented with data structures that have indexing allowing all uses of the NAT to be retrieved; and #$ELNonAtomicTerms, or &apos;NAUTs&apos;, which have no such indexing and remain in the form of an EL expression in the formulas in which they occur.>, guid = "bf1f951d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLNonAtomicTerm rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLDenotationalTerm, iss CycLTerm, iss CycLFormula, iss CycLRepresentedTerm; CycLNonAtomicTerm-Askable ismem Class; CycLNonAtomicTerm-Askable has label = "cyc l non atomic term - askable", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically well-formed #$CycLNonAtomicTerms which obey arity constraints, but but do not necessarily obey other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints). These terms &apos;make enough sense&apos; to be a term in a #$CycLQuery. Denotational terms are not askable themselves. Each instance of this collection involves a #$Function-Denotational applied to some number of arguments, as permitted by the arity of the relation. #$CycLNonAtomicTerms are also called &apos;denotational formulas&apos;, to be distinguished from &apos;logical formulas&apos;, also known as #$CycLSentences. Note that an instance of #$CycLNonAtomicTerm-Askable does not mean that the term must be used in a query; only that it can be used in a query. See #$CycLQuery for more details.>, guid = "bdda1e3f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLNonAtomicTerm-Askable rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm, iss CycLExpression-Askable; CycLNonAtomicTerm-Assertible ismem Class; CycLNonAtomicTerm-Assertible has label = "cyc l non atomic term - assertible", comment = <The collection of syntactically and semantically well-formed #$CycLNonAtomicTerms. These non-atomic terms meet the criteria necessary to be part of an assertion in the Cyc KB. They are not assertible themselves. For a thorough discussion of what constitutes a well-formed CycL formula, see the Cyc documentation. Each instance of #$CycLNonAtomicTerm-Assertible involves a #$Function-Denotational applied to some arguments. Note that a semantically well-formed #$CycLQuery may contain instances of #$CycLNonAtomicTerm-Assertible; just because a nat is &apos;assertible&apos; does not require it to be used in an assertion. See #$CycLPropositionalSentence for more details.>, guid = "be2e0d29-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLNonAtomicTerm-Assertible rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm-Askable, iss CycLExpression-Assertible; CycLNonAtomicTerm-ClosedFunctor ismem Class; CycLNonAtomicTerm-ClosedFunctor has label = "cyc l non atomic term - closed functor", comment = <The subcollection of denotational #$CycLNonAtomicTerms which have no free variable in the arg0 position. Examples: (#$JuvenileFn #$Platypus), (#$JuvenileFn #$isa #$genls), (#$TheSetOf ?X (#$colorOfType ?X #$GreenColor)), (#$JuvenileFn ?X). Counterexample: (?SOMEFN #$Gold).>, guid = "bf26025d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLNonAtomicTerm-ClosedFunctor rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm, xor CycLSentence-ClosedPredicate; CycLOpenDenotationalTerm ismem Class; CycLOpenDenotationalTerm has label = "cyc l open denotational term", comment = <The collection of all CycL expressions which have at least one free variable, and which might denote something in the universe of discourse if their variable(s) were bound. #$CycLSentences are not considered part of the universe of discourse in this way. Examples include ?X, (#$JuvenileFn ?X), and (#$JuvenileFn #$isa ?X #$genls #$JuvenileFn), even though the latter is semantically ill-formed.>, guid = "c0d211d2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLOpenDenotationalTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLOpenExpression, iss CycLDenotationalTerm; CycLOpenExpression ismem Class; CycLOpenExpression has label = "cyc l open expression", comment = <The collection of CycL expressions which have free variables.>, guid = "bfab7ef3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLOpenExpression rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression, iss CycLTerm, xor CycLClosedExpression; CycLOpenFormula ismem Class; CycLOpenFormula has label = "cyc l open formula", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLFormulas which have free variables.>, guid = "be0a552b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLOpenFormula rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLOpenExpression, iss CycLFormula; CycLOpenNonAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLOpenNonAtomicTerm has label = "cyc l open non atomic term", comment = <The subcollection of denotational #$CycLNonAtomicTerms which have free variables. Examples: (#$JuvenileFn ?X), (#$JuvenileFn ?X ?Y ?Z). Counterexample: (#$TheSetOf ?X (#$objectHasColor ?X #$GreenColor)).>, guid = "c010ce47-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLOpenNonAtomicTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm, iss CycLOpenDenotationalTerm; CycLOpenSentence ismem Class; CycLOpenSentence has label = "cyc l open sentence", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLSentences which have free variables. This only takes into account explicit closure; if a sentence is implicitly universally quantified, it is still an instance of #$CycLOpenSentence.>, guid = "be00bf6e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLOpenSentence rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLSentence, iss CycLOpenExpression; CycLPropositionalSentence ismem Class; CycLPropositionalSentence has label = "cyc l propositional sentence", comment = <The collection of semantically well-formed CycL sentences that express propositions. Any seemingly free variables in such sentences are implicitly universally quantified at the outermost level.>, guid = "c05a7c46-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLPropositionalSentence rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLClosedSentence, iss CycLSentence-Assertible; CycLQuery ismem Class; CycLQuery has label = "cyc l query", comment = <The collection of all well-formed CycL queries. Example: (#$and (#$isa ?X #$Cat) (#$isa ?X #$Dog)). Weaker well-formedness constraints are imposed on CycL queries than on assertions (see #$CycLSentence-Assertible). CycL queries are syntactically well-formed CycL sentences, also well-formed with respect to arity, which express a query in CycL. Free variables are not implicitly universally quantified; they are interpreted as variables for which bindings are sought.>, guid = "c0d57acd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLQuery rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss CycLSentence, iss CycLSentence-Askable, iss sentence, iss LinguisticObject; CycLReformulationRulePredicate ismem Class; CycLReformulationRulePredicate has label = "cyc l reformulation rule predicate", comment = <The collection of #$Predicates which may appear as the operator in a #$CycLReformulationRule.>, guid = "c129e5bc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLReformulationRulePredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm ismem Class; CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm has label = "cyc l reifiable denotational term", comment = <A collection of Cyc terms. All #$CycLConstants are elements of #$CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm, as is any NAT (#$CycLNonAtomicTerm, see #$Function-Denotational) whose functor is an instance of #$ReifiableFunction. E.g., since #$GovernmentFn is an instance of #$ReifiableFunction, it is true that (#$GovernmentFn #$France) is a #$CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm. (#$JuvenileFn #$Platypus) is a #$CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm; it is not in the KB but is reifiable. #$CycLVariables are not considered reified or reifiable terms. These terms may denote something in the universe of discourse if they are semantically meaningful. e.g. (#$BorderBetweenFn #$Canada #$Mexico) is a #$CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm even though it does not denote anything in the universe of discourse.>, guid = "bd63a0ce-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLClosedExpression, iss CycLClosedDenotationalTerm, iss CycLIndexedTerm; CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm has label = "cyc l reifiable non atomic term", comment = <A collection of Cyc terms that are NATs (#$CycLNonAtomicTerms; see #$Function-Denotational) whose functor is an instance of #$ReifiableFunction. E.g., since #$GovernmentFn is an instance of #$ReifiableFunction, it is true that (#$GovernmentFn #$France) is a #$CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm.>, guid = "be760011-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm, iss CycLIndexedTerm, iss CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm, iss CycLClosedNonAtomicTerm; CycLReifiedDenotationalTerm ismem Class; CycLReifiedDenotationalTerm has label = "forts", comment = <The collection of denotational terms in the CycL language which are reified in the KB. Examples include #$Muffet and (#$JuvenileFn #$Dog); a counterexample would be (#$JuvenileFn #$Platypus) because that term is not currently reified in the KB. These are often called &apos;FORTs&apos;, which stands for &apos;first-order reified terms&apos;>, guid = "beee8a4d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLReifiedDenotationalTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm; CycLRepresentedAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLRepresentedAtomicTerm has label = "cyc l represented atomic term", comment = <The collection of all represented atomic denotational terms in the CycL language. This consists of variables and Cyc constants.>, guid = "bddd55a1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLRepresentedAtomicTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLAtomicTerm, iss CycLRepresentedTerm; CycLRepresentedTerm ismem Class; CycLRepresentedTerm has label = "cyc l represented term", comment = <The collection of all denotational terms in the CycL language which are either represented atomic terms or are composed of represented atomic terms. This includes Cyc constants, variables, and NATs.>, guid = "be920bae-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLRepresentedTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLDenotationalTerm; CycLRuleAssertion ismem Class; CycLRuleAssertion has label = "cyc l rule assertion", comment = <The subcollection of semantically well-formed #$CycLAssertions whose formulas are rules. More precisely, the formulas are not GAFs (see #$CycLGAFAssertion), so they either have more than one literal (and therefore are non-atomic) or they quantify over some free variables (and therefore are non-ground). Any free variables are implicitly universally quantified.>, guid = "bddb0a48-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLRuleAssertion rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLAssertion, xor CycLGAFAssertion; CycLSentence ismem Class; CycLSentence has label = "CycL sentences", comment = <The collection of syntactically well-formed CycL formulas which involve a logical relation (a #$Predicate or #$TruthFunction) applied to some arguments. #$CycLSentences do not necessarily obey arity constraints or other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints). #$CycLSentences are also called &apos;logical formulas&apos;, to be distinguished from &apos;denotational formulas&apos;, also known as NATs (#$CycLNonAtomicTerms). Note that this notion of a CycL sentence is broader than the standard definition of &apos;sentence&apos; in formal logic, which defines a sentence as a closed, well-formed formula. CycL sentences may be open (having free variables). They may be semantically ill-formed but must be syntactically well-formed. Also, queries (see #$CycLQuery) are CycL sentences.>, guid = "bd5880a0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLSentence rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLTerm, iss CycLFormula, iss CycLExpression; CycLSentence-Askable ismem Class; CycLSentence-Askable has label = "cyc l sentence - askable", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically well-formed #$CycLSentences which obey arity constraints, but but do not necessarily obey other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints). These sentences &apos;make enough sense&apos; to be asked as a #$CycLQuery. Each instance of this collection involves a logical relation (a #$Predicate or #$TruthFunction) applied to some number of arguments, as permitted by the arity of the relation. #$CycLSentences are also called &apos;logical formulas&apos;, to be distinguished from &apos;denotational formulas&apos;, also known as NATs (#$CycLNonAtomicTerms). Note that this notion of a CycL sentence is broader than the standard definition of &apos;sentence&apos; in formal logic, which defines a sentence as a closed, well-formed formula. CycL sentences may be open (having free variables), but if they are asserted to Cyc, the free variables are implicitly universally quantified. Note that an instance of #$CycLSentence-Askable does not mean that the sentence must be used in a query; only that it can be used in a query. See #$CycLQuery for more details.>, guid = "be7266e4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLSentence-Askable rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLSentence, iss CycLExpression-Askable; CycLSentence-Assertible ismem Class; CycLSentence-Assertible has label = "cyc l sentence - assertible", comment = <The collection of syntactically and semantically well-formed #$CycLSentences. These sentences meet the criteria necessary to be asserted into the Cyc KB. Example: (#$and (#$isa #$Pittman #$HumanCyclist) (#$residesInRegion #$Pittman #$CityOfAustinTX)). For a thorough discussion of what constitutes a well-formed CycL formula, see the Cyc documentation. Each instance of #$CycLSentence-Assertible involves a logical relation (a #$Predicate or #$TruthFunction) applied to some arguments. #$CycLSentences are also called &apos;logical formulas&apos;, to be distinguished from &apos;denotational formulas&apos;, also known as NATs (#$CycLNonAtomicTerms). Note that this notion of a CycL sentence is broader than the standard definition of &apos;sentence&apos; in formal logic, which defines a sentence as a closed, well-formed formula. CycL sentences may be open (having free variables), but if they are asserted to Cyc, the free variables are implicitly universally quantified. Note that a semantically well-formed #$CycLQuery may be an instance of #$CycLSentence-Assertible; just because a sentence is assertible does not require it to be used in an assertion. See #$CycLPropositionalSentence for more details.>, guid = "c1164108-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLSentence-Assertible rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLSentence-Askable, iss CycLExpression-Assertible; CycLSentence-ClosedPredicate ismem Class; CycLSentence-ClosedPredicate has label = "cyc l sentence - closed predicate", comment = <The subcollection of #$CycLSentences whose arg0 is not a free variable although free variables may occupy other argument positions.>, guid = "bdb7f18f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLSentence-ClosedPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLSentence, xor CycLNonAtomicTerm-ClosedFunctor; CycLTerm ismem Class; CycLTerm has label = "cyc l term", comment = <The collection of all syntactically well-formed expressions in the CycL language that can be used as terms, i.e. that can serve as arguments to CycL relations. Since the grammar of the CycL language allows any CycL expression to be used as a term, #$CycLTerm and #$CycLExpression are coextensional collections.>, guid = "c107fffb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss CycLExpression, iss sentence, is CycLExpression; CycLUnreifiedReifiableNonAtomicTerm ismem Class; CycLUnreifiedReifiableNonAtomicTerm has label = "cyc l unreified reifiable non atomic term", comment = <A collection of Cyc terms that are #$CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerms but are not meant to be reified at the top level (but sub-nats are still reified). #$CycLUnreifiedReifiableNonAtomicTerms are handled specially by the canonicalizer. As an example of how this works, see #$termOfUnit. Its arg1 is a #$CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm and its arg2 is an #$CycLUnreifiedReifiableNonAtomicTerm.>, guid = "becacce8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLUnreifiedReifiableNonAtomicTerm rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm, iss ELNonAtomicTerm; CycLVariable ismem Class; CycLVariable has label = "cyc l variable", comment = <The collection of all variables in the CycL language, such as ?WHAT or ?var0.>, guid = "bf7800bf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CycLVariable rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLOpenDenotationalTerm, iss CycLRepresentedAtomicTerm, iss CycLAtomicTerm; CyclicalIntervalGroupType ismem Class; CyclicalIntervalGroupType has label = "cyclical interval group type", comment = <(#$isa ?X #$CyclicalIntervalGroupType) means that ?X is a collection of interval types whose instances recur in a set pattern throughout all of calendar history. ?X must partition all of time: the elements of ?X must be mutually disjoint, and unioned altogether they must encompass all time. For example, ?X could be the set of the seven calendar days (Monday through Sunday), or the set of the twelve calendar months (January through December). I.e., (#$isa #$DayOfWeekType #$CyclicalIntervalGroupType) and (#$isa #$MonthOfYearType #$CyclicalIntervalGroupType). `Recurring in a set pattern&apos; generally means that one can put the elements of ?X in order, say X1, X2,..., Xn, and there will be an instance of X1 immediately followed by an instance of X2 (that instance x2a of X2 will be #$contiguousAfter that instance x1a of X1), and there will be an instance of X3 immediately following that particular instance of X2, and there will be an instance of X4 immediately following that instance of X3, etc. One final note: when we arrange elements of ?X into such a pattern X1,...Xn (whose repetitions then `tile&apos; all time), n may be larger than the cardinality of ?X. E.g., ?X might be the set with just the 2 elements WeekendDay (the union of the set #$Saturday and the set #$Sunday) and WeekDay, and then the arrangement that tiles all time is 5 contiguous WeekDays followed by 2 contiguous WeekendDays.>, guid = "be0113f4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; CyclicalIntervalGroupType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection; Cyclist ismem Class; Cyclist has label = "cyclists", comment = <The set of actors (mostly people) entitled to inspect and modify the Cyc knowledge base>, guid = "bd588068-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cyclist rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu TemporalStuffType, ismem CoreConstant, iss IndividualAgent; CyclistsMt ismem CoreConstant; CyclistsMt has label = "cyclists mt", comment = <A #$Microtheory for stating basic hierarchical (#$isa and #$genls) information pertaining to users of #$Cyc.>, guid = "c0625164-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Cylindrical isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; Cylindrical has label = "cylindrical", comment = <#$Cylindrical is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all cylindrical objects, i.e. all objects that have a circular base and for which all cross sections parallel to the base have the same area as the base.>, guid = "bf57fbe1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DailyPersonalCleaning ismem Class; DailyPersonalCleaning has label = "daily personal cleaning", comment = <A collection of events. Each #$DailyPersonalCleaning encompasses the standard cleaning and grooming activities that an animal engages in over the course of a day. Such a `daily routine&apos; is almost sure to include many brief grooming and cleaning actions, such as licking one&apos;s paws, combing one&apos;s hair, washing one&apos;s hands, shaving, bathing, etc., and those are sub-events of that #$DailyPersonalCleaning event. For example, a human&apos;s #$DailyPersonalCleaning might have a #$TeethCleaning as one of its sub-events, along with a #$TakingABath, two instances of #$CombingHair, etc. Note: Those specialized kinds of events, like #$CombingHair, are NOT subsets of #$DailyPersonalCleaning, since it would be abnormal for someone to JUST comb their hair each day (and do absolutely no other daily cleaning activity whatsoever). Note: In the context #$HumanActivitiesMt --- where all the performers of actions are, by default, human beings --- #$DailyPersonalCleaning designates human grooming activities only. In that microtheory, dog-grooming performed by human beings does not constitute #$DailyPersonalCleaning, even if it happens on a daily basis for some pampered poodle, as it is not PERSONAL (i.e, self-) cleaning.>, guid = "bd58d05d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DailyPersonalCleaning rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, ismem Class, iss Cleaning; DataMicrotheory ismem Class; DataMicrotheory has label = "data microtheory", comment = <A collection of microtheories. An instance of #$DataMicrotheory contains information about #$Individuals, such as specific #$Persons, #$Organizations, #$GeographicalRegions, #$ConceptualWorks, etc. Assertions that do not refer to such individuals normally should be asserted in a more general microtheory.>, guid = "be5275a8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DataMicrotheory rel isu MicrotheoryType, iss Microtheory; Database-AbstractContent ismem Class; Database-AbstractContent has label = "abstract databases", comment = <The collection of all databases, as abstract repositories of information rather than as physical storage devices. A database generally has some means of accessing the data from structured records, frames or relational structures, using some query language. A particular #$Database-AbstractContent may exist in multiple copies, and may be distributed over several different physical data storage sites: see also #$Database-Physical.>, guid = "bfe46ab6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Database-AbstractContent rel isu ObjectType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss IndexedInfoSource; Database-Physical ismem Class; Database-Physical has label = "databases", comment = <A collection of information bearing objects (IBOs); a subset of #$StructuredInformationSource. Each element of #$Database-Physical is an IBO that stores many pieces of information, organized for easy scanning and access. Typically, a data base involves one or more formatted data record schemes, together with some device for searching and retrieving data. Note that, as an IBO, a #$Database-Physical is some particular, tangible copy of a database. To refer to the abstract &apos;content&apos; of a database, use #$Database-AbstractContent. Instances represent databases, specifically the &apos;physical&apos; aspect of the database rather than its meaning. Each physical database will be related to its tables (represented as instances of #PhysicalTableSchema). It will typically have information specifying access methods. The current vocbulary does not make the distinction between the abstract structure, perhaps shared by many copies, and the copies themselves, perhaps containing different data.>, guid = "bd589d12-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Database-Physical rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss InformationBearingObject, iss StructuredInformationSource; Date ismem Class; Date has label = "dates", comment = <#$Date is a subset of #$TimeInterval. A #$Date is any #$TimeInterval which can be defined purely by its location on the calendar. Thus a #$Date could be a particular calendar day, a particular calendar quarter, a particular calendar month, a particular decade, etc. So the subsets of #$Date include #$CalendarMinute, #$CalendarQuarter, etc., as well as #$CalendarDay.>, guid = "bd58ac59-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Date rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TimeInterval; Dawn ismem Class; Dawn has label = "dawns", comment = <Each instance of #$Dawn is a dimly-lit period before a #$Sunrise.>, guid = "bd588ee3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dawn rel ismem Class, isu TemporalObjectType, iss Twilight, xor Dusk; DaytimeWorkingHours ismem Class; DaytimeWorkingHours has label = "daytime working hours", comment = <#$DaytimeWorkingHours is a set of time intervals. The length of each of those intervals, and their #$startingPoint and #$endingPoint, are defined by the bulk of a working population performing their daily jobs. The schedule varies by context -- i.e. which group of workers are being considered -- and the boundaries are fuzzy. This fuzziness makes the concept more useful in many ways, though, not less useful.>, guid = "bd58ac70-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DaytimeWorkingHours rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TimeOfDay; DeVerbalNoun ismem Class; DeVerbalNoun has label = "de verbal noun", comment = <The collection of all nouns derived from verbs, including (but not limited to) those ending in &apos;-ing&apos;, &apos;-er/or&apos;, and &apos;tion&apos;.>, guid = "bf69785d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeVerbalNoun rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu SpeechPart, iss Noun; DeadAnimal ismem Class; DeadAnimal has label = "corpses", comment = <A subset of #$OrganicStuff (and not, of course, of #$Animal, whose elements must be alive). Each element of #$DeadAnimal is a corpse or partial remains of an individual animal, somewhat intact, and prior to any butchering, burning, cooking, dissolving, or fully decomposing.>, guid = "bd5894c4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeadAnimal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss OrganicStuff, xor Animal; DeadLanguage ismem Class; DeadLanguage has label = "dead languages", comment = <A subset of #$NaturalLanguage. Each element of #$DeadLanguage is a natural language that is no longer spoken as a native language.>, guid = "bd58a2a8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeadLanguage rel iss NaturalLanguage, xor LivingLanguage; DecagonShaped isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; DecagonShaped has label = "decagon shaped", comment = <This is the shape attribute shared by all ten sided two dimensional figures.>, guid = "bdcb2708-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; December ismem Class; December has label = "December", comment = <The collection of all Decembers, the twelfth and final month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58b8ba-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; December rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; DecidingWhichInstrumentPredicateToUse isu SharedNote; DecidingWhichInstrumentPredicateToUse has label = "deciding which instrument predicate to use", comment = <Which instrument predicate you use depends on what level of generality you wish your statement to apply at. One help is to look at the argument types of each instrument predicate and decide. Do you want it to apply to every #$PartiallyTangible which is an instrument? Then use #$instrument-Generic since #$PartiallyTangible is its #$arg2Isa. Are you writing a rule which really only applies to #$PhysicalDevices Then use #$deviceUsed. But be careful! When you use a more specific predicate such as #$deviceUsed it may have special extra conditions in its definition aside from the #$PhysicalDevice #$arg2Isa constraint. Also if your first stab at the rule involves #$deviceUsed in the antecedent, see if it applies more generally to #$instrument-Generic.>, guid = "bd60039d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeciduousPlant ismem Class; DeciduousPlant has label = "deciduous plants", comment = <A collection of plants. Each element of #$DeciduousPlant is a plant which sheds all of its leaves once a year, seasonally, and subsequently grows new ones.>, guid = "bd588481-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeciduousPlant rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Plant-Woody; DecompositionEvent ismem Class; DecompositionEvent has label = "decompose", comment = <The collection of events in which one or more objects decompose more or less completely. See also the more general concept #$DecompositionProcess, in whose instances objects at least partially decompose.>, guid = "bd58b357-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DecompositionEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss DecompositionProcess; DecompositionProcess ismem Class; DecompositionProcess has label = "decomposition process", comment = <A collection of events in which some object decomposes. I.e., in a #$DecompositionProcess event, some object&apos;s matter undergoes chemical reactions (sometimes mediated by microorganisms) that eventually result in the object losing its shape and material characteristics. This may sometimes superficially resemble #$Melting, but it is a different process.>, guid = "bd58b2de-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DecompositionProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TransformationProcess; Decrypting ismem Class; Decrypting has label = "decryptions", comment = <The collection of actions in which an encrypted IBO (#$InformationBearingObject) is transformed so that it can be accessed.>, guid = "bd659b49-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Decrypting rel isu TemporalObjectType; DefaultDisjointFoodType ismem Class; DefaultDisjointFoodType has label = "types of food", comment = <A collection of collections. Each instance of #$DefaultDisjointFoodType is a collection of beverages or foodstuffs (a subset of #$Food or #$FoodIngredientOnly). More to the point, this collection-of-collections is a #$SiblingDisjointCollection (qv). So every two instances of #$DefaultDisjointFoodType are either disjoint, or are in a known subset/superset relationship, or have some known (reified) common specialization. Virtually every commonly-named type of food will be an element of this set-of-sets. E.g., the collections #$HotDog, #$ChickenSoup, #$Cocoa-ThePowder, #$Prune, #$ToasterTart, #$MilkPowder, and so on. One could easily define a collection of foodstuff and beverages, such as The-Food-That-Was-Eaten-In-Dallas-Yesterday, that would not be a member of this set-of-sets, but most such collections are not worth naming and keeping around. See the concept #$SiblingDisjointCollection for more information about this sort of arrangement.>, guid = "bd58bd03-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DefaultDisjointFoodType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ProductType; DefaultDisjointScriptType ismem Class; DefaultDisjointScriptType has label = "default disjoint script type", comment = <This is a #$SiblingDisjointCollection (qv). So the elements of #$DefaultDisjointScriptType are kinds of actions (subsets of #$Event) that can be assumed to be mutually disjoint from each other (unless one is known to be a subset of the other, or there is a known common subset.)>, guid = "bd58efca-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DefaultDisjointScriptType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, ismem Class; DefaultFalse isu CycHLTruthValue; DefaultFalse has label = "default false", guid = "bd8a163e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DefaultMonotonicPredicate ismem Class; DefaultMonotonicPredicate has label = "default monotonic predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$DefaultMonotonicPredicate is a predicate whose use as the predicate of a locally asserted ground formula causes that formula to be entered, by default, as :MONOTONIC. Examples: #$isa, #$genls, #$disjointWith, #$equals, #$arity, #$arg1Isa.>, guid = "c10c3008-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DefaultMonotonicPredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; DefaultTrue isu CycHLTruthValue; DefaultTrue has label = "default true", guid = "bf576a31-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DegenerationEvent ismem Class; DegenerationEvent has label = "degenerates", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$DegenerationEvent, some object loses its function(s) through a process of deterioration and/or a series of discrete breakdowns.>, guid = "bd58c357-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DegenerationEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss IncurringDamage; Density ismem Class; Density has label = "densities", comment = <A collection of physical attributes. Each element of #$Density is a measurable physical property of a tangible object, namely, its mass per volume. Densities may be represented relative to certain substances, e.g., #$SaltWaterDensity, #$FreshWaterDensity, #$DenseAsOil. Densities of objects are reported using the predicate #$densityOfObject.>, guid = "bd589819-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Density rel isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; Dentist ismem Class; Dentist has label = "dental practitioners", comment = <The collection of doctors that are trained with diagnosing and treating diseases of the gums and teeth.>, guid = "bd58df82-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dentist rel isu MedicalSpecialtyType, iss MedicalCareProfessional; Depositing ismem Class; Depositing has label = "deposition processes", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of #$Depositing, a gas is cooled to (or its pressure lowered to) the point where the gas molecules solidify into a solid.>, guid = "bfe97da9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Depositing rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss PhysicalStateChangeEvent; DerivedNumericAttributeType ismem Class; DerivedNumericAttributeType has label = "derived numeric attribute type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$DerivedNumericAttributeType is a collection of measurable attributes that are measured in complex units, including #$Volume, #$Area, #$Acceleration, etc. The types of attributes in #$DerivedNumericAttributeType are `derived&apos; from other, fundamental attributes (such as #$Distance and #$Mass) which are measured in simple units. Cf. #$FundamentalNumericAttributeType.>, guid = "bd58dae0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DerivedNumericAttributeType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss MeasurableAttributeType, xor FundamentalNumericAttributeType; DesertClimateCycle ismem Class; DesertClimateCycle has label = "desert climates", comment = <The attribute of having a desert climate. Wide termperature extremes from very hot in day to cold at night. Very little precipitation on a year-long basis, although there may be desert storms.>, guid = "bd589427-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DesertClimateCycle rel isu ClimateCycleType, iss TemperateClimateCycle; DeskWorker ismem Class; DeskWorker has label = "office clerks", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. This is a general category of workers that generally sit at desks, as opposed to those who do factory work or outside work, etc. Subsets include #$Administrator, #$ComputerOperator, and #$Secretary.>, guid = "bd58ab18-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeskWorker rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; DestructionEvent ismem Class; DestructionEvent has label = "destruction events", comment = <A collection of events. In each element of #$DestructionEvent, at least one instance of #$Entity (the #$inputsDestroyed) ceases to exist.>, guid = "bd58f920-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DestructionEvent rel ismem Class, iss CreationOrDestructionEvent; Device-SingleUser ismem Class; Device-SingleUser has label = "single-user devices", comment = <A collection of devices. One can classify devices according to how many simultaneous users they typically have. An instance of #$Device-SingleUser is any device that typically has/requires exactly one (i.e., one and only one) user. A screwdriver (an instance of #$Screwdriver) is a #$Device-SingleUser, but a grand piano (an instance of #$GrandPiano) is not. A borderline non-example is a car --- although only one person operates it, several can `use&apos; it at once, i.e. derive the value of its primary function which is transportation. So a car is not a #$Device-SingleUser. A borderline example is a telephone -- although it requires two or more users (each on telephones) for meaningful use, each phone generally has just one user at a time. So a telephone is a #$Device-SingleUser but a telephone-circuit is not.>, guid = "c10093ce-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Device-SingleUser rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; Device-UserPowered ismem Class; Device-UserPowered has label = "user-powered devices", comment = <An #$Artifact which has been deliberately designed to perform a particular function, and which depends upon the physical efforts of the user to perform that function in part or in whole. A paradigm example would be a bicycle. However, the definition also leaves room for some counterintuitive cases--combs and forks are also user-powered devices, on this analysis. Borderline cases would be devices which require effort on the part of the user to perform part of the function but not all of it. For example, many gas-powered lawnmowers have to be pushed by hand, but use an internal combustion engine to impart the necessary velocity to the cutting surfaces.>, guid = "bd5894f7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Device-UserPowered rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MusclePoweredDevice; DeviceRunning ismem Class; DeviceRunning has label = "device-running events", comment = <A collection of events. An instance of #$DeviceRunning is an event in which some device is running. This collection includes events which are complete cycles of a device&apos;s normal function (see #$SingleCompleteRunOfADevice) as well as random time slices (#$timeSlices) of them running. Examples include instances of the collections #$AirplaneTakeOff, #$SkateBoarding, #$OffRoadMotorcycleRiding, etc. Some stranger examples --- which are not instances of #$SingleCompleteRunOfADevice --- include: all the the ignition phases of the firing of my Honda&apos;s engine during November of 1996; my TV when it was on and showing a commercial this year; my TV when it was on and I was watching it this week.>, guid = "bd589045-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeviceRunning rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss PhysicalEvent; DeviceState ismem Class; DeviceState has label = "device state", comment = <A collection of states that devices can be in, including: #$DeviceOn, #$DeviceOff, #$RecordingStates, #$CockedState, #$Folded, #$OffHook, #$Unlocked, and many others.>, guid = "bd590b25-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DeviceState rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, iss AttributeValue; Dexterity ismem Class; Dexterity has label = "dexterous", comment = <#$Dexterity is the #$ScriptPerformanceAttributeType for describing actions in which the performer&apos;s hands move accurately, quickly, and with economy of motion.>, guid = "bd58ae64-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dexterity rel isu ScriptPerformanceAttributeType, iss ScriptPerformanceAttribute; DiagnosingAndRepairingSomething ismem Class; DiagnosingAndRepairingSomething has label = "diagnosing and repairing something", comment = <The collection of all actions of diagnosing and repairing something, in a very broad sense. Such events can range from fixing a #$PhysicalDevice (e.g., the last time you took your car in to be fixed), to killing pests that infest a place. All such actions involve an intrinsic change in the thing which undergoes repairs. Notice that a diagnosis action alone, or a repair action alone, would not be elements of this collection; they could be #$subEvents of an element of this collection.>, guid = "bd58ab98-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DiagnosingAndRepairingSomething rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, iss HumanActivity; DietaryDeficiencyCondition ismem Class; DietaryDeficiencyCondition has label = "dietary deficiency conditions", comment = <The collection of physiological conditions brought on by consuming less of a nutrient than the body requires.>, guid = "c0fd5773-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DietaryDeficiencyCondition rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss Malnutrition; DigestionEvent ismem Class; DigestionEvent has label = "digestion event", comment = <A collection of events. For most animals, a #$DigestionEvent starts at the mouth and, for most vertebrates, ends at the anus. This concept should not be confused with #$DigestingInStomach, whose instances occur only in an organism&apos;s #$Stomach. A #$DigestionEvent spans the whole #$DigestiveSystem, from start to finish.--Nichols, June 23, 1997>, guid = "bd588d98-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DigestionEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss SingleDoerAction, iss BiologicalDecompositionEvent, iss BiologicalTransportationEvent; DigestiveSystem ismem Class; DigestiveSystem has label = "digestive systems", comment = <The collection of all animals&apos; digestive systems. A #$DigestiveSystem is a system of organs and other body parts (typically of #$Vertebrates) which work together to accomplish the digestion function.>, guid = "bd58b41a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DigestiveSystem rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss ConnectedPathSystem, iss BiologicalLivingObject, iss AnimalBodyPart; DimensionlessUnitOfMeasure ismem Class; DimensionlessUnitOfMeasure has label = "dimensionless units of measure", comment = <A subset of #$UnitOfMeasure. #$DimensionlessUnitOfMeasure is the collection of measurement functions whose results are elements of #$ScalarInterval which have no dimension; i.e., they are simply numbers, instances of #$IntervalOnNumberLine. Examples include #$Percent, #$Unity, #$Per1000. (#$Percent 50) returns the point-interval, one-half (0.5). (#$Unity 3 4) returns the interval that is the range of numbers between 3 and 4, inclusive.>, guid = "bd58842e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DimensionlessUnitOfMeasure rel isu InterconvertibleUnitType, ismem CoreConstant, iss UnitOfMeasure; DirectedAcyclicGraph ismem Class; DirectedAcyclicGraph has label = "Directed Acyclic Graph", comment = <The collection of all those #$DirectedGraphs (node-and-link structures in which each link has one direction) each of which has no directed cycle in it. This is the intersection of #$DirectedGraph and #$DirectedAcyclicPathSystem (which is the same as the intersection of #$SimpleGraph-GraphTheoretic and #$DirectedAcyclicPathSystem). A #$DirectedAcyclicGraph is often used as a representation of a #$PartialOrdering.>, guid = "bed5ca59-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DirectedAcyclicGraph rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss DirectedAcyclicPathSystem, iss DirectedGraph; DirectedAcyclicPathSystem ismem Class; DirectedAcyclicPathSystem has label = "directed acyclic path system", comment = <The collection of all #$DirectedPathSystems each of which has no directed cycle in it (see #$directedCycleInSystem). Note that each instance of #$DirectedAcyclicPathSystem has no loops in it, though it may have a (undirected) graph cycle in it.>, guid = "bdd9cff1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DirectedAcyclicPathSystem rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss DirectedPathSystem; DirectedGraph ismem Class; DirectedGraph has label = "directed graph", comment = <The collection of all directed simple graphs, i.e., node-and-link structure in which every link has one direction and no multiple links (between a pair of nodes) or loops are allowed, as studied in graph theory. This is the intersection of #$SimpleGraph-GraphTheoretic and #$DirectedMultigraph, which is the same as the intersection of #$SimpleGraph-GraphTheoretic and #$DirectedPathSystem.>, guid = "beb3df26-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DirectedGraph rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss DirectedMultigraph, iss SimpleGraph-GraphTheoretic; DirectedMultigraph ismem Class; DirectedMultigraph has label = "directed multigraph", comment = <The collection of all directed multigraphs, i.e., node-and-link structures in which every link has one direction. There can be loops and multiple links between a pair of nodes. These are studied in graph theory. In Cyc, this is the intersection of #$Multigraph and #$DirectedPathSystem.>, guid = "c0ba0c32-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DirectedMultigraph rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss DirectedPathSystem, iss Multigraph; DirectedPathSystem ismem Class; DirectedPathSystem has label = "directed path system", comment = <An instance of #$PathSystemType-Structural and a subcollection of #$Semi-DirectedPathSystem. Each instance of #$DirectedPathSystem is a path system SYS in which every link LINK is given exactly one direction (specified by (#$linkFromToInSystem LINK X Y SYS), (#$PathFromFn LINK SYS), or (#$PathToFn LINK SYS)). Note that only when a semi-directed path system is also a directed path system should we use the functions #$PathFromFn and #$PathToFn.>, guid = "c0a745ca-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DirectedPathSystem rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss Semi-DirectedPathSystem, xor BidirectedPathSystem; DirectedTranslation ismem Class; DirectedTranslation has label = "directed movements", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$Movement-TranslationEvent. Each instance of #$DirectedTranslation is a movement event that is #$performedBy an #$Agent --- that agent intends for the #$objectMoving to reach a particular #$target. Examples: William Tell shooting the apple off his son&apos;s head, John Wilkes Booth shooting Abraham Lincoln, the last time you tossed a frisbee to someone, a pilot landing an airplane, and a skiier skiing one run of the downhill course.>, guid = "bdb6c421-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DirectedTranslation rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss ControllingSomething, iss CausingAnotherObjectsTranslationalMotion; DirectionExpression ismem Class; DirectionExpression has label = "direction expression", comment = <A collection of vectors; a subset of #$UnitVectorInterval. Each element of #$DirectionExpression is a vector representing a direction. Typically these expressions are used to indicate direction between two objects or locations. An important subset of this collection is #$GeographicalDirection; e.g., #$South-Directly, #$NorthWest-Directly.>, guid = "bd58dff3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DirectionExpression rel ismem Class, iss UnitVectorInterval; Dirtiness ismem Class; Dirtiness has label = "dirtiness", comment = <A collection of attributes. Dirtiness is a measurable attribute that many tangible objects have. Each element of the collection #$Dirtiness represents a specific level of dirtiness (or cleanliness!); e.g., #$Dirty, #$ReallyDirty, #$ALittleDirty, #$Clean, #$Sterile. Indicate a particular object&apos;s #$Dirtiness with the predicate #$dirtinessOfObject.>, guid = "bd58d42d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dirtiness rel iss ScalarInterval; Disappointment ismem Class; Disappointment has label = "letdowns", comment = <The emotion or state of feeling defeated in expectation or hope. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "bd58b543-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Disappointment rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Dissatisfaction, iss Surprise, iss Sadness; Disapproval ismem Class; Disapproval has label = "disapproving", comment = <The emotion or state of disapproving of something; a negative attitude towards some situation, proposal, person, or thing, implying a judgment based on explicit or implicit standards (rational, moral, pragmatic, or etc.). This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. More specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Disapproval are #$Contempt, #$Hate, #$Abhorrence, etc. More subtly, it is often true that feelings of #$Jealousy or #$Envy manifest in superficial shows of #$Disapproval. #$Disapproval is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "be00ca70-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Disapproval rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; DisasterEvent ismem Class; DisasterEvent has label = "disasters", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$DisasterEvent, a large group of people (or, in decreasing order of likelihood of usage of this concept, a large group of animals, plants, corporations, etc.) are at very high risk of injury or property damage, or in which a lot of injury and property damage occurs even though the risk was low.>, guid = "c0fd58cc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DisasterEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss DestructionEvent; Disgust ismem Class; Disgust has label = "disgust", comment = <A feeling of repulsion or aversion towards something considered distasteful or repugnant. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Disgust include feelings of #$Abhorrence.>, guid = "bd58b1cd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Disgust rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Dislike; DisjointSetOrCollection ismem Class; DisjointSetOrCollection has label = "disjoint set or collection", comment = <A collection of mathematical sets and collections the members of which are themselves mathematical sets or collections. A set or collection, SETORCOL, of sets or collections is an instance of #$DisjointSetOrCollection just in case the elements of SETORCOL are mutually disjoint -- that is, no two elements of SETORCOL have any elements in common.>, guid = "be13fa12-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DisjointSetOrCollection rel ismem Class; Disk3DShaped isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; Disk3DShaped has label = "disk 3 d shaped", comment = <#$Disk3DShaped is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all three dimensional cylindrical objects whose height is considerably less than its radius. A coin would be an example. Objects having this attribute may often be considered as two-dimensional for the purposes of practical reasoning.>, guid = "bdd82721-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dislike ismem Class; Dislike has label = "dislikes", comment = <A feeling of disaffection or disaffinity for a person or thing. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Dislike are #$Disgust, #$Contempt, #$Hate, #$Resentment, etc.>, guid = "bd58a553-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dislike rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; DisputeEvent ismem Class; DisputeEvent has label = "disputes", comment = <A collection of events with multiple participants. In each #$DisputeEvent, some participants seek to achieve states of affairs that other participants seek to prevent. Disputes may or may not get settled. Settlement of a dispute may be by fighting, by competition, by using a mediator or court, by chance, by mutual reasoning, etc.>, guid = "bd58f3d7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DisputeEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss HostileSocialAction; Dissatisfaction ismem Class; Dissatisfaction has label = "dissatisfaction", comment = <Feeling of discontent, due to a lack of fulfillment of an agent&apos;s desires, needs, or requirements. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Dissatisfaction are #$Disappointment, #$Frustration, #$Impatience, #$Anger, etc. >, guid = "bd58a58e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dissatisfaction rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Dissolving ismem Class; Dissolving has label = "dissolving events", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of this collection, a solvent and a solute mix to form a solution.>, guid = "be0116b0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dissolving rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType; Distance ismem Class; Distance has label = "distances", comment = <A collection of physical attributes. Each element of #$Distance is the length of a path in space extending from one point to another. In some contexts, for example as in the argument 2 position of #$altitudeAboveSeaLevel, this distance includes directional information. In these contexts, elements can take on positive or negative values. Elements of #$Distance may be either a fixed interval, such as the height of the #$WashingtonMonumentInWashingtonDC or the altitude of the #$DeadSea, or a range, such as #$WithinAudibleDistance (see #$ScalarInterval for more explanation). See #$UnitOfDistance for the units used by Cyc to measure distances. See #$Distance-Absolute for measures of distance that necessarily do not include directional information, i.e. are always non-negative.>, guid = "bd58809a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Distance rel isu FundamentalNumericAttributeType, iss PhysicalAttribute, iss ScalarInterval; DistributingMetaKnowledgePredicate ismem Class; DistributingMetaKnowledgePredicate has label = "distributing meta knowledge predicate", comment = <This collection is a subset of #$MetaKnowledgePredicate, instances over multiple assertions resulting from the polycanonicalization of an assertion. Suppose one asserts (dist-mk-predicate arg1 arg2) and arg1 polycanonicalizes into assertion-1 and assertion-2, then because (isa dist-mk-pred #$DistributingMetaKnowledgePredicate) the kb will be modified to include both (dist-mk-pred assertion-1 arg2) and (dist-mk-pred assertion-2 arg2). NOTE: The constant name might suggest that these predicates are predicates about knowing, but this is not the sense in which &apos;MetaKnowledge&apos; is here intended.>, guid = "c0ab9eda-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DistributingMetaKnowledgePredicate rel ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss MetaKnowledgePredicate; DistributionEvent ismem Class; DistributionEvent has label = "distributions", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$DistributionEvent is an event in which tangible or intangible objects are distributed from a source to various destinations via some distribution network.>, guid = "bd58fd6b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DistributionEvent rel ismem Class, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss GeneralizedTransfer, iss TransferOut, iss PurposefulAction, iss ActionOnObject; Dock ismem Class; Dock has label = "docks", comment = <The collection of long flat walkways that jut out over water from shorelines. A Dock&apos;s main function is to provide a place to secure boats and to provide a place where passengers and cargo can be loaded and unloaded.>, guid = "be0112f2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dock rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss OutdoorLocation; Doctor-Medical ismem Class; Doctor-Medical has label = "doctors", comment = <The collection of all medical doctors - MDs and Osteopaths.>, guid = "bd58eb55-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Doctor-Medical rel isu OccupationType, isu MedicalSpecialtyType, iss Scientist, iss Prescriber; DocumentationConstant ismem Class; DocumentationConstant has label = "documentation constant", comment = <A constant whose purpose involves facilitating Cyclists in their understanding of the system, tracking work being done, noting cleanup work to be done, etc. Such a constant usually is not involved in inference. Instances may be excluded from knowledge bases in which available memory is a premium without affecting the performance of applications.>, guid = "bd5c5e99-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DocumentationConstant rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, iss sentence; DocumentationPredicate ismem Class; DocumentationPredicate has label = "documentation predicate", comment = <The predicates in the system used for facilitating #$Cyclists in their understanding of the system, tracking work being done, noting cleanup work to be done, etc. Such a constant usually is not involved in inference. Instances may be excluded from knowledge bases in which available memory is a premium without affecting the performance of applications. #$DocumentationPredicate is used in code to determine which documentation to show to the user when they request to see documentation for a FORT.>, guid = "be1f1654-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DocumentationPredicate rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, iss DocumentationConstant, iss Predicate; Dog ismem Class; Dog has label = "dogs", comment = <The collection of all dogs of all breeds. Elements of #$Dog may be members of #$DomesticPet or of #$WildAnimal; e.g., #$Dog includes the dingo dogs of #$Australia. However, #$Dog excludes the members of #$Wolf, #$Fox, and the other non-dog subsets of #$CanineAnimal. #$Dog is an instance of #$BiologicalSpecies, Canis familiaris.>, guid = "bd58daa0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dog rel isu OrganismClassificationType, isu BiologicalSpecies, isu BiologicalTaxon, iss DomesticatedAnimal; DomesticPet ismem Class; DomesticPet has label = "pets", comment = <The subset of #$DomesticatedAnimal whose elements are animals kept by humans primarily for their companionship. (They may, however, do some chores such as catching mice.) Many members of #$DomesticPet live in the homes of their owners.>, guid = "bd590532-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DomesticPet rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss HumanOccupationConstructResident, iss DomesticatedAnimal, iss PortableObject; DomesticatedAnimal ismem Class; DomesticatedAnimal has label = "domesticated animals", comment = <A subset of #$Animal; the collection of all animals which are kept by humans for labor, transportation, food, or as pets, and whose relations with humans are more or less cooperative. #$DomesticatedAnimal does NOT include instances of #$Tiger being kept in zoos, though it arguably includes Shamu or Flipper. Cf. #$WildAnimal, #$CaptiveAnimal.>, guid = "c10c22cd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DomesticatedAnimal rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, xor WildAnimal; DomesticatedAnimalFood ismem Class; DomesticatedAnimalFood has label = "domesticated animal food", comment = <A collection of tangible stuff; a subset of #$TangibleProduct. Each element of #$DomesticatedAnimalFood is a foodstuff produced by human beings and intended for consumption by domesticated animals. This collection includes feed manufactured for horses, cattle, chickens, and other farm animals, as well as `pet foods&apos;.>, guid = "bd588c3b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DomesticatedAnimalFood rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType; Doorway ismem Class; Doorway has label = "doorways", comment = <A collection of portals. Each element of #$Doorway is a portal in some instance of #$ShelterConstruction, suitable for people (and perhaps vehicles) to enter and exit. For example, doorways to houses, office buildings, elevators, automobiles, airplanes, garages, etc.>, guid = "bd58f914-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Doorway rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Portal, iss Artifact; DoorwayCovering ismem Class; DoorwayCovering has label = "doors", comment = <A collection of tangible objects. Each element of #$DoorwayCovering is a physical object used to cover some kind of portal, including but not limited to doorways in buildings. This collection also includes doors of cars, buses, subways, elevators, garages, airplane hangars--coverings over any doors that people (and perhaps vehicles) pass through.>, guid = "bd5899ff-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DoorwayCovering rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss PortalCovering; Down-Directly isu UnitVector-Precise; Down-Directly has label = "down - directly", comment = <The direction straight down. In the terrestrial context, #$Down-Directly points in the same direction as Earth&apos;s gravitational force vector.>, guid = "bd5889eb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Down-Generally isu TerrestrialDirection; Down-Generally has label = "downward", comment = <The element of #$VectorInterval that comprises the cone-shaped set of vectors pointing (from some reference point) within approximately forty-five degrees of #$Down-Directly.>, guid = "bd58a496-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dress ismem Class; Dress has label = "dresses", comment = <The collection of all dresses, a kind of women&apos;s clothing>, guid = "bd58b437-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dress rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss WomensClothing; Drink ismem Class; Drink has label = "beverages", comment = <The collection of drinkable substances; a collection of edible stuff and a subset of #$FoodAndDrink. Each element of the collection #$Drink is a liquid of a type that is ingestible and commonly consumed by humans or animals. Drinks are ingested without chewing. Examples of #$Drink include all elements of the collections #$Water-Ingestible, #$Tea-Hot, #$HotChocolate, #$Lemonade, #$Beer. . By default they are liquids. Borderline examples include a thick milkshake or soup, even if there are solid objects suspended in it. Thus #$LiquidTangibleThing is not necessarily (monotonically) a #$genls of #$Drink, though it is true by default that a #$Drink be an instance of #$LiquidTangibleThing. I.e., by default, elements of #$Drink are in a #$LiquidStateOfMatter. Another borderline example of a #$Drink is a glassful of poison or urine; it may be unpalatable or unsafe to drink a #$Drink. Note that the #$Drink includes the portion of liquid, but not the container such as the glass or coffee cup or bowl. So one borderline non-example is a glass of water -- as opposed to a glassful of water; the former includes the glass, the latter doesn&apos;t. Other borderline non-examples include: an ice cube, a grape sno-cone, a scoop of ice cream with hot fudge sauce on it, and a tiny bit of liquid such as a single raindrop even if it enters one&apos;s mouth.>, guid = "bd58f408-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Drink rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss LiquidTangibleThing, iss FoodAndDrink, xor Food; DrinkingEvent ismem Class; DrinkingEvent has label = "drink", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of this collection, a single individual consumes a portion of some drink. A #$DrinkingEvent typically consists of several instances of #$DrinkingASip. See #$EatingEvent.>, guid = "bd58eeee-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DrinkingEvent rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss ConsumingFoodOrDrink; DrugPrescription ismem Class; DrugPrescription has label = "prescriptions", comment = <The legal document in which a doctor authorizes a patient to purchase a certain amount of a drug and take it according to some specified schedule.>, guid = "c0fd5806-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DrugPrescription rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss OfficialDocument; DrugProduct ismem Class; DrugProduct has label = "medications", comment = <The collection of all drugs produced to be products. The collection includes instances of drugs prescribed by a physician, purchased as over-the-counter medicines, or used for recreational purposes (#$AlcoholicBeverage, #$Nicotine, #$Caffeine, or illicit #$DrugProducts). Note, that this is a #$Product (intentionally created or used) not merely a #$ChemicalCompoundType. Thus salt #$Water would not be a subset of #$DrugProduct, even though saline solution would be.>, guid = "bd58aef7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DrugProduct rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss ConsumableProduct, iss DrugSubstance, iss Artifact; DrugSubstance ismem Class; DrugSubstance has label = "drugs", comment = <The class of substances that can be introduced into organism&apos;s bodies to produce certain physiological effects. Includes both stuffs and objects made and/or marketed as #$DrugProducts, as well as naturally-occurring stuffs and objects that have physiological effects.>, guid = "bfc1633e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DrugSubstance rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PartiallyTangible; DrugTherapy ismem Class; DrugTherapy has label = "drug therapies", comment = <A collection of medical care events in which drugs accomplish a medical purpose. An instance of #$DrugTherapy is the result of an instance of #$AdministeringADrug (q.v.). An instance of #$DrugTherapy is the event of the patient&apos;s body undergoing the physiological effects of the drug it was given. Note: #$DrugTherapy events do not include the administration of the drug; rather, they are the results of such administrations. Cf. #$AdministeringADrug.>, guid = "c0fd5e28-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DrugTherapy rel ismem Class, iss MedicalTreatmentEvent; DryTropicalForest isu TerrainAttribute; DryTropicalForest has label = "dry tropical forest", comment = <Instances are areas of semi-deciduous forest growing in semi-arid areas of South America and the Indian subcontinent. Rainfall in these areas usually averages less than 250mm per annum. Thorny scrub and low- to medium-sized trees with thick bark and deep roots characterize the vegetation. Source: The Times Atlas of the World (1995).>, guid = "bff695f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; DryTropicalScrubAndThornRegion isu TerrainAttribute; DryTropicalScrubAndThornRegion has label = "dry tropical scrub and thorn region", comment = <Attribute of areas of low-growing, widely spaced shrubs, bushes, and succulents, found in extensive areas of Central and South America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. Source: The Times Atlas of the World (1995).>, guid = "bd813f73-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Drying ismem Class; Drying has label = "dry", comment = <A collection of events in which involves a reduction in the moistness of something -- either its water content or its surface wetness -- by evaporation, absorption (e.g. with towels), or some other process. Typical objects of a #$Drying event include instances of: paint, food, dishes, clothes, humans. The event of a clothes dryer running is a #$Drying.>, guid = "bd58d388-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Drying rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, iss PhysicalEvent; Dualist-Physical-AndGenericGeographyMtNote isu SharedNote; Dualist-Physical-AndGenericGeographyMtNote has label = "dualist - physical - and generic geography mt note", comment = <#$GeographicalAgents (#$Country, #$City, #$Neighborhood, ...) are #$Agents which can be considered to have a specific territorial expanse. In some cases, it is useful to consider the territory and the agent to be different entities, while in others it is useful to use the agent as a referent for the territory. CYC allows for both of these interpretations, in different contexts. In a physical geography microtheory (#$PhysicalGeographyMt and its submicrotheories) #$Agents are disjoint from places and &apos;(#$TerritoryFn &lt;#$Agent&gt;)&apos; is used to specify the territory. In &apos;dualist&apos; microtheories (submicrotheories of #$DualistGeopoliticalMt) the elements of #$GeopoliticalEntity and #$GeographicalAgent are both #$Agents and #$GeographicalRegions. These microtheories need not reify the #$physicalExtent of the entity, but just state geographic aspects directly about the agent/region combination. Generic geography microtheories (e.g. #$WorldGeographyMt and #$UnitedStatesGeographyMt) are used for assertions that do not require the specification of whether or not a #$GeographicalAgent is to be treated as a #$GeographicalRegion. For example, state (#$geopoliticalSubdivisions COUNTRY CITY) or (#$surroundsHorizontally #$AtlanticOcean #$Iceland-TheIsland) in a generic geography microtheory, (#$bordersOn #$Mali #$Niger) in a &apos;dualist&apos; microtheory, and (#$isa #$WallisAndFutunaIslands #$Archipelago) in a physical geography microtheory if it is being defined as a colony in a dualist microthory.>, guid = "c06f6ab5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ductility ismem Class; Ductility has label = "ductilities", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Ductility describes a specific capacity of a physical material to be stretched, drawn, or hammered thin without breaking. Different degrees of ductility may be represented using a #$GenericValueFunction. Ductilities of objects are indicated with the predicate #$ductilityOfObject.>, guid = "bd589773-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ductility rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, isu MaterialStrengthType, iss ScalarInterval; Dusk ismem Class; Dusk has label = "dusks", comment = <Each #$Dusk is a dimly-lit period of time which is #$contiguousAfter a #$Sunset, and is the #$Event which starts a #$Night.>, guid = "be010707-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dusk rel ismem Class, isu TemporalObjectType, iss Twilight, xor Dawn; Dying ismem Class; Dying has label = "deaths", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$Dying is an event in which a living organism (i.e., an instance of #$Organism-Whole) ceases to live and thus ceases to exist. The physical portion of the organism may remain, but that is not considered an instance of #$Organism-Whole (cf. #$DeadAnimal). Note that the expiring animal is related to its dying event by #$bodilyDoer (q.v.)--in contrast to the role an organism plays when it is the #$objectActedOn in a #$Killing-Biological event (which will have some #$Dying event among its #$subEvents), and cf. #$bodilyActedOn.>, guid = "bd590953-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Dying rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss SingleDoerAction, iss BiologicalEvent, xor PurposefulAction; ELAssertion ismem Class; ELAssertion has label = "e l assertion", comment = <The collection of assertions in the EL language. When EL assertions are presented to the KB, the #$CycCanonicalizer transforms them into #$HLAssertions.>, guid = "c12ed6da-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELAssertion rel ismem CoreConstant, iss ELSentence-Assertible, iss ELSentence, iss CycLAssertion, xor HLAssertion; ELExpression ismem Class; ELExpression has label = "e l expression", comment = <The collection of all syntactically well-formed expressions in the EL language. All of their subexpressions, if any, must also be in the EL language.>, guid = "c0e1b69a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELExpression rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression; ELExpression-Askable ismem Class; ELExpression-Askable has label = "e l expression - askable", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically well-formed #$ELExpressions which obey arity constraints, but but do not necessarily obey other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints). The name &apos;Askable&apos; derives from #$ELSentence-Askable, but instances of #$ELExpression-Askable are not necessarily askable as a query (after being converted to HL form by the #$CycCanonicalizer) unless they are also instances of #$ELSentence-Askable. See #$CycLQuery for more details.>, guid = "c06a5e56-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELExpression-Askable rel ismem CoreConstant, iss ELExpression, iss CycLExpression-Askable; ELExpression-Assertible ismem Class; ELExpression-Assertible has label = "e l expression - assertible", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically and semantically well-formed #$ELExpressions. The name &apos;Assertible&apos; derives from #$ELSentence-Assertible, but instances of #$ELExpression-Assertible are not necessarily assertible into the KB (after being converted to HL form by the #$CycCanonicalizer) unless they are also instances of #$ELSentence-Assertible.>, guid = "bf51a8d8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELExpression-Assertible rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression-Assertible, iss ELExpression-Askable, iss ELExpression; ELFormula ismem Class; ELFormula has label = "ELF", comment = <The collection of expressions in the EL language which involve the application of a relation to some arguments.>, guid = "be88bb87-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELFormula rel ismem CoreConstant, iss ELExpression, iss CycLFormula, xor HLReifiedFormula; ELNonAtomicTerm ismem Class; ELNonAtomicTerm has label = "NAUT", comment = <The collection of non-atomic denotational terms in the EL language. Each instance of #$ELNonAtomicTerm has as its functor either an instance of #$Function-Denotational or a function-denoting function. Also it optionally has other EL terms as additional arguments. If the functor is an instance of #$ReifiableFunction, an #$ELNonAtomicTerm can be reified, whereupon it becomes an #$HLNonAtomicReifiedTerm, or &apos;NART&apos;.>, guid = "bfbd3230-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELNonAtomicTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss CycLFormula, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm, iss ELFormula, xor HLNonAtomicReifiedTerm; ELNonAtomicTerm-Askable ismem Class; ELNonAtomicTerm-Askable has label = "e l non atomic term - askable", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically well-formed non-atomic terms in the EL language which obey arity constraints, but but do not necessarily obey other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints). These terms &apos;make enough sense&apos; to be used as part of a query, after being converted into HL form by the #$CycCanonicalizer. Just because a term is &apos;askable&apos; does not require it to be used in a query, and denotational terms are not askable themselves. Each instance of this collection involves a #$Function-Denotational applied to some number of arguments, as permitted by the arity of the relation. See #$CycLQuery for more details.>, guid = "bf05e356-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELNonAtomicTerm-Askable rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm-Askable, iss ELNonAtomicTerm, iss ELExpression-Askable; ELNonAtomicTerm-Assertible ismem Class; ELNonAtomicTerm-Assertible has label = "e l non atomic term - assertible", comment = <The collection of syntactically and semantically well-formed non-atomic terms in the EL language. These sentences meet the criteria necessary to be part of an assertion into the Cyc KB, after being converted into HL form by the #$CycCanonicalizer. Instances of this collection are not themselves assertible. Just because a non-atomic term is assertible does not require it to be used in an assertion. Each instance of this collection involves a #$Function-Denotational applied to some number of arguments, as permitted by the arity of the logical relation. For a thorough discussion of what constitutes a well-formed CycL formula, see the Cyc documentation.>, guid = "bf7697ce-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELNonAtomicTerm-Assertible rel ismem CoreConstant, iss ELNonAtomicTerm, iss ELExpression-Assertible, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm-Assertible, iss ELNonAtomicTerm-Askable; ELReifiableDenotationalTerm ismem Class; ELReifiableDenotationalTerm has label = "e l reifiable denotational term", guid = "c12bcd6c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELReifiableDenotationalTerm rel ismem CoreConstant; ELRelation ismem Class; ELRelation has label = "e l relation", comment = <A subset of #$Relation such that instances are only permitted at the EL; that is, the canonicalizer will transform expressions that reference instances of #$ELRelation into equivalent expressions that do not reference instances of #$ELRelation; this transformation is guided by the value (arg2) of #$expansion for each #$ELRelation>, guid = "c09a6e2f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType; ELSentence ismem Class; ELSentence has label = "e l sentence", comment = <The collection of syntactically well-formed sentences, also called &apos;logical formulas&apos;, in the EL language. Each instance of #$ELSentence involves a logical relation (a #$Predicate or #$TruthFunction) applied to some arguments. #$ELSentences do not necessarily obey arity constraints or other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints).>, guid = "bea72250-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELSentence rel ismem CoreConstant, iss ELFormula, iss CycLSentence, xor HLAssertion; ELSentence-Askable ismem Class; ELSentence-Askable has label = "e l sentence - askable", comment = <The subcollection of syntactically well-formed sentences in the EL language which obey arity constraints, but but do not necessarily obey other semantic constraints (e.g. argument type constraints). These sentences &apos;make enough sense&apos; to be asked as a query, after being converted into HL form by the #$CycCanonicalizer. Of course, just because a sentence is askable does not require it to be used in a query. Each instance of this collection involves a logical relation (a #$Predicate or #$TruthFunction) applied to some number of arguments, as permitted by the arity of the relation. Note that an instance of #$ELSentence-Askable does not mean that the sentence must be used in a query; only that it can be used in a query. See #$CycLQuery for more details.>, guid = "bf581c53-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELSentence-Askable rel ismem CoreConstant, ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss CycLSentence, iss CycLSentence-Askable, iss ELSentence, iss ELExpression-Askable; ELSentence-Assertible ismem Class; ELSentence-Assertible has label = "CycL formulas", comment = <The collection of syntactically and semantically well-formed sentences in the EL language. These sentences meet the criteria necessary to be asserted into the Cyc KB, after being transformed into #$HLAssertions by the #$CycCanonicalizer. Of course, just because a sentence is assertible does not require it to be used in an assertion. Each instance of this collection involves a logical relation (a #$Predicate or #$TruthFunction) applied to some number of arguments, as permitted by the arity of the logical relation. Example: (#$and (#$isa #$Pittman #$HumanCyclist) (#$residesInRegion #$Pittman #$CityOfAustinTX)). For a thorough discussion of what constitutes a well-formed CycL formula, see the Cyc documentation.>, guid = "bd58809e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELSentence-Assertible rel ismem Class, ismem LinguisticObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ELSentence, iss ELSentence-Askable, iss ELExpression-Assertible, iss CycLSentence-Assertible, iss sentence, iss LinguisticObject; ELSentenceTemplate ismem Class; ELSentenceTemplate has label = "EL formula template", comment = <The collection of expressions which are valid CycL formulas except that their EL variables are not canonicalized into HL variables.>, guid = "bf8471b3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELSentenceTemplate rel ismem CoreConstant, ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss AbstractInformationalThing, iss ComputationalObject, iss ELTemplate; ELTemplate ismem Class; ELTemplate has label = "e l template", comment = <The collection of expressions for which EL variables are not canonicalized into HL variables, #$ELRelations are not expanded, and functions are not reified.>, guid = "be923319-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELTemplate rel ismem CoreConstant, ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss sentence; ELVariable ismem Class; ELVariable has label = "EL variables", comment = <The collection of all variables in the EL language, such as ?WHAT or ?X.>, guid = "bd61ff36-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ELVariable rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss sentence, iss SubLSymbol, iss CycLVariable, iss ELExpression, iss SubLVariable, xor HLVariable; Ear ismem Class; Ear has label = "ears", comment = <The organ of hearing, which occur in pairs on most animals>, guid = "bd58cbd3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ear rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, isu SymmetricAnatomicalPartType, iss VibrationThroughAMediumSensor, iss AnimalBodyPart; EarthStuff ismem Class; EarthStuff has label = "earth stuff", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element in #$EarthStuff is a portion of the stuff that the ground of Earth (at or near its land surface) is made of, including rocks, boulders, sand grains, soil, mud, etc., and mixtures of those things (such as islands or whole continents). Examples: #$Australia, #$CapeCod, ZionHill, #$GreatSmokyMountains.>, guid = "c0fba244-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EarthStuff rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, xor Agent; East-Directly isu GeographicalDirection; East-Directly has label = "east - directly", comment = <Due East, an element of #$TerrestrialDirection.>, guid = "bd58f124-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; East-Generally isu GeographicalDirection; East-Generally has label = "East", comment = <The general direction of East. The element of #$VectorInterval that comprises the cone-shaped set of vectors pointing (from some reference point) within approximately forty-five degrees of #$East-Directly.>, guid = "bd58a558-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EatingEvent ismem Class; EatingEvent has label = "eating event", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$EatingEvent is an event which involves the consumption of a substantial portion of food by a single individual (human or other animal). An instance of #$EatingEvent is a meal or snack taken in its entirety; it is a series of individual #$EatingAMorsel events. Note: If a group of people gets together and eats lunch, that activity is represented by an instance of #$HavingAMeal; during that `super-event&apos; each participant engages in his/her own instance of #$EatingEvent, and all of those are #$subEvents of the #$HavingAMeal event.>, guid = "bd58d570-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EatingEvent rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss ConsumingFoodOrDrink; EcholocationPerception ismem Class; EcholocationPerception has label = "echolocations", comment = <#$EcholocationPerception is the collection of spatial #$Perceivings in which a #$PerceptualAgent (such as a bat or a submarine) generates sounds (potentially ultra- or sub- sonic in frequency), hears the sounds reflected from surfaces, and thereby acquires information about the position of other objects in its environment.>, guid = "bd58fd57-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EcholocationPerception rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Perceiving; EcologicalRegion ismem Class; EcologicalRegion has label = "ecological regions", comment = <A collection of geographical regions. Each element of #$EcologicalRegion is a region having one or more characteristic ecosystems. From knowledge of those ecosystems, we can posit whether certain organisms can forage, reproduce, and live successfully there. Information about ecological regions typically also includes what kinds of organisms are in fact found there. In theory, any arbitrary continuous region could be analyzed as an ecological region, but most regions identified in practice have some kind of sameness or systematic interconnection in their topology, climate, and biology. Examples: the #$WesternDesertOfEgypt, the #$GreatBarrierReef, the #$Amazon-Region.>, guid = "bd58ca27-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EcologicalRegion rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss GeographicalRegion; EdgeOnObject ismem Class; EdgeOnObject has label = "edges", comment = <The collection of all edges on objects that are instances of #$PartiallyTangible. For a two-dimensional object, its boundaries other than corners are it edges. For a three dimensional object the edges are the outer portions of those extremities, excluding any corners (#$Corner-2or3d), that are much more acute in cross section in one direction than in most other directions at the same point. Some objects, like spheres, hairs, poles and typical burrs, have no edges. A discus has one, round, edge has four edges. A mountain ridge might have only a single edge. A solid polyhedron has six or more edges.>, guid = "bd58f6db-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EdgeOnObject rel isu RegionType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartiallyTangible, iss EdgeOnObject-Generic; EdgeOnObject-Generic ismem Class; EdgeOnObject-Generic has label = "edge on object - generic", comment = <This is the collection of all edges on spatial objects, tangible or intangible. Edges define the boundaries of two-dimensional objects and the edges of the surface boundaries of three-dimensional objects. Corners define where one edge ends and another begins. See #$EdgeOnObject for a discussion of some examples of edges on physical objects.>, guid = "bf9014fc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EdgeOnObject-Generic rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Path-Simple, iss SpatialThing; EdibleStuff ismem Class; EdibleStuff has label = "edible things", comment = <A collection of partially tangible stuff which all normal instances of some spec of #$Organism-Whole can consume and successfully metabolize, with or without resulting harm to themselves, a significant portion of any instance of. This collection includes virtually all animal and vegetable matter and instances of #$OralDrug. It does not necessarily include things that are ingested but not metabolized, such as the stones that birds swallow to aid in digestion, or dirt, paint chips, and coins ingested by children. The function #$EdibleByFn is used to specify the collections of edible stuff that are ingestible by all normal instances of certain specs of #$Organism-Whole, including #$Person. Note that whether an edible substance *also* has a detrimental effect if eaten is a separate question. Something can be both edible and poisonous.>, guid = "bd5908ef-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EdibleStuff rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PartiallyTangible, iss ConsumableProduct, xor PhysicalDevice, xor Organization; EducationLevelAttribute ismem Class; EducationLevelAttribute has label = "educational levels", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each #$EducationLevelAttribute, when applied to a person, indicates their level of education or current involvement in a course of study; if applied to a course of study, it indicates the level of it. The very same attributes apply in both cases, though; some sample elements of this collection are: #$PhDLevel, #$TwelfthGradeLevel, #$BachelorOfArtsLevel, #$MedicalDegreeLevel, etc.>, guid = "bd58dc00-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EducationLevelAttribute rel isu SocialAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval, iss SocialStatusAttribute; EducationalDegree ismem Class; EducationalDegree has label = "degrees", comment = <A collection of abstract (intangible) objects which consist of information about an agent. Each element of #$EducationalDegree is a credential conferred, by some instance of #$EducationalOrganization, on a student who has successfully completed a prescribed course of study there. #$EducationalDegree includes high school, associate, baccalaureate, licensate, magisterial, professional, and doctoral degrees, etc.>, guid = "bd58a9fa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EducationalDegree rel isu ObjectType, iss Credential; EducationalOrganization ismem Class; EducationalOrganization has label = "schools", comment = <A collection of educational organizations. An element of #$EducationalOrganization may be a school, system of schools, college, seminary, etc., -- a place where teaching and/or training are programmed and provided as a service for students. An educational organization may be public or private. This collection includes #$AustinISD (i.e., the #$CityOfAustinTX Independent School District), #$StanfordUniversity, #$BrynMawrCollege, #$UniversityOfPennsylvaniaSchoolOfMedicine, and many other institutions.>, guid = "bd588d41-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EducationalOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, xor Pharmacy; Egypt isu Entity; Egypt has label = "Egypt", comment = <Egypt is an #$IndependentCountry in the northeast part of the #$ContinentOfAfrica; Egypt is east of #$Libya, north of the #$Sudan, south of the eastern #$MediterraneanSea and west of the #$RedSea. This constant includes Egypt throughout time, in both its political and physical aspects.>, guid = "bd589383-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Elasticity ismem Class; Elasticity has label = "elasticity", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Elasticity represents a specific ability of a physical material to quickly and completely return to its original shape after deformation that does not induce breakage, without permanent change to its original dimensions. For example, billiard balls have a high degree of elasticity in this sense. Elasticities of objects are indicated with the predicate #$elasticityOfObject.>, guid = "bd5884d1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Elasticity rel isu MaterialStrengthType, isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; ElectricalCharge ismem Class; ElectricalCharge has label = "electrical charges", comment = <A collection of physical attributes. Each element of #$ElectricalCharge is an amount of net electrical charge (positive or negative) possessed by a particular instance of #$PartiallyTangible. Elements of #$ElectricalCharge may be either a fixed interval, such as the charge on one electron, or a range, such as a usable charge on a flashlight battery; see #$ScalarInterval. Also see #$UnitOfCharge for the units used by Cyc to measure electrical charges.>, guid = "bd5905db-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectricalCharge rel isu FundamentalNumericAttributeType, isu PolarAttributeType, iss PhysicalAttribute, iss ScalarInterval; ElectricalComponent ismem Class; ElectricalComponent has label = "electrical components", comment = <A collection of electrical components. An instance of #$ElectricalComponent is an #$ElectricalDevice which is normally considered to be a part of some larger, more clearly distinguished #$PhysicalDevice (e.g., clearly distinguished in the sense that it is sold, moved, etc. as a unit). The #$ElectricalComponent must be connected with other parts in order to perform its #$primaryFunction.>, guid = "bd58d414-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectricalComponent rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss ElectricalDevice; ElectricalConductor ismem Class; ElectricalConductor has label = "electrical conductor", comment = <A collection of tangible things; a subset of #$PhysicalConductingMedia. Each element of #$ElectricalConductor is a physical thing that can conduct electricity; e.g., a power cord, an electrical plug, a piece of metal.>, guid = "bd588903-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectricalConductor rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PhysicalConductingMedia; ElectricalDevice ismem Class; ElectricalDevice has label = "electrical devices", comment = <A collection of physical devices; the most general collection of electrical devices. Such devices require an input of electrical current (as #$energySource) in order to perform their intended functions. Instances of #$ElectricalDevice include both complex devices (e.g., elements of the collections #$StereoSystem or #$Computer) and simpler ones (e.g., elements of #$ElectricalComponents). Note: in some contexts, crystal radios might be classified as inert (unpowered) electrical devices; the same for some sorts of passive radar detectors. These are exceptional cases, but still elements of this collection. In other contexts, the power for these devices can be viewed as being supplied from the outside, hence they are clearly `powered&apos; in such contexts.>, guid = "bd58d451-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectricalDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss PoweredDevice; ElectricalResistance ismem Class; ElectricalResistance has label = "electrical resistance", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$ElectricalResistance is an attribute which measures the resistance to electrical flow through an object. Examples: #$InsulatorResistance, #$ConductorResistance, #$SemiconductorResistance, #$SuperconductorResistance.>, guid = "bd589bb2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectricalResistance rel isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval, iss PhysicalAttribute; ElectroMagneticRadiationSensor ismem Class; ElectroMagneticRadiationSensor has label = "electromagnetic radiation sensors", comment = <A subset of #$Sensor, namely those sensors that detect #$ElectromagneticRadiation.>, guid = "bd589e97-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectroMagneticRadiationSensor rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Sensor; ElectromagneticRadiation ismem Class; ElectromagneticRadiation has label = "electromagnetic radiation", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$WavePropagation. Each element of #$ElectromagneticRadiation is an event that arises from the interaction of an electrical field and a magnetic field. Examples include the elements of the collections #$VisibleLight, #$RadioWaves, and #$XRays.>, guid = "c1009603-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectromagneticRadiation rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu WavePropagationType, isu TemporalStuffType, isu StuffType, iss WavePropagation; Electron ismem Class; Electron has label = "electrons", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$SubAtomicParticle. Every instance of #$Electron is a subatomic particle with an #$ElectricalCharge of -1.>, guid = "bd5881d3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Electron rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SubAtomicParticle; ElectronicDevice ismem Class; ElectronicDevice has label = "electronic devices", comment = <A collection of devices which use electronic circuitry. More specifically, any instance of #$ElectronicDevice in which electricity passes through a vacuum or semiconductor.>, guid = "bd589095-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElectronicDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss ElectricalDevice; ElementStuff ismem Class; ElementStuff has label = "chemical elements", comment = <A collection of tangible substances; a subset of #$TangibleThing. Every instance of #$ElementStuff is a piece of tangible stuff, composed of a quantity of atoms, all of which are of the same chemical element. That is, every atom in an individual piece of #$ElementStuff has the same number of protons in its atomic nucleus as does every other atom in that piece. For example, all pieces of carbon are instances of #$ElementStuff. All pieces of two of #$Carbon&apos;s subsets, #$Diamond and #$Graphite, also are instances of #$ElementStuff. On the other hand, instances of #$Water, because they are constituted of both (some) #$Hydrogen and (some) #$Oxygen atoms, do not belong to the collection #$ElementStuff.>, guid = "bd5908b9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElementStuff rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss InanimateThing; ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons ismem Class; ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons has label = "element stuff type by number of protons", comment = <A collection of collections. #$ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons partitions the collection #$ElementStuff. Each instance of #$ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons is a subset of #$ElementStuff which is defined ONLY by the atomic composition of its instances -- neither the isotopic composition or physical state of the substances, nor any other additional feature, determines membership in a collection which #$isa #$ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons. All that matters is that the instances of that type (i.e., collection) of stuff are entirely composed of atoms having a particular number of protons in each atomic nucleus. Thus, the collection #$Carbon is an instance of #$ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons, but neither the collection #$Diamond nor the collection #$Graphite is (even though they are subsets of #$Carbon), because their members have additional qualifications.>, guid = "bd590830-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ElementStuffTypeByNumberOfProtons rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss ChemicalCompoundType; Ellipsoidal isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; Ellipsoidal has label = "ellipsoidal", comment = <This instance of #$ShapeAttribute is held by all three dimensional objects such that the planar sections along its respective internal axes are #$Elliptical. In other words, the shape of objects with this attribute should be roughly describable by taking some two dimensional ellipse and rotating it around its major axis in three space. Note that #$Spherical is a specialization of this attribute.>, guid = "bfd0a066-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Elliptical isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; Elliptical has label = "elliptical", comment = <#$Elliptical is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all elliptical objects in virtue of being elliptical. Note that #$Circular is a specialization of this attribute, i.e. circular things are elliptical insofar as they are ellipses with eccentricity zero.>, guid = "bf6bfa19-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Embarrassment ismem Class; Embarrassment has label = "embarrassment", comment = <Mental disturbance and confusion at self-exposure. #$Embarrassment is often an impediment to freedom of thought, speech, or action. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. A more specialized #$FeelingAttributeType than #$Embarrassment is #$Shame.>, guid = "bd58c194-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Embarrassment rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Embassy-TheMission ismem Class; Embassy-TheMission has label = "embassies", comment = <The collection of all embassies, the official diplomatic representations of a country A in a foreign country B. Not to be confused with the buildings in which such offices are hosted. See #$Embassy-TheBuilding.>, guid = "bd59a62b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Embassy-TheMission rel isu ExistingObjectType; Embryo ismem Class; Embryo has label = "embryos", comment = <The collection of not yet fully-formed organisms, including mammals before birth, birds before hatching, and plants before sprouting from their seeds. Note that the criteria of the collection #$Embryo do not correspond exactly with the meaning of the English word &apos;embryo&apos;, since #$Embryo includes zygotes, blastulas, the set of cells derived from the embryo after the fetus is formed (#$AmnioticSac + #$Fetus + #$Placenta-FetalPortion), etc.>, guid = "c0fd5c79-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Embryo rel isu LifeStageType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; Emirate-Geopolitical ismem Class; Emirate-Geopolitical has label = "emirates", comment = <The collection of all Emirates, that is, those geopolitical entities, or territories, each of which is ordinarily ruled by an #$Amir-HeadOfState or an Emir (Amir) who is not necessariy a #$HeadOfState of an #$IndependentCountry, but rules a subsidiary region. See especially the #$UnitedArabEmirates.>, guid = "be5c29ab-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Emirate-Geopolitical rel isu SpatiallyDisjointRegionType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss GeopoliticalEntity; Emission ismem Class; Emission has label = "emission", comment = <A collection of processes; a subset of #$GeneralizedTransfer. Each element of #$Emission is an event in which something `comes out&apos; of an object that actively contributes to that thing&apos;s emission (e.g., it is a #$providerOfMotiveForce). The source is indicated with the predicate #$emitter. An entire #$Translocation is associated with an emission, and these are related through the predicate #$transferOutSubEvent. If the thing which `comes out&apos; is an instance of #$PartiallyTangible, then the event belongs to a more specific collection, #$EmittingAnObject (q.v.). If the associated element of #$Translocation is an instance of #$WavePropagation, then the emission belongs to the more specialized collection, #$EmittingAWave (q.v.).>, guid = "bed006f8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Emission rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TransferOut, iss Translocation; EmittingAWave ismem Class; EmittingAWave has label = "wave emissions", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$Emission. Each element is an event in which a wave is emitted at a #$fromLocation. For example, Themistocles ordering his fleet to withdraw; Miles Davis playing the trumpet; an emergency flare burning by the side of the road. See also #$WavePropagation.>, guid = "bebe7cda-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EmittingAWave rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Emission; EmittingAnObject ismem Class; EmittingAnObject has label = "emissions", comment = <A collection of events; and a subset of #$Emission. An instance of #$EmittingAnObject is an emission event in which there is some #$PartiallyTangible which is the #$objectEmitted, i.e., the thing which `comes out&apos; of the #$emitter of the event. The #$objectEmitted goes from (#$fromLocation) a place inside of the #$emitter to (#$toLocation) some place that is not within the #$emitter. The #$emitter plays an active role (#$doneBy and #$providerOfMotiveForce) in the emission. Examples: the birth of a baby, a bullet shot from a gun, a venonous snake depositing poison. Negative examples: a person leaving a building (the building is not active), throwing a ball (the ball was not inside the person before the throwing).>, guid = "bd58e6c8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EmittingAnObject rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss Translation-LocationChange, iss Emission; EmittingSound ismem Class; EmittingSound has label = "sound emissions", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$EmittingAWave. Each element of #$EmittingSound is an event in which an instance of #$Sound is emitted from some #$waveSource. Examples: an explosion generating a sound wave; a plucked violin string resonating; a baby crying; a person saying `Hello&apos;.>, guid = "bd589e37-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EmittingSound rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss EmittingAWave; Employee ismem Class; Employee has label = "employees", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$Employee works directly for some business. Disjoint with #$SelfEmployedWorker.>, guid = "bd58ec41-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Employee rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional, xor SelfEmployedWorker; EmployeeHiring ismem Class; EmployeeHiring has label = "employee-hiring events", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$MakingAnAgreement. Each element of #$EmployeeHiring is an event in which some agent--either an organization or individual--hires a person to work as its employee. See also #$employees, #$WorkAgreement.>, guid = "bd58d9c8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EmployeeHiring rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss OrganizationalTransferIn, iss MakingAnAgreement; EmploymentTermination ismem Class; EmploymentTermination has label = "employment termination", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$EndingAnAgreement. Each element of #$EmploymentTermination is an event in which some employee ceases to work for his or her employer. The termination may be initiated by either party, or it may have been specified in the original #$WorkAgreement (q.v.). Different kinds of #$EmploymentTermination are specified by the subsets #$Resigning, #$EmployeeLayoff, #$RetirementEvent, etc.>, guid = "bd58d986-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EmploymentTermination rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss OrganizationalTransferOut, iss EndingAnAgreement; EmptySpaceRegion ismem Class; EmptySpaceRegion has label = "empty space region", comment = <A specialization of #$SpaceRegion whose instances are connected regions of empty space located in the empirically observable universe. The meaning of empty depends on context. In a high-energy physics microtheory where empty is defined as containing no particles, an empty space region would be a complete vacuum (see also #$Vacuum). In #$AmbientConditionsMt an empty space region would be occupied by a piece of #$Atmosphere. An undersea context could treat empty space regions as filled with seawater. An instance of #$EmptySpaceRegion is intangible, and not to be confused with the material -- if any -- that occupies it (cf. #$FreeSpaceContent).>, guid = "bd58ee65-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EmptySpaceRegion rel isu StuffType, iss SpaceRegion, xor Situation; Encrypting ismem Class; Encrypting has label = "encrypting events", comment = <The collection of actions in which some transformation is applied to an IBT (#$InformationBearingThing) which renders it unaccessible to all but the intended audience, since the method required to decrypt the IBT is secret.>, guid = "bd60996f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Encrypting rel isu TemporalObjectType; EndingAnAgreement ismem Class; EndingAnAgreement has label = "end of an agreements", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of the collection #$EndingAnAgreement is an event in which some instance of #$Agreement comes to an end. For example, instances of #$EmploymentTermination and #$EndingMembership.>, guid = "bd589fb3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EndingAnAgreement rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss HumanActivity, iss SocialOccurrence, iss PurposefulAction; EnergyConversionProcess ismem Class; EnergyConversionProcess has label = "energy conversion process", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of #$EnergyConversionProcess, energy is converted from one form to another.>, guid = "bd58f827-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EnergyConversionProcess rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss TransformationEvent; Engine ismem Class; Engine has label = "engines", comment = <A collection of #$PoweredDevices. An instance of #$Engine is a device that changes some form of energy into motion (usually rotation). An engine may operate by burning some type of fuel (as do jet engines and internal combustion engines), or it may be powered by electricity, fluid flow, etc.>, guid = "bd58cec4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Engine rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MechanicalDevice, iss PoweredDevice; Engineer ismem Class; Engineer has label = "engineers", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$Engineer is a professional who works in some branch of engineering. Elements of #$Engineer include the members of the subsets #$ElectricalEngineer, #$ChemicalEngineer, #$CivilEngineer, #$MechanicalEngineer, etc.>, guid = "bd59015a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Engineer rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; EnglishLanguage isu LivingLanguage; EnglishLanguage has label = "English Language", comment = <The Germanic Language native to England, now spoken in the United Kindom, the United States, and many other countries.>, guid = "bd58b700-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EnglishParaphraseMt isu GeneralMicrotheory; EnglishParaphraseMt has label = "english paraphrase mt", comment = <This is the default context used for generating English paraphrases for CycL expressions. Many of the assertions required for English paraphrase generation can be found in this context, including those with the predicates #$genFormat and #$genPhrase.>, guid = "bda16220-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EnglishWord ismem Class; EnglishWord has label = "English words", comment = <The collection of all lexical words in English; a subset of #$LexicalWord. Different inflectional forms of a word do not count as different words; for example, #$Eat-TheWord encompasses the strings &apos;eat&apos;, &apos;eating&apos;, &apos;ate&apos;, etc.>, guid = "bd588075-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EnglishWord rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss LexicalWord; Enjoyment ismem Class; Enjoyment has label = "enjoyment", comment = <The agreeable emotion of taking pleasure or satisfaction in an experience. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes are #$Delight, #$Celebratory-Emotion, etc.>, guid = "bd589154-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Enjoyment rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; EnlistedPerson ismem Class; EnlistedPerson has label = "enlisted people", comment = <A collection of people, a subset of #$MilitaryPerson. Each element of this collection is somebody who is an enlisted person in some #$MilitaryOrganization, such as a private.>, guid = "bd58a708-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EnlistedPerson rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu OccupationType, iss MilitaryPerson; EntertainmentEvent ismem Class; EntertainmentEvent has label = "entertainment events", comment = <The collection of activities which are performed by one party primarily to amuse or entertain others. Every instance of #$EntertainmentEvent necessarily has among its subevents both an instance of (#$PerformingFn #$EntertainmentEvent) and an instance of (#$AttendingFn #$EntertainmentEvent). It is thus distinguished from #$RecreationalActivity: a #$RecreationalActivity need not involve any #$Entertainers, whereas an instance of #$EntertainmentEvent will always involve both an entertainer, and an entertainee. Note: This is more general than #$EntertainmentPerformance because it may not entail a formal performance per se. E.g., #$JokeTelling is a spec of #$EntertainmentEvent because it involves a joke-teller, the entertainer, and a listener, the entertainee. Such an event, however, can occur under informal circumstances, and need not be a formal performance. Thus #$JokeTelling is not a spec of #$EntertainmentPerformance.--Huffer, Dec 2, 1998>, guid = "bd58e10a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EntertainmentEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss ServiceEvent, iss HumanActivity, iss SocialOccurrence; EntertainmentOrArtsProfessional ismem Class; EntertainmentOrArtsProfessional has label = "entertainment or arts professional", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$EntertainmentOrArtsProfessional is a person who uses some sort of creative or artistic abilities in the main function of his or her job. #$EntertainmentOrArtsProfessional includes both performing artists and producers of tangible artworks, either creative or commercial. This collection does NOT include people working on the business side of those professions, such as producers or art dealers, whose #$jobAttributes are more similar to those of other business professionals (e.g., managers, marketers, sales representatives) than to the artists&apos;; cf. #$EntertainmentOrArtsAdministrator.>, guid = "bd58ea20-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EntertainmentOrArtsProfessional rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; EntertainmentPerformance ismem Class; EntertainmentPerformance has label = "performances", comment = <The collection of public and private entertainment performances, like plays, street performances, ballets, movies. Each #$EntertainmentPerformance is a presentation or exhibition, to a human audience, with artistic or entertainment value. Note: Movies are included even though the Performers aren&apos;t performing in the same point in space-time. But we draw the line at still photographs; i.e., those are not considered #$EntertainmentPerformances.>, guid = "bd58c027-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EntertainmentPerformance rel ismem Class, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss EntertainmentEvent, iss ServiceEvent, iss AccessingAnIBT; Entity ismem Class; Entity has label = "entities", comment = <X is an #$Entity if it is a `maximal&apos; #$SomethingExisting. What we mean by that is that there cannot be another #$SomethingExisting of which X is merely a subabstraction (see #$subAbstrac). So #$AlbertEinstein is an entity, but AlbertEinsteinWhileAtPrinceton is not. In other words, an #$Entity represents the entire existence of a thing, not just one or more `temporal chunks&apos; or #$timeSlices of a thing.>, guid = "bd58dd15-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Entity rel iss SomethingExisting; Equiangular isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; Equiangular has label = "equiangular", comment = <This is the attribute shared by all objects that are polygon shaped (see #$PolygonShaped) and in which all angles between edges (see #$angleBetweenEdges) have the same measure.>, guid = "be209c21-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EquilateralShaped isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; EquilateralShaped has label = "equilateral shaped", comment = <This is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all polygon-shaped objects each of whose edges has the same length.>, guid = "c13f6e1c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EthnicGroupType ismem Class; EthnicGroupType has label = "ethnic groups", comment = <A collection of collections. An #$EthnicGroupType is a set of people whose group-organization, practices or characteristics are based on ethnic origins. E.g., some #$EthnicGroupTypes are: #$EthnicGroupOfVietnamese, #$EthnicGroupOfIndiansOfTheUS, etc.>, guid = "bd58dcae-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EthnicGroupType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss PersonTypeByCulture; EukaryoticCell ismem Class; EukaryoticCell has label = "eukaryotic cells", comment = <The collection of eukaryotic cells, #$Cells which serve as the basic structural unit of eukaryotic organisms. These cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles. Multicellular Organisms generally have #$EukaryoticCells; #$EukaryoticCell DNA has introns. Certain #$EukaryoticCells, like the red blood corpuscles of #$Persons with heathy #$Spleens, lack nuclei.>, guid = "bd58eee7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EukaryoticCell rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Cell, xor ProkaryoticCell; EvaluatableFunction ismem Class; EvaluatableFunction has label = "evaluatable functions", comment = <A collection of Cyc functions. Each element of #$EvaluatableFunction is a Cyc function which is associated (via #$evaluationDefn) with a piece of Heuristic Level (SubL) code that computes the result of applying the function to legal arguments. See #$PlusFn for a good example. An evaluatable function is evaluated only if none of its arguments is unbound. See also the more general #$EvaluatableRelation.>, guid = "bd58829b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EvaluatableFunction rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, iss UnreifiableFunction, iss EvaluatableRelation, iss Function-Denotational; EvaluatableRelation ismem Class; EvaluatableRelation has label = "evaluatable relation", comment = <Instances of #$EvaluatableRelation are functions and predicates for which there is some piece of system code that can be invoked to evaluate an expression using the function or predicate. Functions having this property should be an instance of the more specific #$EvaluatableFunction; in those cases, the result of evaluating the expression is a new term. For example, (#$PlusFn (#$Inch 3) (#$Inch 1)), when evaluated, results in the term (#$Inch 4). Predicates which are evaluatable have a piece of system code associated which can be used to obtain the truth value for any ground formula formed with the predicate. For example, (#$greaterThan (#$Inch 3) (#$Inch 1)) evaluates to ``true&apos;&apos;. The predicate #$evaluationDefn is used to state the name of the piece of system code to be used to evaluate expressions formed with an #$EvaluatableRelation.>, guid = "bfb0e3f0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EvaluatableRelation rel isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss Relation; Evaporating ismem Class; Evaporating has label = "evaporations", comment = <The collection of events in which a piece of stuff is transformed from a #$LiquidStateOfMatter to a #$GaseousStateOfMatter by evaporation as opposed to boiling.>, guid = "be01164d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Evaporating rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss PhysicalStateChangeEvent; EvenNumber ismem Class; EvenNumber has label = "even numbers", comment = <The set of all even numbers (integers) including positive and negative even numbers and zero, but not including any infinite &apos;numbers&apos;.>, guid = "bff46760-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EvenNumber rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss Integer, xor OddNumber; Evening ismem Class; Evening has label = "evenings", comment = <Each #$Evening is started by a #$Dusk and is #$temporallyCoterminal with the #$CalendarDay it&apos;s a part of. Each #$Evening is #$contiguousAfter an #$Afternoon, and each #$Overnight is #$contiguousAfter an #$Evening.>, guid = "bd589dc7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Evening rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss QualitativeTimeOfDay; Event ismem Class; Event has label = "events", comment = <This is one important subset of #$TemporalThing. The elements of #$Event are events or actions, things that we say are `happening&apos;, changes in the state of the world. #$Event is also a subset of #$Intangible, since an event consists of the `actions&apos; per se, and THEY then refer to the tangible objects which participate in them. In contrast, the collection #$SomethingExisting (another important subset of #$TemporalThing) has elements which have temporal extent yet are `static&apos;, such as a rock at the bottom of a pond. Note: While `#$SomethingExisting vs. #$Event&apos; might seem at first to be an obvious partition of things with temporal extent, there are interesting borderline cases -- such as agreements -- which Cyc treats as instances of #$SomethingExisting, but which could also be represented as instances of #$Event. And there are still other cases, such as the pure disembodied elements of #$TimeInterval, which are elements of #$TemporalThing yet belong neither to #$SomethingExisting nor to #$Event.>, guid = "bd58800d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Event rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss IntangibleIndividual, iss Situation-Temporal, xor SpaceRegion, xor TimeInterval, xor SomethingExisting, xor Microtheory, xor AbstractInformationalThing; EvergreenPlant ismem Class; EvergreenPlant has label = "evergreens", comment = <A collection of plants. Each element of #$EvergreenPlant is a plant that retains leaves or needles throughout all the seasons of the year. Cf. #$DeciduousPlant.>, guid = "c0fdff40-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; EvergreenPlant rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Plant-Woody; EverythingPSC isu Microtheory; EverythingPSC has label = "everything p s c", comment = <A problem solving context in which all assertions in the entire KB are visible. This context is only appropriate for use in queries which do not care about the consequences of possible contradictions due to conflicting information from mutually inconsistent microtheories. See also #$InferencePSC.>, guid = "be7f041b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExceptionRelation ismem Class; ExceptionRelation has label = "exception relation", comment = <A collection of mathematical objects, which are the #$LogicalConnectives used to express exceptions to rules. Elements include #$exceptWhen and #$exceptFor.>, guid = "bec28bcc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExceptionRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, iss MetaKnowledgePredicate; ExchangeOfUserRights ismem Class; ExchangeOfUserRights has label = "exchange of user rights", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$ExchangeOfUserRights, two #$Agents (the #$exchangers) perform two distinct (though related) #$TransferringPossessions with each other. Two objects are exchanged. Each agent gains possession -- in the form of some #$UserRightsAttribute -- of something (an #$objectOfPossessionTransfer) from the other. Each transfer is related to the other as some kind of condition, a precondition or an intended result; e.g., the news seller will hand over a paper if given fifty cents, and I give the news seller my fifty cents so that he will turn over a newspaper to me. The two #$TransferringPossession events are #$subEvents of the #$ExchangeOfUserRights event.>, guid = "bd589096-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExchangeOfUserRights rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss HumanActivity, iss ChangeInUserRights, iss SocialOccurrence, xor GiftGiving; Excitement ismem Class; Excitement has label = "excitement", comment = <A feeling of arousal that stirs up, moves profoundly, or serves as a challenge to one&apos;s power, eliciting the desire to do or perceive something. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Excitement include #$Enthusiasm, #$Celebratory-Emotion, #$Triumph-TheFeeling, etc.>, guid = "bd58c086-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Excitement rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; ExclusiveUserRights isu UserRightsAttribute; ExclusiveUserRights has label = "exclusive user rights", comment = <An attribute of an object with respect to an #$Agent, meaning that the agent who holds this kind of #$UserRightsAttribute to an object has the sole right to use that object. There can be only one such #$Agent at a given time; that agent may be an #$Organization or an individual person. When you rent a car, you expect #$ExclusiveUserRights of it for the duration of your rental, even though you don&apos;t own the car.>, guid = "bd58fef2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Executive ismem Class; Executive has label = "executives", comment = <A collection of people. An instance of #$Executive is a person who holds an executive managerial positions in some #$Organization. Among the members of #$Executive are top managers of organizations, including corporate officers (#$ChiefExecutiveOfficer, etc.), Chiefs of Staff, Generals, Admirals and others like Chief Corporate Counsel, Managing Partner, Producer, Chief Scientist, Chief Engineer, as well as other upper and upper-middle managers.>, guid = "bd58fadf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Executive rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional, iss Leader; Exercising ismem Class; Exercising has label = "exercises", comment = <The collection of events in which humans move their bodies for the purpose of general physical conditioning and/or strengthening muscles. comment by #$Nichols on June 25, 1996>, guid = "bd58ac02-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Exercising rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss AthleticActivity, iss HumanActivity; Exhaling ismem Class; Exhaling has label = "exhalations", comment = <Expelling air from the lungs>, guid = "bd589d08-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Exhaling rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss EmittingAnObject, iss BodilyFunctionEvent; ExistingObjectType ismem Class; ExistingObjectType has label = "existing object types", comment = <A collection of collections. Almost every element of each element of #$ExistingObjectType (exceptions are allowed) is temporally stufflike yet is objectlike in other ways, including spatially. ``OBJTYPE is an #$ExistingObjectType&apos;&apos; implies: a) for most instances OBJ of OBJTYPE, for any proper physical part PART of OBJ, PART is not an OBJTYPE. b) for all instances OBJ of OBJTYPE, for most proper physical parts PART of OBJ it will not be the case that PART is an OBJTYPE. Any one of many #$timeSlices of a copy of `Moby Dick&apos; sitting on your shelf is still a copy of `Moby Dick&apos; sitting on your shelf. Most tangible objects are temporally stufflike in this fashion. That book is, of course, not spatially stufflike; spatially, it is objectlike: if we take a scalpel and slice the book into ten pieces, each piece is not a copy of `Moby Dick&apos;. So (#$isa #$BookCopy #$ExistingObjectType) is true, because each book is temporally stufflike but spatially objectlike. See the comment for #$StuffType to find out more about the distinctions between, and the need for, these four collections: #$StuffType, #$ObjectType, #$ExistingStuffType, and #$ExistingObjectType.>, guid = "bd65d880-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExistingObjectType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss ObjectType, iss TemporalStuffType, xor ExistingStuffType; ExistingStuffType ismem Class; ExistingStuffType has label = "existing stuff types", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$ExistingStuffType is a collection of things (including portions of things) which are both temporally and spatially stufflike; they may also be stufflike in other ways, e.g., in some physical property. Division in time or space does not destroy the stufflike quality of the object (down to a certain granularity). ``STUFF is an instance of #$ExistingStuffType&apos;&apos; implies: a) for most instances, OBJ, of STUFF, for any proper physical part PART of OBJ, PART is also an instance of STUFF. b) for all instances, OBJ, of STUFF, for most proper physical parts PART of OBJ, PART is also an instance of STUFF. For example, every piece of wood is temporally stufflike: if W-168 is a piece of wood during 1996, then it&apos;s also a piece of wood for the one-minute time-slice 9:05am 7/7/96. It&apos;s also spatially stufflike: if we take that piece of wood W-168 and cut it in half, we have two things which are both pieces of wood. The fact that every piece of wood is both temporally and spatially stufflike is represented in Cyc by the assertion (#$isa #$Wood #$ExistingStuffType). Other examples of #$ExistingStuffType: #$AppleJuice, #$IceCream, #$Diamond, #$WaxedPaper, #$StriatedMuscle. See the comment for #$StuffType to learn more about the distinctions between, and the need for, these four collections: #$StuffType, #$ObjectType, #$ExistingStuffType, and #$ExistingObjectType.>, guid = "bd59f2ea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExistingStuffType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss TemporalStuffType, xor ExistingObjectType; ExperiencingHunger ismem Class; ExperiencingHunger has label = "experiencing hunger", comment = <Being hungry>, guid = "bd58d1d8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExperiencingHunger rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss BodilyFunctionEvent-Involuntary; Explosion ismem Class; Explosion has label = "explosions", comment = <A collection of events. Each instance of #$Explosion is an event that involve an extremely violent, chaotic release of energy. It is not exactly controlled, even in the best circumstances, though it may be contained and channelled to do useful work (such as within the cylinders of a car engine, or such as when a hole is blasted for a backyard swimming pool.)>, guid = "be00f76e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Explosion rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss DecompositionProcess, iss EnergyConversionProcess; ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate ismem Class; ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate has label = "extensional representation predicates", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate is a predicate used to form assertions about the properties of individual objects. These predicates implement the extensional structure of the Cyc ontology; e.g., #$attorneys, #$objectTakenCareOf, #$actorPartsAffected, #$vestedInterest.>, guid = "bd5883cd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; ExternalSurface-WholeThing ismem Class; ExternalSurface-WholeThing has label = "exteriors", comment = <The collection of all entire outer physical surfaces of tangible objects. Excludes mere patches or portions of the whole surface of an object.>, guid = "bd589b3e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ExternalSurface-WholeThing rel isu RegionType, iss Surface-Physical; Eye ismem Class; Eye has label = "eyes", comment = <The collection of all eyes of #$Animals. Eyes are the organs of #$VisualPerception.>, guid = "bd5893be-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Eye rel isu SymmetricAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject, iss ElectroMagneticRadiationSensor, iss AnimalBodyPart; FPSUnitOfMeasure ismem Class; FPSUnitOfMeasure has label = "foot-pound-second units of measure", comment = <A subset of #$UnitOfMeasure. #$FPSUnitOfMeasure is the collection of all the measurement functions whose results use the FPS (i.e., foot-pound-second) system of measure to describe physical quantities. Examples: #$Gallon-US, #$SquareMile, #$CubicFtPerSec.>, guid = "bd5904b6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FPSUnitOfMeasure rel isu RelationshipType, iss UnitOfMeasure; FaceOfAnimal ismem Class; FaceOfAnimal has label = "faces", comment = <The collection of all faces of animals. A #$FaceOfAnimal generally consists of the region where the eyes of the animal are located. In most terrestrial animals, this is the front region of the animal&apos;s head, and also turns out to be where the nose, mouth, etc., are located.>, guid = "bd58b919-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FaceOfAnimal rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject, iss AnimalBodyPart; FallSeason ismem Class; FallSeason has label = "autumns", comment = <The collection of Fall seasons. In the #$TemperateClimateCycle, Fall is usually the time of harvesting and beginnings of shutting down of growth. Also the time of harvest celebrations. #$FallSeason represents the climatic aspects of Fall; for its purely temporal aspects, see #$CalendarAutumn.>, guid = "bd58b734-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FallSeason rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss SeasonOfYear; False isu TruthValue; False has label = "some statement in the KB is false", comment = <An element of #$TruthValue. #$False is logical falsehood in Cyc; this is the abstract logical notion--not to be confused with Lisp&apos;s NIL, nor with the English word `false&apos;.>, guid = "bd5880d8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Family-SocialEntity ismem Class; Family-SocialEntity has label = "family units", comment = <A collection of organizations. Each element of #$Family-SocialEntity is a group of people or of animals related by birth and mating. The kinship relation is closer than simply being members of the same species. Such a family may function together as an #$Organization. See also the specialization #$Family-Human.>, guid = "c0fcdcd7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Family-SocialEntity rel isu ObjectType, iss Group, iss SocialBeing; FamilyRelationSlot ismem Class; FamilyRelationSlot has label = "family relationships", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$FamilyRelationSlot is a binary predicate used to represent relationships among members of human families. Examples: #$spouse, #$siblings, #$grandmothers, #$grandfathers, #$relatives, #$cohabitingFamilyMembers.>, guid = "bd58d96b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FamilyRelationSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss InterPersonalRelationSlot; Famine ismem Class; Famine has label = "famines", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$DisasterEvent. Each instance of #$Famine is an event taking place in a contiguous geographical area in which a lot of people are undergoing #$Starvation.>, guid = "be5bef99-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Famine rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss DisasterEvent; Farmer ismem Class; Farmer has label = "farmer", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$Farmer is a person who makes (or significantly supplements) his or her income by farming. This includes growing vegetables, grain, or fruit crops, dairy farming, or raising livestock (e.g., cattle, pigs, sheep, fish) for their meat or other animal products (e.g., wool).>, guid = "bd58e149-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Farmer rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional, iss BlueCollarWorker; Fear ismem Class; Fear has label = "scares", comment = <Unpleasant emotion manifested by painful agitation in the presence or awareness of danger. Fear implies anxiety and loss of courage. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. A more specialized #$FeelingAttributeType than #$Fear is #$Dread.>, guid = "bd58c044-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Fear rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; February ismem Class; February has label = "February", comment = <The collection of all Februaries, the second month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c2f7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; February rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; FeelingAttribute ismem Class; FeelingAttribute has label = "emotions", comment = <The collection of attributes describing emotions and mental feelings. An element of this set would be a particular `amount&apos; of happiness, of confidence, of fear, etc. Obviously there are no real `units of measure&apos; for these quantities, but one can certainly say that the `amount&apos; of happiness one felt at one&apos;s wedding was `more&apos; than the happiness they felt at their college graduation ceremony, etc. There are functions, such as #$LowAmountFn, which take a #$PrimitiveAttributeType (such as the instances of #$FeelingAttributeType) and return as their value a certain-sized amount of that attribute-type; e.g., (#$LowAmountFn #$Confidence) is an expression whose value is a low amount of confidence, and that in turn will be an element of #$Confidence, and also an element of #$FeelingAttribute, and also an element of #$AttributeValue, etc. See especially the various subsets of #$FeelingAttribute. Note that #$FeelingAttribute is NOT an element of #$FeelingAttributeType. Since #$FeelingAttributeType is a subset of #$PrimitiveAttributeType, any element of #$FeelingAttributeType (such as #$Happiness) should have a total order among all its elements. All the elements of #$FeelingAttribute can&apos;t be placed in a total order (for example, how can we compare &apos;low happiness&apos; with &apos;low contempt&apos;?), so it should not be an element of #$FeelingAttributeType.>, guid = "bd5882fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FeelingAttribute rel isu CompositeAttributeType, iss MentalAttribute, iss ScalarInterval; FeelingAttributeType ismem Class; FeelingAttributeType has label = "types of emotion", comment = <A collection of collections. Each #$FeelingAttributeType is a type of attribute that describes some sort of emotion and/or mental feeling. Some elements of #$FeelingAttributeType are: #$Envy, #$Curiosity, #$PrideOfAccomplishment, etc. See also #$FeelingAttribute.>, guid = "bd58800b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FeelingAttributeType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss PrimitiveAttributeType, xor SensoryReactionType, xor PhysiologicalConditionType; FemaleAnimal ismem Class; FemaleAnimal has label = "female animals", comment = <The collection of all female animals.>, guid = "bd5890f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FemaleAnimal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal, xor MaleAnimal; FemalePerson ismem Class; FemalePerson has label = "human females", comment = <The collection of all female persons.>, guid = "bd58d6e5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FemalePerson rel isu OrganismClassificationType, iss FemaleAnimal, iss Person, xor MalePerson; Feminine isu GenderOfLivingThing; Feminine has label = "feminine", comment = <#$Feminine is a gender, indicating either that an #$Animal or #$Plant is female, or that a word has what is called feminine gender.>, guid = "bd58934f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ferry ismem Class; Ferry has label = "ferries", comment = <The subcollection of #$Watercraft that contains all ferryboats, i.e., boats that are used to carry people, goods or vehicles across rivers, lakes, canals or channels etc. or even from one side of a harbor to another, but normally not used to cross oceans.>, guid = "c1009ab0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ferry rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Ship; FictionalContext ismem Class; FictionalContext has label = "fictional contexts", comment = <The collection of #$CounterfactualContexts which are (1) created intentionally, not by error or chance or gradual evolution and accretion in a culture, and (2) typically are the information content of some #$InformationBearingThing, and (3) are not expected (by their creator) to be believed as factual, nor do their creators believe them to be factual. In addition to asserting fictional propositions about existing things, a #$FictionalContext may include terms for nonexistent things. Examples: #$LordOfTheRings, #$AdventuresOfHuckleberryFinn.>, guid = "be011058-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FictionalContext rel isu MicrotheoryType, iss Microtheory, iss CounterfactualContext; FieldOfStudy ismem Class; FieldOfStudy has label = "fields of study", comment = <A collection of microtheories. Each element of #$FieldOfStudy is a microtheory containing the knowledge, theory, hypotheses, evidence, and problems covered in a particular field of study (in propositional form). Examples: #$Linguistics, #$Ethology, #$ArtificialIntelligence, #$BusinessAdministration, #$Nursing-FieldOfStudy, etc. Fields of study are typically the subject of teaching and/or research within instances of #$AcademicDepartment, although the correlation between #$AcademicDepartment and #$FieldOfStudy is not one-to-one. Note also that elements of #$FieldOfStudy are intangible objects (i.e., contexts with propositional content), while academic departments are partially tangible organizations. For the activity of specialized study in a field, see #$CourseOfStudy.>, guid = "bd58b737-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FieldOfStudy rel isu ObjectType, iss AbstractInformationalThing; FinancialAccount ismem Class; FinancialAccount has label = "financial accounts", comment = <A collection of intangible objects. Each element of #$FinancialAccount is an instance of #$Account (q.v.) which is denominated in units of #$Money. Examples: savings accounts, credit card accounts, vendor accounts.>, guid = "bd58dcfe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FinancialAccount rel isu AccountType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss Account; FinancialAccountTenderObject ismem Class; FinancialAccountTenderObject has label = "financial account tender object", comment = <A collection of objects. Each element of #$FinancialAccountTenderObject is an object, e.g., a check or a credit card, that serves as a vehicle for offering payment in funds drawn on an associated instance of #$FinancialAccount. The liquidity of an element of #$FinancialAccountTenderObject depends on the #$accountBalance or #$accountStatus of the financial account which that object legally represents. This collection excludes the elements of #$Currency and #$TravellersCheck.>, guid = "bd5902db-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FinancialAccountTenderObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TenderObject; FinancialAssetHoldings ismem Class; FinancialAssetHoldings has label = "fidelity investments", comment = <A collection of partially tangibles. An element of #$FinancialAssetHoldings is a group of financial assets (e.g., stocks, bonds, ... ) owned by individual or corporate #$Agent(s). As a default, we assume that the monetary value of each group equals the sum of the monetary values of the individual assets in that group.>, guid = "bd58a086-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FinancialAssetHoldings rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Holdings; FinancialCompany ismem Class; FinancialCompany has label = "financial institutions", comment = <A collection of organizations engaged in financial activities as their main concern and as a business. An element of #$FinancialCompany is a commercial service organization that buys, sells, trades, converts, or lends money, in the form of currency or negotiable financial instruments (such as stocks, bonds, commodities futures, etc.), as (one of) its major function(s). The collection #$FinancialCompany does not include businesses, such as retailers, which simply exchange goods or non-financial services for money. Examples: Chase Bank, University Federal Credit Union, Fidelity Investments (but NOT the IMF). Cf. the superset #$FinancialOrganization for non-business organizations engaged in financial activities (such as the IMF).>, guid = "c1443e40-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FinancialCompany rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CommercialServiceOrganization, iss FinancialOrganization; FinancialOrganization ismem Class; FinancialOrganization has label = "financial organizations", comment = <The collection of all #$Organizations that are primarily or significantly engaged in the #$FinancialIndustry or whose activities focus on that industry. Instances of both #$CommercialServiceOrganizations (e.g., banks and brokerage houses) and #$NonProfitOrganizations (e.g., #$InternationalMonetaryFund) may be instances of #$FinancialOrganization. Specializations of #$FinancialOrganization include #$BankCompany, #$FinancialExchange, and #$InvestmentOrganization.>, guid = "bd590577-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FinancialOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; Finger ismem Class; Finger has label = "fingers", comment = <The collection of all digits of all #$Hands (q.v.). Fingers are (typically) flexibly jointed and are necessary to enabling the hand (and its owner) to perform grasping and manipulation actions.>, guid = "bd58bf7f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Finger rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss Appendage-AnimalBodyPart; FiscalQuarter ismem Class; FiscalQuarter has label = "fiscal quarter", comment = <Each instance of this collection is a 3-month-long interval of time kept track of by an #$Agent as part of its financial accounting procedures. Since the start dates and end dates may vary depending on the organization, instances will be things like Fiscal3rdQuarterOf1995ForCycorp.>, guid = "bd58b87d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FiscalQuarter rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; FiscalYear ismem Class; FiscalYear has label = "fiscal years", comment = <Each instance of this collection is an annual, year-long interval of time kept track of by an #$Agent as part of its operational and financial accounting procedures. Since the start dates and end dates may vary depending on the organization, instances of this collection are time intervals like FiscalYearOf1989ForMicrosoft>, guid = "bd58f1c1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FiscalYear rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Date, xor TimePoint; Fish ismem Class; Fish has label = "fish", comment = <A collection of cold-blooded animals; a subset of #$Vertebrate. Each element of #$Fish has gills, cranium, and fins, and spends all or almost all of its life under water. The collection #$Fish excludes so-called star-fish and cuttle-fish, etc., as well as fish-shaped examples of #$Mammal such as porpoises and whales. #$Fish is an instance of #$BiologicalClass.>, guid = "bd58df53-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Fish rel isu BiologicalClass, isu ProductType, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss PartiallyTangibleProduct, iss AquaticOrganism, iss Vertebrate, iss NonPersonAnimal; FixedArityRelation ismem Class; FixedArityRelation has label = "fixed arity relation", comment = <The collection of all #$Relations of fixed arity in CycL. This collection is disjoint with #$VariableArityRelation.>, guid = "bff3237a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FixedArityRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, iss Relation; FixedAritySkolemFuncN ismem Class; FixedAritySkolemFuncN has label = "fixed arity skolem func n", comment = <The subcollection of #$SkolemFuncNs whose arity is fixed.>, guid = "c10c450d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FixedAritySkolemFuncN rel isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss FixedAritySkolemFunction, iss SkolemFuncN; FixedAritySkolemFunction ismem Class; FixedAritySkolemFunction has label = "fixed arity skolem function", comment = <The subcollection of #$SkolemFunctions whose arity is fixed. This is by far the most common type of skolem function, because variable- arity skolem functions are only created when a sequence variable is in the scope of the skolem.>, guid = "bd5880fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FixedAritySkolemFunction rel isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss FixedArityRelation, iss SkolemFunction; FixedStructure ismem Class; FixedStructure has label = "fixed free-standing structures", comment = <A collection of artifacts. Each element of #$FixedStructure is a humanly-constructed, freestanding object that exists in a fixed location; e.g., buildings, pyramids, the Great Wall of China, dams, elevated roadways, canals, etc. Such structures may have parts which are also elements of #$FixedStructure (e.g., bridge pilings) and parts which are not freestanding (e.g., the span of a bridge, or a room in a building).>, guid = "bd58c647-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FixedStructure rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss ConstructionArtifact, iss Place; Flammability ismem Class; Flammability has label = "flammabilities", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Flammability represents a specific readiness with which some tangible substance burns. Different degrees of #$Flammability are represented either using #$GenericValueFunctions or qualitatively (e.g., #$NonFlammable, #$BurnsEasily, #$ExplosivelyFlammable). Flammability of an object is indicated with the predicate #$flammabilityOfObject.>, guid = "bd58ff84-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Flammability rel iss AttributeValue; FlatPhysicalSurface ismem Class; FlatPhysicalSurface has label = "flat surfaces", comment = <The collection of all surfaces that are substantially flat (by the tolerance standards of the the context). This means that there are no &apos;significant&apos; concave depressions or convex bulges or bumps, and that the surface approximates some portion of a Euclidian plane in space. Note that the surface may have holes or cracks and may be disconnected, in multiple (substantially coplanar) pieces. A typical table top is a #$FlatPhysicalSurface.>, guid = "bd5885fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FlatPhysicalSurface rel isu RegionType, iss Surface-Physical; Flexible isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Flexible has label = "flexible", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Flexible is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute of a tangible object that can be flexed, twisted, contorted. #$Flexible objects which retain their contorted shape are described as #$Bendable (q.v.).>, guid = "bd58c716-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FloorInAConstruction ismem Class; FloorInAConstruction has label = "floors", comment = <A physical floor in a building, NOT the level (storey). The latter is called #$LevelOfAConstruction. The floor can include any floor in a building such as the floor of a room on the third floor as well as the floor covering the entire 1st level of the building. This includes just the horizontal surface -- not the subfloor. It also doesn&apos;t include floor coverings like carpet or tile.>, guid = "bd58f893-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FloorInAConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, xor WallOfAConstruction; FlowPath ismem Class; FlowPath has label = "paths of flow", comment = <A collection of pathways; a subset of #$Path-Generic. Each element of #$FlowPath is a path whose extent is delineated by the movement of a fluid over an area; for example, the path of a lava flow or the #$AlaskanPipeline. Elements of #$FlowPath may (but need not) be constrained by objects or forces that channel the flow of fluid; see also the subset #$FluidConduit.>, guid = "bd589555-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FlowPath rel isu ObjectType, iss Path-Simple, iss Path-Customary; FloweringPlant ismem Class; FloweringPlant has label = "flowering plants", comment = <An instance of #$BiologicalClass and a sub-taxon of #$PterophytinaSubdivision. Each instance of #$FloweringPlant is a plant whose seeds are enclosed in ovaries; consequently, this is the collection of flowering plants in the botanical sense. For flowering plants actually in bloom, see #$FloweryPlant.>, guid = "bd58c76b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FloweringPlant rel isu ProductType, isu BiologicalClass, iss Plant; FloweryPlant ismem Class; FloweryPlant has label = "flowers", comment = <A collection of plants. Each element of #$FloweryPlant is a flowering plant that is actually and visibly in flower (i.e., has flowers showing). The collection #$FloweryPlant includes flowering bushes and trees with visible flowers. This collection represents a commonsense category, not the official #$BiologicalTaxon #$FloweringPlant.>, guid = "bd58a916-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FloweryPlant rel isu LifeStageType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss FloweringPlant; FluidReservoir ismem Class; FluidReservoir has label = "fluid reservoirs", comment = <A collection of containers having an opening, which may be small and resealable (as in a #$Bottle) or large and open, as in a #$Tub; a subset of #$ContainerProduct. An instance of #$FluidReservoir is a container which was designed to hold fluids. These include elements of the collections #$Spoon, #$ToiletBowl, #$GlassBottle, etc. Note a special negative case: natural `reservoirs&apos;, such as #$Lakes, are not #$ContainerProducts -- though the #$Dams that create them are artifacts, the reservoir water is contained in the natural landscape -- and hence such reservoirs are not subsets of #$FluidReservoir.>, guid = "bd58f745-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FluidReservoir rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType; FluidTangibleThing ismem Class; FluidTangibleThing has label = "fluid tangible thing", comment = <A collection of tangibles. Each element of #$FluidTangibleThing is a tangible thing that flows, including gases, liquids, and semisolid and granular tangible things which are #$Pourable (e.g., sand, see also #$GranularFluid). Examples: the AirInAustin, #$LakeErie, the snow drifted in my driveway, the sand on the beach at Hippie Hollow, mercury in the thermometer on the balcony. Note that the granules of a granular #$FluidTangibleThing are not necessarily themselves #$FluidTangibleThings. Cf. #$LiquidTangibleThing.>, guid = "bd58d1e3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FluidTangibleThing rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor Agent, xor SolidTangibleThing, xor SemiSolidTangibleThing; Fog ismem Class; Fog has label = "fog", comment = <The collection of clouds (instances of #$CloudOfH2O) that cover a #$GeographicalRegion at ground-level.>, guid = "bd58e147-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Fog rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss CloudOfH2O; Foggy isu WeatherAttribute; Foggy has label = "foggy", comment = <A current condition in which pieces of atmosphere near the ground that are so full of water vapor that visibility is noticeably reduced. Note that when standing on a mountain or skysraper in the clouds, the attribute of the surrounding air is Foggy.>, guid = "bd58e5f8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Foldable isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Foldable has label = "foldable", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Foldable is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute of being foldable in a flexible way, like towels or paper. Note a distinction between #$Foldable objects and #$Collapsible objects: #$Collapsible objects are #$Rigid objects collapsed by means of #$HingedJoints, while #$Foldable objects are flexible overall.>, guid = "bd58b488-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Food ismem Class; Food has label = "food items", comment = <A collection of edible stuff; a subset of #$FoodAndDrink. Each element of the collection #$Food is a particular portion of food of a type which can, and habitually is, eaten (not drunk or inhaled) by humans or animals. Here the notion of ``eating&apos;&apos; is important --- not drinking or inhaling or osmosing; an element of #$Food will generally require biting, chewing, etc. A borderline example is a bowl of Jello; a borderline non-example is a very thick milkshake. Even closer to the border is a bowl of vegetable soup so thick and chunky that each spoonful requires chewing. The edibles in #$Food provide calories and/or other nutrients that humans or animals need (e.g., protein, vitamins); this is often true with a #$Drink as well, but probably less than half the time (since most drinking is of water).>, guid = "bd58bd8b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Food rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss OrganicStuff, iss EdibleStuff, iss FoodAndDrink, iss TangibleProduct, xor Drink; Food-ReadyToEat ismem Class; Food-ReadyToEat has label = "dishes", comment = <A collection of food and drink, a specialization of (#$FoodOrDrinkForFn #$Person). An assertion of the form (#$isa FOOD #$Food-ReadyToEat) means that it is normal for people to eat or drink FOOD more or less in its current state. Instances can require unwrapping, cutting, pouring, buttering, or cooling before being consumed, but not cooking or other complex or sophisticated preparation that is typically done in a kitchen or other food-preparation area rather than at the table or site of consumption. If a cook would inspect it and pronounce it &apos;done,&apos; it is probably an instance of #$Food-ReadyToEat.>, guid = "bd58cc94-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Food-ReadyToEat rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss OrganicStuff, iss FoodAndDrink; FoodAndDrink ismem Class; FoodAndDrink has label = "items of food or drink", comment = <A collection of edible stuff. Each element of #$FoodAndDrink is a substance which instances of some spec of #$Organism-Whole normally consume a significant part of. Thus (#$genls STUFF #$FoodAndDrink) means it is normal for instances of STUFF to be eaten or drunk. Instances of #$FoodAndDrink need not be in the state they typically are in when they are eaten, but they must be in an edible state. For substances that constitute normal food or drink for a particular spec of #$Organism-Whole (e.g. #$Person), use #$FoodOrDrinkForFn.>, guid = "bd58e69c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodAndDrink rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss EdibleStuff, xor FoodIngredientOnly; FoodGroupType ismem Class; FoodGroupType has label = "food group type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$FoodGroupType is a collection of foodstuffs classified according to their nutritional contents. When restricted to human foods, the elements of #$FoodGroupType are familiar as the teaching tools used in public health education in order to promote nutritionally balanced diets. Examples include: #$DairyProduct, #$CerealFoodGroup, #$FruitAndVegetableFoodGroup, #$MeatAndLegumeFoodGroup.>, guid = "bd589d1c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodGroupType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss ExistingStuffType, iss ConventionalClassificationType; FoodIngredientOnly ismem Class; FoodIngredientOnly has label = "food ingredients", comment = <A collection of tangible stuff; a subset of #$EdibleStuff. Each element of #$FoodIngredientOnly is an edible substance that is used in making other food but isn&apos;t eaten by itself. These may or may not require some preparation. For example, #$TableSalt, #$VegetableOil, and #$Ketchup are subsets of #$FoodIngredientOnly, because all of their instances are used only as ingredients or condiments. In contrast, #$Egg-Chickens is not a subset of #$FoodIngredientOnly; some of its instances serve as ingredients in cooking other dishes, (and those instances are elements of #$FoodIngredientOnly,) but other eggs are simply eaten after poaching or frying (and those instances belong to the collection #$Food, not #$FoodIngredientOnly). Types of food, such as #$Pizza, whose instances are never merely ingredients, are just subsets of #$Food.--Nichols, Nov 22, 1996>, guid = "bd58da2a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodIngredientOnly rel isu ExistingStuffType, isu ProductType, xor FoodAndDrink; FoodOrDrinkComposite ismem Class; FoodOrDrinkComposite has label = "food or drink composite", comment = <A collection of edible stuff. Each element of #$FoodOrDrinkComposite is an edible substance that is made up of two or more foodstuffs as constituents. Typically, some recipe is, explicitly or implicitly, associated with the production of such substances. #$FoodOrDrinkComposite includes both some instances of #$FoodIngredientOnly (e.g., a dollop of ketchup) and some instances of #$FoodAndDrink (e.g., a slice of a cheese pizza).>, guid = "bd58cda0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodOrDrinkComposite rel isu ProductType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss Artifact, iss EdibleStuff; FoodOrDrinkPreparationDevice ismem Class; FoodOrDrinkPreparationDevice has label = "kitchen appliances", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$PhysicalDevice. An instance of #$FoodOrDrinkPreparationDevice is a device whose #$primaryFunction is to prepare food or drink somehow, such as a colander, a spice mill or a pot.>, guid = "bd588d6a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodOrDrinkPreparationDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice, iss HOCObject; FoodProfessional ismem Class; FoodProfessional has label = "food professionals", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$FoodProfessional is a worker in the food and drink industry. This collection includes bakers, brewers, butchers, and bartenders--everyone from Julia Child to Joe the bartender.>, guid = "bd58af0e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodProfessional rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; FoodServiceOrganization ismem Class; FoodServiceOrganization has label = "food service companies", comment = <A collection of business organizations; a subset of both #$CommercialServiceOrganization and #$Business. An element of #$FoodServiceOrganization is a business which prepares and/or serves food as its major function(s). Important subsets of #$FoodServiceOrganization include #$Restaurant and #$CateringCompany. Note that grocery stores -- and airlines -- are not themselves considered elements of #$FoodServiceOrganization, even though some of those may have #$subOrganizations or sub-contractors which are#$FoodServiceOrganizations. Bars or taverns, in contrast to #$Restaurants that also prepare and serve food, are also not considered #$FoodServiceOrganizations.>, guid = "bd58f1fa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodServiceOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CommercialOrganization, iss CommercialServiceOrganization; FoodUtensil ismem Class; FoodUtensil has label = "utensils", comment = <A collection of objects. Each element of #$FoodUtensil is an implement or a container used in preparing or consuming food. Among its subsets are: #$Spoon, #$CarvingKnife, #$CookingUtensil, #$FoodVessel, #$CuttingBoard, and #$ChopStick.>, guid = "bd58cdce-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodUtensil rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss HOCObject, iss PhysicalDevice; FoodVessel ismem Class; FoodVessel has label = "food vessel", comment = <A collection of container products; a subset of #$FoodUtensil. An instance of #$FoodVessel is a container designed for holding, storing, or preparing food. For example, a dinner plate, a cake pan, a wok, a plastic food storage container, etc. Subsets include the collections #$CookingVessel, #$EatingVessel, #$FoodStorageContainer, and numerous others.>, guid = "bd58a35c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FoodVessel rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss FoodUtensil; Foot-AnimalBodyPart ismem Class; Foot-AnimalBodyPart has label = "feet", comment = <The collection of all vertebrates&apos; feet. A foot is a terminal part of a #$Vertebrate #$Leg. Feet are used in locomotion, support, balance, kicking, etc.>, guid = "bd58be93-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Foot-AnimalBodyPart rel isu SymmetricAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss Appendage-AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; Form-StandardizedIBO ismem Class; Form-StandardizedIBO has label = "legal forms", comment = <A collection of information bearing objects (IBOs); a subset of #$StructuredInformationSource. Each element of #$Form-StandardizedIBO is an IBO having some standard set of labelled `fields&apos; left blank for the user to fill in with individualized information. Forms usually accompany some sort of bureaucratic procedure, which they may be used to initiate or to certify. Examples include the elements of #$JobApplicationForm, #$DepositSlip, #$InsuranceClaimForm, #$OrderForm, #$TaxReturn, #$BirthCertificate, #$DiplomaDocument, #$ATMTransactionReceipt, #$MarriageLicenseDocument, #$DeathCertificate, etc.>, guid = "c0fd68b0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Form-StandardizedIBO rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss StructuredInformationSource, iss InformationBearingObject; FormalCOC ismem Class; FormalCOC has label = "formal codes of conduct", comment = <A collection of microtheories; a subset of #$CodeOfConduct. Each element of #$FormalCOC is a code of conduct which is imposed by an organization. Formal codes of conduct typically are explicitly stated and publicly promulgated among the group subject to them; also, they are associated with prescribed methods of enforcement and punishment of violators. Thus, the collection #$FormalCOC includes the laws of any legal jurisdiction, the rules of deportment imposed by educational institutions, the practices of some strict religious sects, etc. In contrast, informal codes of conduct are norms that are not prescribed or enforced by formal means; for example, etiquette (#$MannersCodeOfConduct) and ethics (#$EthicsCodeOfConduct).>, guid = "bd58af5f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FormalCOC rel isu MicrotheoryType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss CodeOfConduct; FormalProduct ismem Class; FormalProduct has label = "packaged products", comment = <A collection of products. Each element of #$FormalProduct is a complete packaged product, including everything the customer gets when the product is purchased, e.g., the #$mainProduct, packaging, enclosures, warranties, etc. The typical packaged product as the retailer stocks it on the shelf and sells it at the register.>, guid = "bd58eebe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FormalProduct rel iss PartiallyTangibleProduct, iss Product; FormalProductType ismem Class; FormalProductType has label = "formal product type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$FormalProductType is a collection of products (i.e., tangible products, services, information products, etc.), all of which conform to a standardized product specification (i.e., a `form&apos;). In Western-style capitalistic markets, elements of #$FormalProductType are often associated with a particular brand name (and perhaps model), since competing providers of products design them to be distinctive. For example, the collection #$InternalCombustionEngine is not an element of #$FormalProductType, but a specific collection of engines manufactured by (e.g.) Mazda would be. On the service side, the collection #$HairCuttingEvent is not a #$FormalProductType, but a subset of hair stylings for men (e.g., at a particular designer&apos;s salon) might be.>, guid = "bd58aa7e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FormalProductType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, isu ObjectType, iss ProductType; Format ismem Class; Format has label = "format", comment = <Elements of the collection #$Format are attributes that are used to constrain the multi-valued nature of a #$Predicate. Consider a predicate PRED which takes five arguments, and fix any four of those arguments -- say arguments 1, 2, 4, and 5. The number of different legal values there can be for the third argument (given that we&apos;ve already chosen the other four) is determined by which #$Format attribute has been specified for the 3rd argument place of PRED.. (1) If the #$arg3Format for PRED is #$SingleEntry, then there can be at most one single term that&apos;s legal (and thus at most one assertion), for those given values of arguments 1, 2, 4, and 5. To illustrate, let&apos;s consider a predicate with a lower #$arity, say (#$mother CHILD MOM), which says that the mother of CHILD is MOM. The #$arg2Format for #$mother should be #$SingleEntry, since an animal can have only one biological mother. (2) If the #$arg3Format of PRED is #$SetTheFormat, then there may be any number of assertions with different terms in the third argument position, but sharing the same values for arguments 1, 2, 4, and 5. E.g., the #$arg1Format for #$mother should be #$SetTheFormat, since a female can have multiple children. (3) If the #$arg3Format of PRED is #$IntervalEntry, then there may be multiple assertions sharing the values of 1, 2, 4, and 5, but with different terms in the 3rd argument; however, all the values for the 3rd argument must be overlapping elements of #$ScalarInterval (q.v.). E.g., the height of a person might be specified in several ways, with slightly different margins of error (or approximation), which is fine, but all those alternate values had better have SOME overlap since the person really just has one particular true height at any given time.>, guid = "bd589a1d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Format rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant; Forward-AssertionDirection isu CycLAssertionDirection; Forward-AssertionDirection has label = "forward - assertion direction", comment = <The forward direction for Cyc assertions; the assertion is forward propagated.>, guid = "bd681463-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Fragility ismem Class; Fragility has label = "fragilities", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Fragility represents a specific property which determines how easily a physical object breaks. Different fragilities may be designated using a #$GenericValueFunction. Fragilities of objects are indicated with the predicate #$fragilityOfObject.>, guid = "bd58f203-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Fragility rel iss ScalarInterval; FrameOfReference ismem Class; FrameOfReference has label = "frames of reference", comment = <Each element of #$FrameOfReference is a representation of the context in which certain data are to be interpreted. Such contexts are typically physical (i.e., spatiotemporal), but contexts may also be purely mathematical. A Cartesian coordinate system represents a frame of reference.>, guid = "bd58d4a0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FrameOfReference rel isu ObjectType, iss MathematicalObject; France isu Entity; France has label = "France", comment = <The nation of France as it has existed throughout time; both political and physical aspects. Unlike other nations, France directly includes some overseas possessions.>, guid = "bd58fa10-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FreeSheet ismem Class; FreeSheet has label = "free sheet", comment = <A collection of certain pieces of tangible stuff. A #$FreeSheet is a #$SheetOfSomeStuff which has two sides open to the environment. I.e. over most of each of its surfaces, it is not #$sheetSurfaceConnected with something else.>, guid = "be2a4be2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FreeSheet rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss SheetOfSomeStuff, xor SurfaceOnTangibleObject, xor Layer; FreeSpaceContent ismem Class; FreeSpaceContent has label = "free space content", comment = <Instances of #$FreeSpaceContent are connected, tangible, fluid individuals occupying regions of free space (i.e. instances of #$EmptySpaceRegion): space regions through which solid objects can move more or less freely. Examples include the #$Air in the interior of a room or the sky above a city. In an underwater context, a piece of free space content is likely to be an instance of #$Water. Often, a #$FreeSpaceContent is associated with a geographical region or some physical boundaries that define its edges. But a (partially) tangible #$FreeSpaceContent is not to be confused with the intangible #$EmptySpaceRegion it occupies.>, guid = "bd5899a9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FreeSpaceContent rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss FluidTangibleThing, iss Air; Freezing ismem Class; Freezing has label = "freezing events", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of this collection, an object is cooled to (and then below) its #$freezingPoint and is thereby changed from a #$LiquidStateOfMatter to a #$SolidStateOfMatter.>, guid = "bd58a837-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Freezing rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss CoolingProcess, iss PhysicalStateChangeEvent; FrenchLanguage isu LivingLanguage; FrenchLanguage has label = "French Language", comment = <The Romance language which is the primary language spoken in #$France.>, guid = "bd58b6bf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Frequency ismem Class; Frequency has label = "frequencies", comment = <A collection of physical attributes; a subset of #$Rate. Each element of #$Frequency is a measurement of the number of times something happens during some time interval. Elements of #$Frequency may be either fixed values, such as 103 kiloHertz, or a range, such as #$Yearly, #$Hourly, or #$Rarely. See #$UnitOfFrequency for the units used by Cyc to measure instances of #$Frequency, e.g. (#$TimesPerSecond 35), (#$KiloHertz 103). Instances of #$Frequency are important in the characterization of types of #$WavePropagation.>, guid = "bd58fad4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Frequency rel isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss PhysicalAttribute, iss Rate; FreshWaterLake ismem Class; FreshWaterLake has label = "fresh water lake", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each instance of #$FreshWaterLake is a freshwater land-locked body of water [#$Lake]. Examples: #$LakeMaracaibo, #$LakeWinnipeg, #$LakeTanganyika, #$LochNess-Lake, #$LakeErie, #$LakeTahoe. Note that inland saltwater #$Lakes, commonly referred to as `seas&apos;, belong to the collection #$InlandSea (rather than to #$FreshWaterLake); e.g., #$CaspianSea, #$BlackSea, #$DeadSea.>, guid = "c10e5cfd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FreshWaterLake rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BodyOfWater, iss Lake; Fried isu PreparationAttribute; Fried has label = "fried", comment = <The attribute #$Fried is a specialized form of #$Cooked. Food that is #$Fried has been prepared in an event of #$Frying.>, guid = "bd58f595-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Friendliness ismem Class; Friendliness has label = "friendliness", comment = <Emotion manifested by interest in another person (or, more rarely, in some nonhuman agent), good will towards that individual, and an inclination to favor him or her (or it). This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Friendliness are #$Love and #$Love-Romantic.>, guid = "bd58b648-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Friendliness rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Affection; FrontSide ismem Class; FrontSide has label = "fronts", comment = <The collection of all the entire front sides (as conventionally understood) of all objects that have distinct #$Sides, one of which faces in the frontwards direction.>, guid = "bd58f6a1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FrontSide rel isu RegionType, iss Side; Fruit ismem Class; Fruit has label = "fruits", comment = <A subset of #$PlantPart. Each element of #$Fruit is a plant structure that contains the seeds of angiosperms. Many fruits have fleshy walls having high concentrations of sugars or fats, and these are often eaten by humans and other animals. Fruits usually develop from the ovary wall, although some fruits include other tissues; e.g., the flesh of apples and of strawberries develops from the receptacle, and the fruits of pineapple and fig develop from a whole inflorescence (group of flowers). See also #$EdibleFruit.>, guid = "bd58e5d4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Fruit rel isu LifeStageType, iss PlantPart; Frustration ismem Class; Frustration has label = "frustrations", comment = <A feeling of irritation and dissatisfaction arising from unresolved problems or unfulfilled needs. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "bd58b586-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Frustration rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Dissatisfaction; Frying ismem Class; Frying has label = "frying", comment = <Cooking food by partial or total immersion in hot oil until desired level of doneness.>, guid = "bd58baeb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Frying rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss CookingFood; FullTime isu WorkStatus; FullTime has label = "full time", comment = <Attribute of being a full-time worker.>, guid = "bd588272-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FullUseRights isu UserRightsAttribute; FullUseRights has label = "full use rights", comment = <An attribute of an object with respect to an #$Agent, meaning that if the #$Agent has this right to the object, it does not place any restrictions on what the #$Agent may do with the object. If there are restrictions on what the #$Agent may do with the object, they arise from other sources, such as formal and informal laws of behavior. E.g., even if you have #$FullUseRights to your car, you can&apos;t violate traffic laws, kill people with it, blow it up in a parking lot, etc.>, guid = "bd58928f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Function-Denotational ismem Class; Function-Denotational has label = "functions", comment = <#$Function-Denotational is the collection of functions the CycL expressions for which can be used to form non-atomic terms (NATs). Specifically, when such a function-denoting expression is appropriately combined with other expressions (i.e. the former is in the 0th argument position and the latter are of the correct number and type) the resulting expression is a new CycL term -- a NAT -- that may then freely appear as a component in other CycL expressions. The NAT will itself denote the value (if any) of the function denoted by the former expression for the sequence of arguments denoted, respectively, by the latter expressions. For example, #$GovernmentFn is a unary denotational function, and so the CycL constant &apos;#$GovernmentFn&apos; requires one (syntactic) argument (such as the constant &apos;#$France&apos;) to form a NAT (in this case, the expression &apos;(#$GovernmentFn #$France)&apos;). This NAT, which denotes the government of France, can in turn serve as a (syntactic) argument in any CycL expression in which (a term for) an instance of #$RegionalGovernment can occur. Alternatively, we could have created a specific new term `GovernmentOfFrance&apos;, asserted that its denotation is an instance of #$RegionalGovernment, and so on. But two related advantages to having NATs in CycL are that they (i) allow for a drastic reduction in the total number of constant terms needed in the CycL vocabulary and (ii) provide a convenient and systematic way to form appropriate new terms as needed out of existing vocabulary (which terms can then inherit from various existing rules and other assertions involving the terms&apos; component expressions). &lt;PARAGRAPH&gt; Important subcollections of #$Function-Denotational include #$IndividualDenotingFunction (whose instances always return instances of #$Individual), #$CollectionDenotingFunction, #$SetDenotingFunction, and #$FunctionDenotingFunction (which is itself a subcollection of the first). NATs formed using terms that denote instances of #$FunctionDenotingFunction often denote instances of #$Function-Denotational themselves. Thus, like most other things, denotational functions can be denoted in CycL either by constants (e.g. &apos;#$GovernmentFn&apos;) or -- although this is less common -- by NATs (e.g. &apos;(#$FunctionToArg 2 #$biologicalMother)&apos;). Note that the collection #$Function-Denotational does _not_ include all functions whatsoever. Functions that, given their natures and the nature of the CycL language, could not sensibly be denoted by any NAT-forming CycL expression are not denotational functions. Examples include certain provably-existing exotic mathematical functions, such as (probably) any one-to-one function from the positive integers to the rational numbers. (For a more general collection that does include such functions, and for a more general explication of the notion of function itself, see #$Function-MathematicalObject and its comment). Note also that #$Function-Denotational does not include any of the so-called #$TruthFunctions (q.v.): #$Predicates, #$Quantifiers, or #$LogicalConnectives. For these relations (as construed in CycL) are not really functions at all, even though it can be heuristically useful to think of them as if they were functions from sequences of arguments to truth values.>, guid = "bd5c40b0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Function-Denotational rel isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss Relation, iss FunctionOrFunctionalPredicate, xor Predicate; Function-MathematicalObject ismem Class; Function-MathematicalObject has label = "mathematical type of functions", comment = <The collection of functions and a specialization of #$Relation-MathematicalObject. Each instance of #$Function-MathematicalObject is a many-one relation that represents a mapping from one set of things (the function&apos;s #$relationDomain) to another set of things (its #$relationRange). As a many-one relation, a function maps each thing in its domain to exactly one thing in its range. A function is either unary, binary, ternary, or whatever (see #$functionalArity; but cf. #$relationalArity), depending on the nature of the members of its domain. In general, the domain of an N-ary function is a set of ordered N-tuples (construed in CycL as #$Lists of length N). The function is said to take the items from any of these N-tuples as its N _arguments_ and to return a member of its range as its corresponding _value_. A key specialization of #$Function-MathematicalObject is #$FixedArityFunction (which is also a specialization of #$Function-Denotational). Instances include the elements of #$Distribution and the (non-denumerably many) one-to-one correspondences that exist between the positive integers and the rational numbers. See also #$valueOfFunctionForArgs, #$DomainOfFunctionFn, and #$RangeOfFunctionFn.>, guid = "bee42bbb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Function-MathematicalObject rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss MathematicalObject; FunctionFromQuantitiesToQuantities ismem Class; FunctionFromQuantitiesToQuantities has label = "function from quantities to quantities", comment = <A collection of mathematical functions. Each element of #$FunctionFromQuantitiesToQuantities is a function that takes one or more numbers as its arguments, and it returns a number as its value. Examples: subtraction (#$DifferenceFn), square root (#$SqrtFn), absolute value (#$AbsoluteValueFn), and logarithm (#$LogFn).>, guid = "bd58daad-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FunctionFromQuantitiesToQuantities rel isu RelationshipType, iss EvaluatableFunction; FunctionOrFunctionalPredicate ismem Class; FunctionOrFunctionalPredicate has label = "function or functional predicate", comment = <A collection of mathematical objects each instance of which is either a denotational function or a predicate that is functional in at least one argument place (see #$FunctionalPredicate). Examples: #$SkolemFunction, #$IntervalMaxFn, #$ElectricalPotentialDifference, #$revenueFromType, #$costRateForType, #$permeabilityOfSubstThroSubst.>, guid = "bd5880a3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FunctionOrFunctionalPredicate rel isu RelationshipType, iss Relation; FunctionTheMathematicalType ismem Class; FunctionTheMathematicalType has label = "mathematical functions", guid = "bd58809d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FunctionTheMathematicalType rel ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType; FunctionalPredicate ismem Class; FunctionalPredicate has label = "functional predicate", comment = <A specialization of #$Predicate instances of which are functional in at least one argument-place (see #$functionalInTheNthArg). Given any sequence of legal arguments placed in such a predicate&apos;s other argument positions, there is at most one legal argument such that, when it is placed in the predicate&apos;s functional position, the resulting formula is true. More precisely: Suppose PRED is an N-ary instance of #$FunctionalPredicate that is functional in its Kth place. Given any (N-1)-tuple &lt;O(1), ..., O(K-1), O(K+1), ..., O(N)&gt; consisting of things that are, respectively, legal arguments (i.e. satisfy the argument-constraints) for the N-1 argument-places in PRED other than its argK-place, there is at most one thing -- call it O(K) -- such that (PRED O(1) ... O(N)) is true. (The one exception to the above is when the argument-format for PRED&apos;s functional argument-place is #$IntervalEntry (q.v.). In that case there might be more than one instance of #$ScalarInterval that, when put in this argument-place, yields a true formula; but all of these scalar intervals must be related to one another by #$overlapsIntervals.) For example, #$biologicalMother is functional in its second argument-place, since every animal has one and only one biological mother. It can happen that, for some ways of fixing PRED&apos;s other arguments, there will be _nothing_ that would yield a true formula when put into PRED&apos;s functional argument-place; for example, while a spatial thing has at most one length (see #$lengthOfObject), if it is (say) a sphere it has none. A binary #$FunctionalPredicate that is functional in its second argument is an instance of #$FunctionalSlot (q.v.).>, guid = "bd58dc77-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FunctionalPredicate rel isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss FunctionOrFunctionalPredicate, iss Predicate; FunctionalSlot ismem Class; FunctionalSlot has label = "functional slots", comment = <A specialization of #$FunctionalPredicate each instance of which is a binary predicate that is functional in its second argument position. More precisely, a functional binary predicate PRED is an instance of #$FunctionalSlot if and only if, for any legal occupant THING1 of PRED&apos;s arg1 position, there is at most one legal occupant THING2 of PRED&apos;s arg2 position such that (PRED THING1 THING2) holds. #$FunctionalSlot is in effect one half of the intersection of #$BinaryPredicate and #$FunctionalPredicate, containing those whose second argument is functional. Examples: #$latitude, #$countryOfAddress, #$stateOfDevice, #$femaleParentActor.>, guid = "bd5881a4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FunctionalSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss FunctionalPredicate, iss Property; FundamentalNumericAttributeType ismem Class; FundamentalNumericAttributeType has label = "fundamental numeric attribute type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$FundamentalNumericAttributeType is a collection of measurable attributes, including #$Distance, #$Time-Quantity, #$Currency, #$Mass, etc. The types of attributes in this collection are `fundamental&apos; when contrasted with other attributes which are derived from them (such as #$Volume, #$Speed, etc.). Cf. #$DerivedNumericAttributeType.>, guid = "bd59059d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FundamentalNumericAttributeType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, iss MeasurableAttributeType, iss PrimitiveAttributeType, xor DerivedNumericAttributeType; Fungus ismem Class; Fungus has label = "fungus", comment = <The collection of fungi, the stationary, saprophytic, and symbiotic or parasitic eukaryotic organisms constituting an instance of #$BiologicalKingdom in many systems of classification. #$Fungus includes as subsets the collections #$Mushroom, #$Yeast, and #$RingwormFungus. Unlike most other instances of #$Plant, mushrooms are incapable of performing processes of #$Photosynthesis.>, guid = "bd589909-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Fungus rel isu BiologicalKingdom, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss Organism-Whole; FurniturePiece ismem Class; FurniturePiece has label = "pieces of furniture", comment = <A collection of durable artifacts which are used in #$HumanShelterConstructions to make human dwelling places more comfortable. An instance of #$FurniturePiece is a whole piece of furniture, such as a table, chair, or chest of drawers; an arm of a sofa is not a #$FurniturePiece. Its subsets can be classified according to the main functions their elements serve: (1) providing support for people&apos;s bodies while they are seated or reclining (e.g., #$Bed-PieceOfFurniture, #$Sofa-PieceOfFurniture, #$FootStool, #$FixedTheaterSeat); (2) providing work/action surfaces (e.g., #$Desk-PieceOfFurniture, #$DiningRoomTable); (3) providing organized and/or protective storage for people&apos;s stuff (e.g., #$Dresser-PieceOfFurniture, #$Bookcase-PieceOfFurniture); (4) providing extra illumination or some other function in living and work areas (e.g., #$ElectricLamp). Most pieces of furniture belong to the collection #$NonPoweredDevice (q.v.) in that they don&apos;t need any energy input in order to do their function. Note: Yes, of course lamps, fancy console TVs, hospital beds, etc. are exceptions to that last rule -- they require power. But in a sense they are really objects performing multiple independent functions. A fancy console TV is a piece of furniture even when it&apos;s turned off; it just so happens to fulfill two roles, one as a piece of furniture and one as an appliance. When it&apos;s turned on, in fact, its users are intended to stop noticing it as a piece of furniture.)>, guid = "bd58d01d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FurniturePiece rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss SolidTangibleProduct, iss HOCObject, iss PhysicalDevice, xor RoomInAConstruction; FusionEvent ismem Class; FusionEvent has label = "fusion event", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$FusionEvent, two or more objects fuse together, yielding a product.>, guid = "bd58ad78-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; FusionEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType; GainingUserRights ismem Class; GainingUserRights has label = "transfers of user rights", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$GainingUserRights, some #$Agent gains possession of something. Thus, in such an event, that agent newly acquires a right (viz., some #$UserRightsAttribute) to use some item. The item in question is identified as the #$objectOfPossessionTransfer, and the agent is the #$toPossessor (i.e., the one to whom the possession comes). The #$Agent may or may not be a #$deliberateActors in the event; e.g., buying a car is done on purpose, but receiving a car as a gift isn&apos;t. If either of those two events happen to you, though, it is an element of the collection #$GainingUserRights.>, guid = "bd6460d7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GainingUserRights rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TransferIn, iss ChangeInUserRights, xor AbandoningSomething; GammaRay ismem Class; GammaRay has label = "gamma rays", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$ElectromagneticRadiation. Each element of #$GammaRay is an instance of electromagnetic radiation that has a #$wavelength less than 1x10^-2 #$Angstroms. Low power #$GammaRays overlap with high power #$XRays.>, guid = "c05ce4b7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GammaRay rel iss ElectromagneticRadiation; GaseousStateOfMatter isu StateOfMatter-SolidLiquidGaseous; GaseousStateOfMatter has label = "gaseous", comment = <A basic physical state of matter. #$GaseousStateOfMatter characterizes pieces of matter that are at a high enough temperature or low enough pressure for the type of matter involved that the molecules are not bonded even weakly to their neighbors, and readily break free. Gaseous objects are characterized at the macroscopic level by having diffuse boundaries (when outside of containers), no shape independent of a container, and by great expandability and compressibility. Examples of things that typically have this attribute are: the helium in a child&apos;s balloon; the oxygen in Earth&apos;s atmosphere; the water vapor in Earth&apos;s atmosphere.>, guid = "bd58bd5f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GaseousTangibleThing ismem Class; GaseousTangibleThing has label = "gaseous objects", comment = <A collection of tangible substances. Each element of #$GaseousTangibleThing is a tangible thing which shares many of the properties that matter in a #$GaseousStateOfMatter exhibits; i.e., its shapes would completely conform to the boundaries of a vessel containing it, and it is compressible (however, not all instances of #$GaseousTangibleThing can be said to have #$GaseousStateOfMatter, because that&apos;s reserved for pure compounds). Examples of #$GaseousTangibleThing: pieces of matter in #$GaseousStateOfMatter like the helium in a child&apos;s balloon; mixures of gasses such as #$TheAtmosphereQuaSinglePieceOfStuff; and suspensions of liquids and solids in gas such as #$Fog and #$Smoke. Cf. #$FluidTangibleThing, #$LiquidTangibleThing.>, guid = "bd58c52b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GaseousTangibleThing rel isu TangibleStuffStateType, iss FluidTangibleThing, xor Particle, xor LiquidTangibleThing; GenderOfLivingThing ismem Class; GenderOfLivingThing has label = "genders", comment = <The collection of genders that organisms can have.>, guid = "bd58a890-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GenderOfLivingThing rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, isu AttributeType, isu SiblingDisjointAttributeType, iss AttributeValue; GeneralMicrotheory ismem Class; GeneralMicrotheory has label = "general microtheory", comment = <The collection consisting of every #$Microtheory intended to contain general axioms useful for multiple purposes. This excludes microtheories which deal with specific situations, such as instances of #$ProblemSolvingCntxt, microtheories that represent the information content of one specific #$InformationBearingObject such as the US Declaration of Independence, or those which are purely lexical microtheories. Examples of this collection are #$HumanSocialLifeMt, #$BuyingMt, and #$NaiveAnimalsMt. Negative examples include #$GeneralLexiconMt (purely lexical) and #$PeopleDataMt (no general axioms).>, guid = "bd589197-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeneralMicrotheory rel isu ObjectType, isu MicrotheoryType, iss Microtheory, xor SomethingExisting; GeneralizedTransfer ismem Class; GeneralizedTransfer has label = "transfers", comment = <This collection is a subset of #$Event. Each element of #$GeneralizedTransfer is an event in which something (tangible or intangible) is transferred from one `place&apos; to another. #$GeneralizedTransfer includes changes in physical location, in ownership or possession, transfer of information, and propagation of wave phenomena through space. See also the related predicate #$transferredThing, and the specialized subsets of this collection.>, guid = "bd588eb6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeneralizedTransfer rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Path-Simple, iss Event, xor Place; GenericQuantity ismem Class; GenericQuantity has label = "extents", comment = <#$GenericQuantity is a specialization of #$ScalarInterval. Each instance of #$GenericQuantity is a generic measure that is not numerically specified. Examples: #$Low, #$Medium, #$High, #$HighToVeryHigh. When such quantities are related to their subject by a specialized predicate (e.g., #$feelsTowardsEvent, #$goalImportance), they may represent amounts in specialized areas, including strength of emotional responses and importance of goals. See also #$GenericValueFunction, #$followingValue.>, guid = "bd58998e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GenericQuantity rel iss ScalarInterval; GenericShapeType ismem Class; GenericShapeType has label = "generic shape type", comment = <A collection of collections. Instances of #$GenericShapeType are collections representing types of shapes that make no committment to being either purely abstract or to being located in the physical world. Therefore, each instance of GenericShapeType is going to have some abstract and some localized instances. #$GenericShapeType is distinguished from #$AbstractShapeType (q.v.), which is the collection of those collections that are instances of #$ShapeType, and all of whose elements are abstract. There is no &apos;LocalizedShapeType&apos;.>, guid = "c14f9295-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GenericShapeType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss ShapeType, xor AbstractShapeType; GenericValueFunction ismem Class; GenericValueFunction has label = "generic value function", comment = <A collection of Cyc functions; a subset of #$IndividualDenotingFunction. Each element of #$GenericValueFunction is a function that can be applied to an element of #$LinearOrderAttributeType and returns some `generic&apos; amount (e.g., high, medium, low) of that attribute. Such functions are particularly useful for qualitative, hard-to-quantify attribute types, e.g., #$Happiness, #$Fragility, #$Absorbency, #$Glamor, etc. They save us from having to create individually the various levels of attributes like #$Happiness, #$Fragility, etc. Instead, for example, we need only refer to (#$HighAmountFn #$Happiness) as an alternative to painstakingly reifying `HighHappiness&apos; and hand-entering all the formulas that such a constant requires (e.g. #$isa, #$followingValue, etc.). The compositionality afforded by the elements of #$GenericValueFunction allows this overhead to be taken care of automatically. (Rode, 11/9/1998) See also #$GenericQuantity and #$GenValueFn.>, guid = "bf2a2ba8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GenericValueFunction rel isu RelationshipType, iss IndividualDenotingFunction, iss ReifiableFunction; GeneticCondition ismem Class; GeneticCondition has label = "genetic conditions", comment = <A collection of physiological conditions. An instance of #$GeneticCondition is an abnormal condition which developed in a particular organism due to that organism&apos;s genetic configuration. Such conditions are not contagious as infections are, but they may be hereditary. They are often harmful, in fact they are often #$AilmentConditions, such as encephalitis. Occasionally, though the mutation is beneficial, in which case it would be wrong to also label it an #$AilmentCondition.>, guid = "c0fd5d45-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeneticCondition rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss ChronicCondition, iss CongenitalCondition, xor Infection; GenlAttributesFormat isu Format; GenlAttributesFormat has label = "genl attributes format", comment = <If a predicate P has #$GenlAttributesFormat for argument position N, then given some particular list of terms that occupy the other argument positions of P, there may be multiple assertions with different terms in position N (keeping the other arguments fixed), but only so long as the terms in position N are all interrelated by the predicate #$genlAttributes. For example, the #$arg3Format of #$directionBetweenObjects is #$GenlAttributesFormat. This allows us to state both (#$directionBetweenObjects #$PotomacRiver #$HudsonBay #$North-Generally) and (#$directionBetweenObjects #$PotomacRiver #$HudsonBay #$North-Directly) in a #$Microtheory in which (#$genlAttributes #$North-Directly #$North-Generally).>, guid = "bf4f4c20-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GenlPredsFormat isu Format; GenlPredsFormat has label = "genl preds format", comment = <If a predicate P has #$GenlPredsFormat for argument position N, then given some particular list of terms that occupy the other argument positions of P, there may be multiple assertions with different terms in position N (keeping the other arguments fixed), but only so long as the terms in position N are all interrelated by the predicate #$genlPreds. For example, the #$arg3Format of #$soleFunction is #$GenlPredsFormat. This allows us to state both (#$typeSoleFunction #$Bus-RoadVehicle #$TransportInvolvingADriver #$transporter) and (#$typeSoleFunction #$TransportInvolvingADriver #$vehicle) in a #$Microtheory in which (#$genlPreds #$vehicle #$transporter).>, guid = "c0e81674-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GenlsFormat isu Format; GenlsFormat has label = "genls format", comment = <If a predicate P has #$GenlsFormat for argument position N, then given some particular list of terms that occupy the other argument positions of P, there may be multiple assertions with different terms in position N (keeping the other arguments fixed), but only so long as the terms in position N are all interrelated by the predicate #$genls. For example, the #$arg1Format of #$soleProductType is #$GenlsFormat. This allows us to state both (#$soleProductType #$AlfaRomeoTheCompany #$SportsCar) and (#$soleProductType #$AlfaRomeoTheCompany #$AlfaRomeoCar) in a #$Microtheory in which (#$genls #$AlfaRomeoCar #$SportsCar).>, guid = "c088dcf7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeographicalDirection ismem Class; GeographicalDirection has label = "directions", comment = <A specialization of #$UnitVectorInterval. #$GeographicalDirections derive from the &apos;intrinsic&apos; directional axes of a terrestrial frame of reference: North, South, East, West, geographic &apos;Up&apos; and geographic &apos;Down&apos;. Like all #$VectorIntervals, they may be specified precisely--e.g., #$North-Directly or as intervals--e.g., #$North-Generally. With respect to &apos;up&apos; and &apos;down&apos;, care should be taken to distinguish a #$TopAndBottomSidedObject&apos;s &apos;intrinsic&apos; up and down from &apos;up&apos; and &apos;down&apos; with respect to the surface of the Earth or some other planet.>, guid = "bd58dbdb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeographicalDirection rel isu ObjectType, iss TerrestrialDirection, iss DirectionExpression; GeographicalRegion ismem Class; GeographicalRegion has label = "geographical regions", comment = <A collection of spatial regions that include some piece of the surface of a planet (usually #$PlanetEarth). Each element of #$GeographicalRegion is a #$PartiallyTangible entity that may be represented on a map of the planet. This includes purely topographical regions like mountains and underwater spaces, places defined by demographics, e.g., language areas, and territory otherwise demarcated, e.g. #$TimeZones. In dualist geopolitical contexts [see #$DualistGeopoliticalMt], instances of #$GeopoliticalEntity are also considered to be instances of #$GeographicalRegion. In all cases the region in question must contain some tangible component with which it is possible to make physical contact. The elements of #$GeographicalRegion contrast in this respect with the elements of #$GeographicalThing-Intangible, which are wholly imaginary . Examples of #$GeographicalRegions: #$RockyMountainStates-USRegion, the #$ContinentOfAustralia, #$SinaiPeninsula, and -- in dualist geopolitical contexts -- #$YaleUniversity and #$CityOfPittsburghPA. Some important types of regions are represented by the subsets #$LanguageArea, #$TimeZone, #$PostalCodeRegion, #$EcologicalRegion, #$ConstructionSite, and -- in dualist geopolitical contexts -- #$GeopoliticalEntity. No elements of #$GeographicalRegion are wholly indoor locations.>, guid = "bd588009-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeographicalRegion rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Place, iss Surface-Physical, xor CommercialOrganization; GeometricThing ismem Class; GeometricThing has label = "geometric forms", comment = <A subset of #$SpatialThing. Each element of #$GeometricThing is a spatial thing that can be described mathematically. Examples include spatially localized objects, such as the equator, and abstract objects, such as abstract shapes of various dimensions.>, guid = "bd58c42e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeometricThing rel isu ObjectType, iss SpatialThing; GeometricThing-Abstract ismem Class; GeometricThing-Abstract has label = "abstract shapes", comment = <A specialization of #$GeometricThing each of whose instances is abstract in the sense of being intangible (see #$Intangible) as well as lacking spatial and temporal location. Each instance of #$GeometricThing-Abstract is an abstract region of an abstract space (the latter having two or more dimensions). Geometric figures that are located in this (or another) universe are not instances of this collection, but of #$GeometricThing-Localized.>, guid = "bd5885bc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeometricThing-Abstract rel isu ObjectType, iss GeometricThing, iss MathematicalObject, iss GeometricThing-Intangible, xor GeometricThing-Localized; GeometricThing-Intangible ismem Class; GeometricThing-Intangible has label = "geometric thing - intangible", comment = <The collection of all intangible #$GeometricThings whether they are spatially localized or purely abstract. This is the #$collectionIntersection of #$GeometricThing and #$Intangible. Positive examples are any intangible things that are characterizable in geometric terms, such as the intangible space determined by an Egyptian pyramid, a platonic sphere, or the center of mass of the solar system at the first instant of the twentieth century (a point). Important specializations are #$GeometricThing-Localized (all spatially localized instances) and #$GeometricThing-Abstract (all instances not spatially located in any universe).>, guid = "c12c73ef-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeometricThing-Intangible rel isu ObjectType, iss Intangible, iss GeometricThing; GeometricThing-Localized ismem Class; GeometricThing-Localized has label = "geometric thing - localized", comment = <A collection of spatially localized (but intangible) objects #$SpatialThing-Localized. Positive examples are any things that both have some location or position in the Universe, and are characterizable in geometric terms, such as the intangible spaces determined by, for example, the pyramids of Egypt (pyramids), the Sun (a sphere), or the center of mass of the solar system at the first instant of the twentieth century (a point). #$GeometricThing-Localized is identical with (#$LocalizedFn #$GeometricThing) (see the #$cyclistNotes on this page for why we need this constant reified anyway). #$GeometricThing-Localized includes as specs (#$LocalizedFn #$Circle), (#$LocalizedFn #$Square), and in general all the &apos;localized realizations&apos; of the generic geometric collections.>, guid = "c1350e38-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeometricThing-Localized rel isu ObjectType, iss GeometricThing, iss Intangible, iss GeometricThing-Intangible, xor GeometricThing-Abstract; GeopoliticalEntity ismem Class; GeopoliticalEntity has label = "political entities", comment = <A collection of #$LegalAgents which control #$GeographicalRegions. Each element of #$GeopoliticalEntity includes the governing body of the institution as well as the institution itself. In a dualist microtheory (e.g. #$WorldGeographyDualistMt) an instance of #$GeopoliticalEntity includes a politically defined geographical region taken together with its people, artificial habitats, etc., as well. (#$TerritoryFn GEOPOLITICAL_ENTITY) is used to refer to the land mass of GEOPOLITICAL_ENTITY in #$WorldGeographyMt. Important subsets include #$Country, #$IndependentCountry, #$State-Geopolitical, #$City, #$Province. Examples: #$CityOfTokyoJapan, #$BronxNY-Borough, #$Alaska-State, #$Rwanda, #$Singapore, #$InnerMongolia, #$Somerset-CountyEngland, #$Taiwan-RepublicOfChina. Although the name #$GeopoliticalEntity may suggest otherwise, elements are not necessarily elements of #$Entity.>, guid = "bd58e5da-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GeopoliticalEntity rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, iss LegalAgent; GermanLanguage isu LivingLanguage; GermanLanguage has label = "German", comment = <In its standard version, the dominant form of High German.>, guid = "bd58d018-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Germany isu GeographicalRegion; Germany has label = "Germany", comment = <Germany, a medium-sized #$IndependentCountry in the north of the #$ContinentOfEurope. Germany throughout time, both political and physical aspects.>, guid = "bd58f83c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GerundiveNoun ismem Class; GerundiveNoun has label = "gerundive noun", comment = <The collection of all gerunds, that is deverbal nouns formed (in English) with the suffix &apos;-ing&apos;. Gerundive nouns usually denote a type of action (with mass agreement) or an instance thereof (with count agreement).>, guid = "bdde941c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GerundiveNoun rel isu SpeechPart, ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss DeVerbalNoun; Gesture ismem Class; Gesture has label = "gestures", comment = <A collection of configurations; a subset of #$VisualInformationSource. Each element of #$Gesture is a configuration of animal body parts that has some meaning to an observer with an understanding of the interpretive convention. A gesture may include some tool or prop. Gestures may be fleeting (e.g., a hello wave) or may last a long time (e.g., the gesture embodied in the #$StatueOfLiberty). Note that, as defined in Cyc, a gesture is a meaningful configuration of body parts, NOT the actions producing the arrangement; for representation of the actions, see #$MakingAGesture.>, guid = "bd590c05-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Gesture rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss VisualInformationSource, iss Situation-Temporal; GiftGiving ismem Class; GiftGiving has label = "gifts", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$GiftGiving, one #$Agent intentionally gives all use rights over an object (see #$UserRightsAttribute) to another #$Agent without taking payment in return.>, guid = "bd58ee61-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GiftGiving rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss GivingSomething, xor ExchangeOfUserRights; GivingSomething ismem Class; GivingSomething has label = "giving events", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$GivingSomething, one #$Agent gives a tangible thing to another #$Agent. Every #$GivingSomething event can also be thought of as a receiving event. Note: The common case in which one #$Agent gives ownership of an object to another #$Agent is represented by the subset #$GiftGiving.>, guid = "bd58c4c8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GivingSomething rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss TransferringPossession, iss AnimalActivity, xor UnintendedLossOfUserRights; Glass ismem Class; Glass has label = "glass", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Glass is a piece of glass; e.g., a wine bottle, a plate glass window, a microscope slide, a crystal water goblet, the mirrors of a reflecting telescope.>, guid = "bd5886fb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Glass rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss InorganicStuff; GoingToSleep ismem Class; GoingToSleep has label = "going to sleep", comment = <The collection of events in which an #$Animal goes from the state of being awake to being in a state of sleep.>, guid = "bd58b14a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GoingToSleep rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss SingleDoerAction, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, iss AnimalActivity; GolfCart ismem Class; GolfCart has label = "golf carts", comment = <The collection of all motorized vehicles that are designed for golfers to use to drive around on #$GolfCourses while they are playing #$GolfGames. GolfCarts drive very slowly compared with #$Automobiles.>, guid = "c0fce4ee-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GolfCart rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss TransportationDevice-Vehicle; GovernmentCOC ismem Class; GovernmentCOC has label = "governmental regulations", comment = <A collection of microtheories; a subset of #$FormalCOC (the set of formal codes of conduct). Each instance of #$GovernmentCOC is a formal regulation of behavior imposed upon agents -- including citizens, tourists, businesses, government entities, etc., in so far as they are subject to it -- who are located within the legal jurisdiction where that code of conduct holds. #$GovernmentCOC includes both individual laws and whole legal codes. Some examples of #$GovernmentCOC include: the Napoleonic Code, the United States Constitution and all Federal, State, and local laws of the United States, and the particular laws against stealing found in most, if not all, countries. Enforcement of a particular instance of #$GovernmentCOC is authorized by the government associated with that code and carried out by its agents within their jurisdiction(s). See also #$LegalCode and #$Law.>, guid = "bd58a160-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GovernmentCOC rel isu MicrotheoryType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss FormalCOC; GovernmentLeaderNote isu SharedNote; GovernmentLeaderNote has label = "government leader note", comment = <The distinction between #$HeadOfGovernment and #$HeadOfState is a subtle one. #$HeadOfGovernment is the set of #$Leaders who actually run the government. #$HeadOfState is the set of #$Leaders who are mainly ceremonial figures, fulfilling diplomatic roles such as hosting foreign dignitaries. For a given #$Country, these two roles may be filled by the same person, such as #$BillClinton for the #$UnitedStatesOfAmerica in 1996, or by two separate individuals; for example, in 1996 the #$HeadOfState for #$GreatBritain-TheIsland would be #$QueenElizabethII, while the #$HeadOfGovernment would be John Major (#$PrimeMinister-HeadOfGovernment). Cyc constant names indicate which government role is associated with a particular title; e.g., #$Sultan-HeadOfGovernment vs. #$Sultan-HeadOfState.>, guid = "bd59a14c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GovernmentMilitaryOrganization ismem Class; GovernmentMilitaryOrganization has label = "government military organizations", comment = <The collection of all #$MilitaryOrganizations which belong to, and are directed by, the governing body of a geographical region or international organization. The government organization may be a national government, state or provincial government, or an international governing body such as the #$UnitedNationsOrganization. The military forces may include armies, navies, air forces, military border patrols, coast guards, etc. This collection excludes private armies and mercenary forces.>, guid = "bd5f3555-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GovernmentMilitaryOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MilitaryOrganization, iss LegalGovernmentOrganization; GovernmentOfCountry ismem Class; GovernmentOfCountry has label = "national governments", comment = <A collection of regional government organizations. An element of #$GovernmentOfCountry is the government of some element of #$Country; e.g., #$UnitedStatesFederalGovernment. See also the Cyc function #$GovernmentFn, which can be used to refer to the government of a political region. The governments of smaller regions within a country may or may not be #$subOrganizations of that country&apos;s government; in `federal&apos; systems the smaller regions often have partly autonomous governments, as do the elements of #$State-UnitedStates.>, guid = "c10aeef9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GovernmentOfCountry rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss RegionalGovernment; Granular isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Granular has label = "granular", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Granular is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute that describes a solid that consists of granules and has a grainy texture; e.g., sand, sugar, salt.>, guid = "bd58f710-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GraspingImplement ismem Class; GraspingImplement has label = "grasping implements", comment = <A collection of tools. An instance of #$GraspingImplement is a tool which is intended to be used to grasp (and often to subsequently immobilize or control the location/movement of) some other solid object. Examples include each #$Vise, each pair of #$Forceps, each #$MonkeyWrench, each pair of #$Tweezers, etc. But not a balloon, a syringe, a doorstop, a cage, etc. A marginal positive example would be a magnetic tool designed to pick up something without actually touching it.>, guid = "bd58c762-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GraspingImplement rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss HandTool; GraspingSomethingWithATool ismem Class; GraspingSomethingWithATool has label = "grasping something with a tool", comment = <A collection of the events in which a tool is used to grasp some object.>, guid = "bd58de3e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GraspingSomethingWithATool rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType; Gratitude ismem Class; Gratitude has label = "thanksgivings", comment = <A feeling of appreciation towards another agent for a benefit or favor received from him/her. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "bd588970-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Gratitude rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; GreetingSomeone ismem Class; GreetingSomeone has label = "salutes", comment = <The collection of actions performed by one #$Agent to greet another. Includes verbal and physical greetings.>, guid = "bd58cdbd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GreetingSomeone rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss SociabilityBasedAction, iss CommunicationAct-Single; Grilled isu PreparationAttribute; Grilled has label = "grilled", comment = <The attribute #$Grilled is a specialized form of #$Cooked. Food that is #$Grilled has been prepared in an event of #$GrillingFood, using a #$BBQGrill or an #$ElectricGrill.>, guid = "bd58f553-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GrillingFood ismem Class; GrillingFood has label = "barbecues", comment = <Cooking food on a #$BBQGrill or an #$ElectricGrill.>, guid = "bd58baa8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GrillingFood rel ismem Class, iss CookingFood; GroundsOfOrganization ismem Class; GroundsOfOrganization has label = "headquarters", comment = <A collection of smallish geographical regions. Each element of #$GroundsOfOrganization is an area which contains buildings inhabited by some organization. Examples: the campus of the #$UniversityOfTexasAtAustin or the grounds of #$SetonNorthwestHospital. Note that the `grounds&apos; of an organization, especially an organization with urban locations, might not include a yard.>, guid = "bd58f5c9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GroundsOfOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Place, iss RealEstate, iss OutdoorLocation; Group ismem Class; Group has label = "groups", comment = <A collection of objects. Each element of #$Group is a composite object, made up of individual members which may be either events or objects. A group is related to its members by the predicate #$groupMembers (q.v.). Note that elements of #$Group are NOT collections; consider: a group has temporal extent and may have spatial extent and location, while a collection is timeless and abstract. Nonetheless, it is possible to define a collection parallel to any group, so that the #$groupMembers of that group are also instances (#$isa&apos;s) of the correlated collection; e.g., each toe on my left foot is both an element of the collection of my left toes and a member of the group of toes on my left foot. But that group (of my left toes) is a spatiotemporal thing, while the correlated collection (of my left toes) is NOT. Another example: if I consider a certain flock of pigeons as having a location, a spatial extent, and a time of existence, then I am considering (the pigeon flock) a group and NOT a collection. As a default, a group whose #$groupMembers are elements of #$SomethingExisting is itself an element of #$SomethingExisting; and a group whose #$groupMembers are elements of #$Event is itself an element of #$Event. Finally, unlike a collection, a group cannot be empty; a group must have some #$groupMembers, or there is no group (at that point in time). Examples of #$Group: #$QueensGuard, #$ThreeWiseMen, #$SantasReindeer, #$InternationalCommunity.>, guid = "bd58e6a0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Group rel isu ObjectType, iss TemporalThing, iss Situation-Temporal; Guest ismem CoreConstant; Guest has label = "Guest", comment = <This constant is for use by guests (users who may not have full rights of access) who want to interact with Cyc.>, guid = "bd5ad700-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GuidingAMovingObject ismem Class; GuidingAMovingObject has label = "guide", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of both #$ControllingSomething and #$Movement-TranslationEvent. An instance of #$GuidingAMovingObject is an event in which an agent guides or steers an object which is in motion. For example, someone steering a car or a motorcycle, controlling a surfboard, or flying a kite. If all you `guide&apos; is a rotation, then that is not quite a #$GuidingAMovingObject event. Also, if no motion actually takes place, then it would be stretching things to call that a `guiding.&apos; So a marginal example is #$Running (you are guiding yourself) and two marginal non-examples are: spinning in place, and running in place.>, guid = "c100601b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; GuidingAMovingObject rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss DirectedTranslation, iss ControllingSomething; Guilt ismem Class; Guilt has label = "guilt", comment = <Negative, self-accusatory feeling of responsibility and blameworthiness for having caused harm by a past action, usually with conscious intent. Note that this is not `guilty vs. innocent&apos;, but rather the feeling of guiltiness. An unremorseful killer, though guilty (as opposed to innocent) of the murder, may not feel any #$Guilt (i.e., guiltiness) about it. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "bd58e14d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Guilt rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Shame; Gulf ismem Class; Gulf has label = "gulfs", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each element of #$Gulf is a part of a sea extending into a land mass. Many gulfs are the outlet for a large river system. Examples of #$Gulf include the #$SaronicGulf, #$GulfOfMexico, #$GulfOfArkangelsk, #$GulfOfCalifornia, and #$PersianGulf.>, guid = "bd590006-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Gulf rel isu ExistingObjectType; Gusty isu WeatherAttribute; Gusty has label = "gusty", comment = <A #$WeatherAttribute indicating that the wind at an #$OutdoorLocation is subject to sudden changes in direction and intensity.>, guid = "bd58aa29-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLAssertion ismem Class; HLAssertion has label = "h l assertion", comment = <The collection of assertions in the HL language, used internally by Cyc&apos;s inference engine.>, guid = "c066205f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLAssertion rel ismem CoreConstant, iss HLIndexedTerm, iss HLReifiedFormula, iss CycLSentence, iss CycLAssertion, xor ELSentence, xor ELAssertion; HLExpression ismem Class; HLExpression has label = "h l expression", comment = <The collection of all syntactically well-formed expressions in the HL language. All of their subexpressions, if any, must also be in the HL language.>, guid = "c1359f2c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLExpression rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLExpression; HLIndexedTerm ismem Class; HLIndexedTerm has label = "h l indexed term", comment = <The collection of indexed terms in the HL language, used by the internals of Cyc. All these terms have special indexing support in Cyc&apos;s inference engine. Indexed terms are currently (September 2000) constants, NARTs, and assertions.>, guid = "bfff7db5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLIndexedTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLIndexedTerm, iss HLExpression; HLNonAtomicReifiedTerm ismem Class; HLNonAtomicReifiedTerm has label = "NART", comment = <The collection of all non-atomic denotational terms in the HL language, used internally by the inference engine. These are HL formulas with an instance of #$ReifiableFunction as their functor and optionally other HL terms as their arguments. These HL NATs are often called NARTs , which stands for Non-Atomic Reified Term. The difference between HL NATs and reifiable EL NATs should be transparent to users of Cyc, because the #$CycCanonicalizer automatically transforms all reifiable EL NATs into HL NATs.>, guid = "c0dbf70e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLNonAtomicReifiedTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss HLIndexedTerm, iss HLReifiedDenotationalTerm, iss CycLReifiableNonAtomicTerm, iss CycLNonAtomicTerm, iss CycLNonAtomicReifiedTerm, iss HLReifiedFormula, xor CycLConstant, xor ELNonAtomicTerm; HLReifiedDenotationalTerm ismem Class; HLReifiedDenotationalTerm has label = "FORT", comment = <The collection of reified denotational terms in the HL language. These terms are used by the internals of Cyc, such as the inference engine. They are often called &apos;FORTs&apos;, which stands for &apos;first-order reified terms&apos;.>, guid = "c0a890e7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLReifiedDenotationalTerm rel ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm, iss CycLIndexedTerm, iss CycLReifiedDenotationalTerm, iss HLIndexedTerm, xor CycLAssertion; HLReifiedFormula ismem Class; HLReifiedFormula has label = "h l reified formula", comment = <The collection of reified formulas in the HL language. This includes HL NARTs and HL assertions.>, guid = "c0f093d9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLReifiedFormula rel ismem CoreConstant, iss HLExpression, iss HLIndexedTerm, iss CycLFormula, xor ELFormula; HLVariable ismem Class; HLVariable has label = "h l variable", comment = <The collection of all variables in the HL language, used internally by the inference engine and not normally visible to users of Cyc.>, guid = "bed98018-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HLVariable rel ismem CoreConstant, iss CycLVariable, iss HLExpression, xor ELVariable; HOCObject ismem Class; HOCObject has label = "furnishings", comment = <A collection of artifacts. #$HOCObject is a very general collection for all artifacts that are found in places where humans live or work, i.e., in some element of #$HumanOccupationConstruct (= HOC). Since these objects are considered to be found indoors, they are all roughly `human-sized&apos;. Elements include everything from furniture to tools, appliances to artwork, medical examining tables to church altars and pews.>, guid = "bd590775-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HOCObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Artifact; HailProcess ismem Class; HailProcess has label = "hail", comment = <The collection of instances of #$PrecipitationProcess in which solid particles or small chunks of water ice fall to the earth from clouds.>, guid = "bd589b65-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HailProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss PrecipitationProcess; HailStone ismem Class; HailStone has label = "hailstones", comment = <The collection of solid particles or small chunks of ice emitted from clouds in instances of #$HailProcess.>, guid = "bd58f574-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HailStone rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PrecipitationParticle; Hand ismem Class; Hand has label = "hands", comment = <The collection of all terminal parts of a #$Vertebrate forelimb which are structurally suited to function as a grasping organ (as in people, newts, etc.). E.g., FerdinandTheBull has his forelimbs end in hooves, which are not capable of grasping things, so those are NOT considered #$Hands.>, guid = "bd588655-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hand rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, isu SymmetricAnatomicalPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject, iss Appendage-AnimalBodyPart; HandTool ismem Class; HandTool has label = "manual tools", comment = <The collection #$HandTool is a subset of #$Tool. Each element of #$HandTool fills all the requirements for a generic tool, plus the requirement that a hand tool is a portable object which is hand-guided throughout its operation. Examples include the elements of #$Screwdriver, #$ManualDrill, and #$BlowDryer. See also #$Tool, #$PortableObject.>, guid = "bd58a0fa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HandTool rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Tool, iss Device-SingleUser, iss PortableObject; HandlingADevice ismem Class; HandlingADevice has label = "use of a device", comment = <A collection of #$Events; a subset of #$HandlingAnObject. An instance of #$HandlingADevice is an event in which a device is manipulated (with the operator holding and touching the device) in order to use it for its #$primaryFunction. Instances include elements of the subsets #$Pruning, #$PlayingAMusicalInstrument, #$OperatingAHouseholdAppliance, #$PumpingGasEvent, #$WritingByHand, and many more. Just carrying pruning shears around is not a #$HandlingADevice event.>, guid = "bd588c5e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HandlingADevice rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss HandlingAnObject, iss HumanActivity; HandlingAnObject ismem Class; HandlingAnObject has label = "handle", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of both #$ControllingSomething and #$PhysicalContactEvent. An instance of #$HandlingAnObject is an event in which an object is touched and manipulated by some #$Agent. Examples of #$HandlingAnObject include instances of #$HoldingAnObject and of #$CausingAnotherObjectsTranslationalMotion. So just holding a rock in your hand is a #$HandlingAnObject; so is washing your cereal bowl (an instance of #$WashingDishes), cutting a loose thread on your shirt (an instance of #$CuttingAThread), and carrying the rock from one place to another (an instance of #$CarryingWhileLocomoting.) One very important class of #$HandlingAnObject instances involve operating some hand-held device --- i.e., events which are instances of the collection #$HandlingADevice. I.e., the performer handles an object which happens to be a device, but not just lugging it around but actually employing it for its intended #$primaryFunction --- not merely to look at it or rearrange or relocate it. For example, if you move a fork from the dishwasher to the silverware drawer, that&apos;s just #$HandlingAnObject; if you use that fork to eat some food, though, that is an instance of #$HandlingADevice.>, guid = "bd588ca1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HandlingAnObject rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss ControllingSomething, iss ActionOnObject; Happiness ismem Class; Happiness has label = "happily", comment = <The enjoyment of pleasurable satisfaction that goes with well-being, security, effective accomplishments, or satisfied wishes. As with all #$FeelingAttributeTypes, this is a #$Collection -- the set of all possible amounts of happiness one can feel. One instance of #$Happiness is `extremely happy&apos;; another is `just a little bit happy&apos;. Note: Obviously there are no real units of measure for this quantity, ways of objectively measuring the amount of happiness possessed or gained or lost, etc., but still this has proven to be a useful way for Cyc to represent and reason with emotions. E.g., one can have a rule that says that most people have a greater `amount&apos; of happiness at their wedding than at their high school graduation, etc. There are functions, such as #$LowAmountFn, which take a #$PrimitiveAttributeType (such as the instances of #$FeelingAttributeType) such as #$Happiness and return as their value a certain-sized amount of that feeling; e.g., (#$LowAmountFn #$Happiness) is an expression whose value is a positive but small amount of happiness, and that in turn will be an element of #$Happiness (and also will be an element of #$FeelingAttribute and an element of #$AttributeValue, etc.) #$FeelingAttributeTypes organize into a lattice; e.g., there are several more specialized forms of #$Happiness that are present in Cyc&apos;s ontology, such as #$Elation, #$Delight, #$Triumph-TheFeeling, etc.>, guid = "bd58b500-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Happiness rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Harbor ismem Class; Harbor has label = "harbours", comment = <The collection of those parts of a #$BodyOfWater, each of which is protected from the open sea and deep enough to furnish fairly safe anchorage.>, guid = "bd58cdcf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Harbor rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BodyOfWater; HardcopyInformationBearingObject ismem Class; HardcopyInformationBearingObject has label = "hard copies", comment = <A collection of information bearing objects (IBOs). Each element of #$HardcopyInformationBearingObject is an IBO in a `hard&apos; format, e.g., written on paper, on wood, on palm leaves, engraved in metal, carved on stone. Humans can read hardcopy IBOs without using a computer or electronic device to access them. Thus, #$HardcopyInformationBearingObject does NOT include the tangible IBOs which are embodied in magnetic media (e.g., data or music on tapes or disks). Examples of #$HardcopyInformationBearingObject: a billboard, a greeting card, a restaurant check, a magazine, an engraving by Rembrandt, a ten dollar bill, a price tag, or a hardcopy of a #$Map with no text on it.>, guid = "bd58e00e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HardcopyInformationBearingObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Artifact; Hardness ismem Class; Hardness has label = "hardnesses", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Hardness is an attribute describing how much pressure a tangible material can withstand before deforming or fragmenting. Hardnesses may be characterized using a #$GenericValueFunction (q.v.), or relative to certain substances, e.g., #$HardAsARock. Hardnesses of objects are reported using the predicate #$hardnessOfObject.>, guid = "bd58b1c2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hardness rel isu MaterialStrengthType, isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; HardwareTool ismem Class; HardwareTool has label = "tools", comment = <A collection of tools. An instance of #$HardwareTool is an object used to perform a task, usually by applying a particular kind of force on another object. The tool is used to produce a physical effect in the position, structure, or arrangement of the other object. Subsets of #$HardwareTool include #$Hammer, #$Screwdriver, #$HandSaw. An electric drill is also a #$HardwareTool. Borderline nonexamples include eating utensils, robot servants, screws, nails, and levers.>, guid = "bd58c122-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HardwareTool rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss Tool, iss SolidTangibleProduct, iss PhysicalDevice; HarvestingAPlant ismem Class; HarvestingAPlant has label = "pick", comment = <A collection of events. Each instance of #$HarvestingAPlant is an event in which a plant is harvested. Harvesting may involve separating some part of the plant and leaving the rest in place (e.g., fruit trees), or it may involve removing the entire plant from its growing location (e.g., carrots).>, guid = "bd58c0aa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HarvestingAPlant rel isu TemporalObjectType, ismem Class, iss TransportationEvent, iss DirectedTranslation, iss HumanActivity, iss RemovingSomethingByMovingIt; Hat ismem Class; Hat has label = "hats", comment = <A collection of objects. Each element of #$Hat is either a hat or other headgear or hatlike object. Subsets include #$Helmet, #$SwimmingCap, and #$Sombrero.>, guid = "bd58a525-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hat rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss ClothingAccessory; Hate ismem Class; Hate has label = "hatred", comment = <An intense feeling of hostility and aversion, usually deriving from fear, anger, or a sense of injury, and usually coupled with enmity and malice. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "bd58d9e0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hate rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Hostility, iss Contempt; HavingAMeal ismem Class; HavingAMeal has label = "mealtimes", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$HavingAMeal is an event in which one or more diners consume a meal. In addition to #$HavingBreakfast, #$HavingLunch, and #$HavingDinner, this includes #$HavingASnack (among other subsets). Typically, instances of #$HavingAMeal include people eating some food and drinking one or more beverages.>, guid = "bd58cc30-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HavingAMeal rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss EatingEvent, iss HumanActivity, iss PurposefulAction; Head-AnimalBodyPart ismem Class; Head-AnimalBodyPart has label = "heads", comment = <The collection of all heads of #$Animals. [Note: the hyphenated name reflects the need to have other terms in the knowledge base like #$Head-Vertebrate, representing a subset of this set, about which some useful specialized information is stated.]>, guid = "bd58ba60-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Head-AnimalBodyPart rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; Head-Vertebrate ismem Class; Head-Vertebrate has label = "vertebrate heads", comment = <The collection of all heads of #$Vertebrates (animals with backbones). Vertebrate heads all have faces (see #$FaceOfAnimal) and connect to the animal&apos;s torso via a neck; these things are not generally true for most non-vertebrates.>, guid = "bd5883bf-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Head-Vertebrate rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss BiologicalLivingObject, iss Head-AnimalBodyPart; HeadOfGovernment ismem Class; HeadOfGovernment has label = "heads of government", comment = <A collection of persons. Each element of #$HeadOfGovernment is a person who holds a political position as the titular head of the government in some element of #$Country. Titles that such a person might hold include Prime Minister, President, Premier, King or Queen, Minister of State, Sultan, Chacellor, Chairman. Examples: John Major, Benjamin Netanyahu, Bill Clinton. See also #$titleOfPosition. Cf. #$HeadOfState.>, guid = "bd590143-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HeadOfGovernment rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu OccupationType, iss Leader, iss Politician; HeadOfState ismem Class; HeadOfState has label = "heads of state", comment = <A collection of persons. Each element of #$HeadOfState is a person who holds a political position as the titular leader of some element of #$Country. Titles that such a person might hold include President, Premier, Chairman, Sultan, King or Queen, Regent. Examples of #$HeadOfState: #$BillClinton, #$QueenElizabethII, Yasser Arafat, Hirohito, Jiang Zemin. See also #$titleOfPosition. Cf. #$HeadOfGovernment.>, guid = "bd58e773-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HeadOfState rel isu OccupationType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Leader, iss Politician; HealthProfessional ismem Class; HealthProfessional has label = "health professionals", comment = <The collection of all health-related professionals - including medical professionals as well as professionals not in the medical field. For example, health inspectors.>, guid = "bd58a4d2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HealthProfessional rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional, iss HumanAdult; Hearing ismem Class; Hearing has label = "hearing", comment = <The collection of sensory #$Perceivings in which, by means of vibratory sensors, a #$PerceptualAgent #$hears something that is causing (or consisting of) sound waves, and thereby acquires information about it. See also: #$ListeningDeliberately, the subset of #$Hearing events in which the aural stimulus is intentionally attended to.>, guid = "bd58dc32-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hearing rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss Perceiving, xor Reading; Heart ismem Class; Heart has label = "hearts", comment = <The collection of all hearts. A #$Heart is an #$Organ that pumps blood throughout the body of an #$Animal.>, guid = "bd58ef0e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Heart rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; HeatingDevice ismem Class; HeatingDevice has label = "heating device", comment = <A collection of physical devices. The set of #$PhysicalDevices whose #$primaryFunction is to generate heat to raise the temperature of something else. The stuff being heated might be gaseous (air in a room or a hair dryer), liquid (water in a pool or hot water tank), or solid (food in an oven, hair with a curling iron, plastic during its shaping, etc.) An instance of #$HeatingDevice typically has some energy input, some way of converting that energy to heat, and some way of delivering the heat to the object(s) to be heated. A borderline positive example of this is a device which absorbs heat during warm periods such as daytimes, and radiates it back out again during cool periods such as nighttimes. Note that heating must be a primary function of the device; no matter how little you think of your personal computer, it is not a #$HeatingDevice.>, guid = "bd58befe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HeatingDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; HeatingProcess ismem Class; HeatingProcess has label = "heating processes", comment = <#$HeatingProcess is a specialization of #$TemperatureChangingProcess -- that is, (#$genls #$HeatingProcess #$TemperatureChangingProcess). During each #$HeatingProcess event, the temperature of the #$objectOfStateChange is increased by applying heat to the object.>, guid = "bd58d2c2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HeatingProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TemperatureChangingProcess; HeavenlyBody ismem Class; HeavenlyBody has label = "heavenly bodies", comment = <A collection of tangible objects. Each element of #$HeavenlyBody is an astronomical object located in outer space (including the Earth). Elements of #$HeavenlyBody are natural bodies, NOT artificially made objects such as spaceships or communications satellites. Examples: the #$Sun, #$Polaris-TheStar, #$PlanetPluto, #$MoonOfEarth. See also: #$AstronomicalObject.>, guid = "bd58a4b7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HeavenlyBody rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss AstronomicalObject, iss PartiallyTangible; Helicopter ismem Class; Helicopter has label = "helicopters", comment = <The collection of rotary wing, self-powered mechanical devices that fly.>, guid = "bd58ae10-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Helicopter rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss TransportationDevice-Vehicle; HelixShaped isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; HelixShaped has label = "helix shaped", comment = <#$HelixShaped is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all typically shaped helixes (or helix-shaped objects).>, guid = "c03f4a4d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HemisphereShaped isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; HemisphereShaped has label = "hemisphere shaped", comment = <#$HemisphereShaped is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute of three dimensional objects that can be described as half-spheres.>, guid = "bfd40ec2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HemispheresAndCalendars isu SharedNote; HemispheresAndCalendars has label = "hemispheres and calendars", comment = <#$CalendarSeasons are defined by the Gregorian calendar and are synchronized with the equinoxes and solstices. #$SeasonOfYear instances are climatic seasons, events characterized by the weather in a given region. The relationship between #$SeasonOfYear instances and #$CalendarSeasons depends upon the hemisphere (or, more precisely, upon the lattitude.) In the northern hemisphere, north of the tropics, a #$CalendarSummer will significantly intersect with the a #$SummerSeason each year. But in the southern hemisphere, that same #$CalendarSummer (which is the same in both hemispheres) will intersect with what is locally, weatherwise, a #$WinterSeason.>, guid = "bd62ee33-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Herbivore ismem Class; Herbivore has label = "herbivores", comment = <The collection of animals that do not eat other animals, or parts of animals, but instead eat plants or plant parts. #$Ruminant and its subsets #$Deer and #$Sheep are subsets of #$Herbivore.>, guid = "bd5902f1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Herbivore rel isu OrganismClassificationType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal; HerdAnimal ismem Class; HerdAnimal has label = "herd animals", comment = <A subset of #$Animal; the collection of all large plant-eating animals that travel and graze in social groups. Elements of #$HerdAnimal also belong to #$Herbivore; they include most instances of #$Ruminant and may also include Triceretops.>, guid = "bd5f5651-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HerdAnimal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss NonPersonAnimal; HexagonShaped isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; HexagonShaped has label = "hexagon shaped", comment = <This is the shape attribute shared by all six sided two dimensional figures.>, guid = "bf07555a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Highway ismem Class; Highway has label = "highways", comment = <The subcollection of #$Roadway that contains all highways, inside or outside cities.>, guid = "bd58d561-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Highway rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Path-Simple; HindiLanguage isu NaturalLanguage; HindiLanguage has label = "Hindi", comment = <Language spoken in the Indic area.>, guid = "bd58cbdb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Holdings ismem Class; Holdings has label = "collections", comment = <A collection of sets of objects, tangible or intangible, which have some special financial, scientific, cultural, or educational value. An instance of #$Holdings is a set of objects kept and usually maintained by some agent for their value, or to preserve the objects, or to make them available for public display or use (as in a museum&apos;s `holdings&apos; or a library&apos;s `holdings&apos;). The elements in a group of holdings may or may not be all of a similar type (e.g., books, paintings). An agent&apos;s holdings may or may not all be kept in the same location.>, guid = "bd58dc8f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Holdings rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Group; Holiday ismem Class; Holiday has label = "holidays", comment = <Each #$Holiday is an #$Event wherein social celebrations and/or rituals are performed, typically lasting for one #$DaysDuration and typically coinciding with a #$CalendarDay. While #$Holidays are often #$AnnualEvents, they may also be one-time events or scheduled in some other manner. They are also contextual, as different nationalities, eras, etc. celebrate different ones.>, guid = "bd58a9b5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Holiday rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss HumanActivity; HolidaySeason ismem Class; HolidaySeason has label = "holiday seasons", comment = <Instances of #$HolidaySeason are events which encompass the activities around a #$Holiday (or group of #$Holidays). The clearest example is #$ChristmasSeason. While the exact boundaries of a #$HolidaySeason may be vague, it is nonethless a useful concept; in fact, much of the usefulness comes from that very fuzziness: it is hard to define exactly, but there are many things worth saying about it.>, guid = "c1006f0c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HolidaySeason rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Event; Hope ismem Class; Hope has label = "hopeful", comment = <Expectation of fulfillment or success. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "bd5889b2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hope rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Horizon ismem Class; Horizon has label = "horizons", comment = <The collection of all horizons, each being the far-off region within a few degrees of the horizontal plane, where the sky appears to join the distant landscape. The horizon is always relative to a particular point of observation.>, guid = "be00ef13-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Horizon rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Place; HorizontalDirection isu VectorInterval; HorizontalDirection has label = "horizontal direction", comment = <The element of #$VectorInterval that comprises all the vectors which are perpendicular to #$Up-Directly and #$Down-Directly.>, guid = "bd58ba3a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HorizontalOrientation isu OrientationAttribute; HorizontalOrientation has label = "horizontal", comment = <(#$orientation OBJECT #$HorizontalOrientation) means that OBJECT is horizontal with respect to the current instance of #$FrameOfReference. A linear (#$LongAndThin) object is horizontal if and only if its longest axis lies in the horizontal plane. A planar (#$SheetShaped) object is horizontal if and only if its two longest axes lie in the horizontal plane. Typically, horizontal objects include dinner plates, mousepads, ice skating rinks, parking lots, and stratus clouds.>, guid = "c0fbacf8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hospital ismem Class; Hospital has label = "hospitals", comment = <Local (at one site) organizations composed of physicians, support personnel, and usually also administrators. The main function of the organization is to provide medical care (short or long term) to a number of patients/clients, for a fee if the patient/client is able to pay. A clinic services out-patients, while a hospital has in-patients. A hospital may have a clinic as a sub-organization, though.>, guid = "bd5891c1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hospital rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MedicalCareInstitution, iss SingleSiteLocalOrganizationWithClients; HospitalCareEvent ismem Class; HospitalCareEvent has label = "hospital stays", comment = <What happens when you are in the hospital being treated for a disease like Cancer or Hepatitis or AIDS, or recovering from Surgery. This is not just a #$MedicalCareEvent which happens in a hospital; it&apos;s the whole event meant by a hospital stay. Also see #$HospitalRoomStay which only represents the stay in the room.>, guid = "bd58d724-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HospitalCareEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss MedicalCareEvent; HostileSocialAction ismem Class; HostileSocialAction has label = "hostile actions", comment = <The collection of all hostile or pugnacious events, adverse to someone, in which multiple agents take part, at least one of whom is acting deliberately. See also #$PurposefulAction. An element of this collection is #$AssassinationOfPresidentLincoln.>, guid = "bd5883e1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HostileSocialAction rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Action, iss SocialOccurrence, iss PurposefulAction; Hostility ismem Class; Hostility has label = "hostile", comment = <A feeling of strong antagonism towards another agent, organization, or group, sufficient to motivate harmful speech or actions against them. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes than #$Hostility include feelings of #$Hate.>, guid = "c0f484eb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Hostility rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; HotAirBalloon ismem Class; HotAirBalloon has label = "hot-air balloons", comment = <The collection of all hot-air buoyant balloons, #$AirTransportationDevices that usually lack a motor or a means of steering. Each consistes of a gas-bag into which hot air is introduced, and from which a basket or passenger compartment hangs.>, guid = "bd58b336-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HotAirBalloon rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType; HourOfDayType ismem Class; HourOfDayType has label = "hour of day type", comment = <A collection of collections. Instances of #$HourOfDayType are 24 canonical subsets of #$CalendarHour, such as #$TimeOfDay-8AM. This is a proper subset of #$TimeOfDayType, which could include larger or smaller times of the day, such as `before noon&apos; (which in Cyc is named #$TimeOfDay-AM).>, guid = "be011b66-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HourOfDayType rel ismem CollectionType, isu CyclicalIntervalGroupType, iss TimeOfDayType, iss TemporallyDisjointIntervalType; HourlyWork isu WorkStatus; HourlyWork has label = "hourly work", comment = <An attribute; an element of #$WorkStatus. The attribute of being paid an hourly rate for work done.>, guid = "bd58b91a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HouseholdAppliance ismem Class; HouseholdAppliance has label = "appliances", comment = <A collection of devices, a subset of #$MechanicalDevice. It includes those mechanical devices typically found inside a #$HumanResidence. An instance of #$HouseholdAppliance is a device used in one of the tasks typically carried on in a home, such as food preparation, food storage, laundry, household cleaning, personal cleaning, cooling or heating the house for comfort, etc. Examples include elements of the collections #$Oven, #$Refrigerator, #$ClothesDryer, #$VacuumCleaner, #$HotWaterHeater, #$Furnace. Note that a bed, which naively is thought of as having no moving parts, is not a mechanical device, and hence not a #$HouseholdAppliance --- the same is true for most chairs, tables, sofas, and other articles of furniture.>, guid = "bd588993-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HouseholdAppliance rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss PoweredDevice, iss HOCObject, iss MechanicalDevice; HumanActivity ismem Class; HumanActivity has label = "human activities", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$HumanActivity is an activity that is performed by some instance(s) of #$Person.>, guid = "bd588deb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanActivity rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss AnimalActivity; HumanAdult ismem Class; HumanAdult has label = "human adults", comment = <The collection of human beings old enough to participate as independent, mature members of society. Since different societies have different age or maturity requirements for people to be considered adults, different axioms in various society-specific microtheories express these requirements. For most modern, Western, middle-class,... purposes, e.g., the current view is that anyone over 18 is an adult. In many cultures, adulthood occurs when one reaches puberty. Adulthood is #$contiguousAfter childhood; that is, a #$Person is a #$HumanChild for a while, and then is a #$HumanAdult.>, guid = "bd58b2f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanAdult rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu LifeStageType, iss Person, iss AdultAnimal; HumanChild ismem Class; HumanChild has label = "children", comment = <The collection of all #$Persons in the childhood stage of life. Functionally, this ends when the child begins to take responsibility for themselves, work, have children of their own,... or, at latest, when the person&apos;s age greatly exceeds that at which most people reach those milestones. Generally, this means that it spans the period from birth to teenage years. This is highly dependent on context, of course; childhood in Shakespeare&apos;s culture ended around age 12.>, guid = "bd58cf30-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanChild rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu LifeStageType; HumanCyclist ismem Class; HumanCyclist has label = "human cyclists", comment = <Cyclists who are also human (not androids)>, guid = "bd5897dd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanCyclist rel ismem CoreConstant, isu PersonByActivityType, iss Cyclist; HumanFamilyNameString ismem Class; HumanFamilyNameString has label = "human family name string", comment = <The collection of family name strings such as ``Lenat&apos;&apos;, ``Jones&apos;&apos;, etc., which are given as last names (in most Western countries), usually at birth. Note: elements of this collection are really just character strings, not concepts like TheNameSmith that represent character strings.>, guid = "bd58ead2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanFamilyNameString rel isu IDStringType, iss HumanNameString; HumanGivenNameString ismem Class; HumanGivenNameString has label = "baby names", comment = <The collection of non-family name strings such ``Betty&apos;&apos; and ``Phillip&apos;&apos; which are given as first or middle names (in most Western countries), usually shortly after birth. This also includes nicknames like ``Red&apos;&apos; or ``The Refrigerator&apos;&apos;. Note: elements of this collection are really just character strings, not reified concepts like &apos;&apos;TheNameBetty&apos;&apos; that might be used to represent character strings.>, guid = "bd58e810-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanGivenNameString rel isu IDStringType, iss HumanNameString; HumanInfant ismem Class; HumanInfant has label = "infants", comment = <The collection of #$Persons in the infant stage of life. Functionally, this ends when the infant learns to walk (even just toddle) and/or talk (even a few words)... or, at latest, when the person&apos;s age greatly exceeds that at which most people develop those skills. Generally, this means that it spans the period from birth to about 12 - 18 months old. One of the subsets of this collection is #$NewbornBaby.>, guid = "bd58cba5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanInfant rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu LifeStageType; HumanNameString ismem Class; HumanNameString has label = "human name string", comment = <This is the class of names which human beings give themselves. See two of its important subsets, #$HumanGivenNameString and #$HumanFamilyNameString, for examples.>, guid = "bd58e854-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanNameString rel isu IDStringType, iss ProperNameString; HumanOccupationConstruct ismem Class; HumanOccupationConstruct has label = "human occupation construct", comment = <A collection of places. Each #$HumanOccupationConstruct is a place where people do things, such as: the Empire State Building, an individual office in that building, the White House, the Lincoln Bedroom in the White House, an elevator, a tent, etc. An instance of #$HumanOccupationConstruct is an artificial construction belonging to the collection #$ContainerProduct, and its #$primaryFunction is as a place in which humans perform activities. Some large subsets include (a) instances of #$HumanShelterConstruction (e.g., houses); (b) sub-regions within a #$HumanShelterConstruction or within any building which are intended for human use (e.g., rooms, shower stalls), and (c) regions in any transportation vehicle which are designed for human occupancy (e.g., the cockpit, passenger compartment). Note: Some buildings which are not themselves instances of #$HumanOccupationConstruct, such as #$HooverDam, may have a sub-region which is a #$HumanOccupationConstruct (e.g., the control room at the top of the dam). Note: The collection #$HumanOccupationConstruct is broad enough to include tents, boiler rooms, elevator shafts, steam tunnels, and the space inside the #$LincolnMemorialInWashingtonDC. Thus, an instance of #$HumanOccupationConstruct need not be strictly #$Indoors-IsolatedFromOutside (q.v.), since #$Indoors-IsolatedFromOutside is meant to include many characteristics that those places do not necessarily share (such as humanly comfortable temperature, lighting at night, not terribly noisy or windy, clean). We therefore do not make the default assertion that a #$HumanOccupationConstruct is #$Indoors-IsolatedFromOutside; however, an instance of #$HumanOccupationConstruct is certainly not a purely #$OutdoorLocation (q.v.), so we DO assert that those two collections are disjoint. Certain subsets of #$HumanOccupationConstruct, however, do have `indoor&apos; characteristics, and so we assert (for example) that anything found inside instances of #$RoomInAConstruction or #$ModernShelterConstruction is found #$Indoors-IsolatedFromOutside. Note: For places designed to be occupied by humans but which are purely outdoor locations (such as elements of #$Lawn, #$ParkingLot, and #$Playground), see #$HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject.>, guid = "bd58a036-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanOccupationConstruct rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss ContainerProduct, iss HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject, iss ConstructionArtifact, xor OutdoorLocation; HumanOccupationConstructResident ismem Class; HumanOccupationConstructResident has label = "human occupation construct resident", comment = <The collection of those #$Animals that (commonly) reside in #$HumanOccupationConstructs -- i.e., in structures that also house people. This mostly just includes domestic pets and people.>, guid = "bd58a4df-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanOccupationConstructResident rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal; HumanResidence ismem Class; HumanResidence has label = "homes", comment = <A collection of construction artifacts. Each element of #$HumanResidence is a humanly constructed shelter (or a part of one) in which humans reside--as opposed to, say, their places of employment (though the two might be the same). #$HumanResidence includes residential huts, igloos, longhouses, hotels, barracks, palaces, houseboats, mobile homes, as well as apartments, duplexes, and detached houses. A person&apos;s residence is typically the place where she/he usually sleeps and keeps most personal effects.>, guid = "bd58e689-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanResidence rel isu ContactLocationType, isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss HumanShelterConstruction, iss PhysicalContactLocation; HumanResidenceArea ismem Class; HumanResidenceArea has label = "residences", comment = <A collection of geographical regions. Each element of #$HumanResidenceArea is a region in which a number of people live, at least semi-permanently (i.e., for a year or more). Examples: #$SanFranciscoBayArea, #$ResearchTrianglePark, research stations at the #$SouthPole, radar posts in the Aleutians.>, guid = "bd58caab-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanResidenceArea rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss OutdoorLocation, iss HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject; HumanShelterConstruction ismem Class; HumanShelterConstruction has label = "human shelter constructions", comment = <A collection of artifacts; a subset of #$HumanOccupationConstruct. An instance of #$HumanShelterConstruction is a place made to shelter people from the elements by allowing them to get indoors. Subsets include #$ModernHumanResidence, #$SchoolBuilding, #$ShoppingMallBuilding, many others. An instance of #$HumanShelterConstruction must have a roof and typically has sides, though the latter may be flimsy (as in elements of #$TentTheShelter) or even absent (as in some elements of #$ParkingGarage).>, guid = "bd58cd3f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanShelterConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss HumanOccupationConstruct, iss ShelterConstruction; HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject ismem Class; HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject has label = "objects or locations inhabited by humans", comment = <A collection of places. Each element of #$HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject is a place that humans occupy, not restricted to (though including) the interiors of things built by humans, such as houses, office buildings, and ships. #$HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject also extends to campsites, caves, villages, and towns. Examples: Doug Lenat&apos;s house, North Austin, the Five Boroughs of New York, Minnesota, the Vatican, an Antarctic research station, and (briefly) the Moon.>, guid = "bd58d372-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumanlyOccupiedSpatialObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartiallyTangible; HumidClimateCycle ismem Class; HumidClimateCycle has label = "humid climates", comment = <A collection of annual climate cycles. Each element of #$HumidClimateCycle is a year-long event consisting of weather occurring (typically) in various continental and subtropical regions. Characteristics of a humid climate include copious precipitation and high humidity.>, guid = "be00c6f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumidClimateCycle rel isu ClimateCycleType, iss AnnualClimateCycle; HumidContinentalClimateCycle ismem Class; HumidContinentalClimateCycle has label = "humid continental climates", comment = <A collection of annual climate cycles. Each element of #$HumidContinentalClimateCycle is a year-long event consisting of weather occurring (typically) in continental interiors within a temperate climate zone. Characteristics of a humid continental climate cycle include a warm summer and cold winter, with precipitation throughout. A good example of a region whose annual climate cycles are instances of #$HumidContinentalClimateCycle is the American Midwest. Cf. #$HumidSubtropicalClimateCycle.>, guid = "bd58b882-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumidContinentalClimateCycle rel isu ClimateCycleType, iss HumidClimateCycle, iss TemperateClimateCycle; HumidSubtropicalClimateCycle ismem Class; HumidSubtropicalClimateCycle has label = "humid subtropical climates", comment = <A collection of annual climate cycles. Each element of #$HumidSubtropicalClimateCycle is a year-long event consisting of weather occurring (typically) within a temperate climate zone. Characteristics of a humid subtropical climate cycle include a hot summer and a cool winter, with precipitation and moist air throughout. Cycles of this kind occur closer to the equator than do instances of #$HumidContinentalClimateCycle. For instance, the Southeastern United States is a good example of a region whose annual climate cycles are instances of #$HumidSubtropicalClimateCycle.>, guid = "bd58c416-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HumidSubtropicalClimateCycle rel isu ClimateCycleType, iss HumidClimateCycle, iss TemperateClimateCycle; Hungry isu OrderOfMagnitudeInterval; Hungry has label = "hungry", comment = <Hungry>, guid = "bd58b1b3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HypotheticalContext ismem Class; HypotheticalContext has label = "hypothetical context", comment = <The collection of microtheories that consist of assertions which are posited for the purpose of exploring their consequences, without alleging the actual truth of the assertions. A #$HypotheticalContext may be used to analyze hypothetical outcomes of actions, or to examine the hypothetical consequences of assuming some theory to be true. Sometimes the various alternatives in a decision may be asserted, each in their own #$HypotheticalContext, so their ramifications may be generated and evaluated.>, guid = "bd58a4f1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; HypotheticalContext rel isu MicrotheoryType, ismem CoreConstant, isu ObjectType, iss Microtheory, xor SomethingExisting; IBOCreation ismem Class; IBOCreation has label = "creations of an information-bearing object", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$IBTGeneration. Each element of #$IBOCreation is an event which creates a new IBO (i.e., an element of #$InformationBearingObject). An IBO is a relatively long-lasting instance of #$InformationBearingThing. Examples of #$IBOCreation include publishing a book, making a film, printing a photograph, molding a plastic credit card, painting a billboard, minting a coin. When an IBO is created, its content may be either original or be copied from a prior IBO. For creation of IBOs with new content, e.g., a personal letter, see the subset #$IBTGeneration-Original; for creation of IBOs with pre-existing content, e.g., reprinting a photograph, see #$IBTGeneration-Replication.>, guid = "bd621044-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IBOCreation rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss IBTGeneration, iss HumanActivity; IBTCopying ismem Class; IBTCopying has label = "events in which an Information Bearing Thing is copied", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$IBTGeneration-Replication. Each element of #$IBTCopying is an event which generates a/some new IBT(s) (i.e., an element of #$InformationBearingThing) by copying the information and format from a source IBT (see #$informationOrigin). The new IBT(s) encode(s) approximately the same information in approximately the same way as the source IBT. Examples: photocopying a document, faxing a document, duplicating a videotape. But also note that making twenty photocopies of the same document will count as an instance.>, guid = "bd6606e6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IBTCopying rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss IBTGeneration-Replication; IBTGeneration ismem Class; IBTGeneration has label = "generations of an Information Bearing Thing", comment = <A collection of information transfer events. Each element of #$IBTGeneration is an event which creates some information-bearing thing--thus, an event in which some idea or information is expressed. In elements of #$IBTGeneration, the particular IBT (i.e., element of #$InformationBearingThing) which is created may be either a transient wave phenomenon (e.g., made of sound, light, or radio waves), or it may be a relatively long-lasting instance of #$InformationBearingObject (cf. #$IBOCreation). Humans frequently generate such IBTs as spoken language, gestures, and handwritten notes. It is irrelevant for elements of #$IBTGeneration whether there is another agent who immediately (or, indeed, ever) accesses the resulting IBTs. Note the difference: reading is NOT an IBT generation event, but writing (usually) is. IBTs may be generated intentionally or unintentionally. Also, every communication act starts with an instance of #$IBTGeneration. See also: #$Communicating and its subsets, esp. #$CommunicationAct-Single.>, guid = "bd70d156-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IBTGeneration rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss InformationTransferEvent, iss Action, iss TransferOut; IBTGeneration-Original ismem Class; IBTGeneration-Original has label = "generations of an original Information Bearing Thing", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$IBTGeneration. Each element of #$IBTGeneration-Original is an event in which some original idea is expressed; that is, the content of the IBT generated is not a copy of the content of a previously created information-bearing thing. See also #$IBTGeneration, #$Communicating.>, guid = "bd58f6af-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IBTGeneration-Original rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss IBTGeneration, iss HumanActivity, xor IBTGeneration-Replication; IBTGeneration-Replication ismem Class; IBTGeneration-Replication has label = "events in which an Information Bearing Thing is replicated", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$IBTGeneration. Each element of #$IBTGeneration-Replication is an event in which a new IBT (i.e., an #$InformationBearingThing) is created whose content is based on that of a preexisting IBT (which is the #$informationOrigin of the generation event). The new IBT contains at least part of the information content of the original IBT. It may use the same or a different way of encoding the information.>, guid = "bd5ea94c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IBTGeneration-Replication rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss IBTGeneration, xor IBTGeneration-Original; IBTRecoding ismem Class; IBTRecoding has label = "events in which an Information Bearing Thing is recoded", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$IBTGeneration-Replication. Each element of #$IBTRecoding is an event which generates a new IBT (i.e., an element of #$InformationBearingThing), by taking information from a source IBT (see #$informationOrigin), encoding it a new way, and incorporating it into a new information-bearing thing (see #$ibtGenerated). Elements of #$IBTRecoding may be done either by agents (e.g., people) or by non-agents (e.g., record players, or computers running translation software). Recoding the content of a pre-existing IBT presupposes some instance of accessing it (i.e., of #$AccessingAnIBT).>, guid = "bd5f36bb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IBTRecoding rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss IBTGeneration-Replication; IDDocument ismem Class; IDDocument has label = "identification cards", comment = <A collection of official documents. Each element of #$IDDocument is an accepted credential for identifying some object. Important subsets of #$IDDocument include #$Passport, #$DriversLicense, #$SocialSecurityCard. Other examples include student ID cards, dog tags (worn by military personnel), dog tags (worn by dogs), authentication certificates for a work of art or an antique.>, guid = "bd58903e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IDDocument rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss OfficialDocument; IDString ismem Class; IDString has label = "identification strings", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$CharacterString. Each element of #$IDString is a character string which is used to denote a specific object in some identification mapping; for example, instances of #$ModelNumber (e.g., ``JHS146973S2&apos;&apos;), or instances of #$PostalCode (e.g., ``78751&apos;&apos;). See also #$DenotedObjectFn and #$objectID.>, guid = "bd5888ad-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IDString rel isu IDStringType, iss CharacterString; IDStringType ismem Class; IDStringType has label = "ID string types", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element in #$IDStringType is a collection of character strings which is a subset of #$IDString (q.v.). A few instances of #$IDStringType: #$ProductName, #$ProductVersion, #$EMailAddress, #$PhoneNumber, #$PostalCode.>, guid = "bd588b45-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IDStringType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ObjectType; IllocutionaryForce ismem Class; IllocutionaryForce has label = "illocutionary forces", comment = <The collection of illocutionary force attributes held by illocutionary acts. Each element of #$IllocutionaryForce is a specialized component of a communication; its function is to indicate how the speaker in a communication wants the agent(s) whom s/he is addressing to understand, and respond to, the situation--i.e., the state of affairs--described in that communication. Isolating the `illocutionary force&apos; of a communication allows us to characterize the intention of a speaker; e.g., whether s/he means to assert that the described state of affairs in fact holds; or to express a desire that such a state of affairs hold; or to command someone to make that state of affairs hold; or to offer to make the state of affairs hold. S/he may even intend to make something true by stating it (e.g., ``I name this ship `The Intrepid&apos;.&apos;&apos;). Usually, apprehending a speaker&apos;s intention is important for understanding what s/he means and what s/he intends the hearer to do. Although the content of an illocutionary act can be represented propositionally, they are not generally communicated so explicitly. For example, questions in English are typically communicated by inverting subject-object word order and raising one&apos;s intonation at the end of the utterance. (The intonation marker so strongly indicates a question that it may suffice without the inverted word order, as in `You are going tonight&apos; uttered with a rising intonation.) Commands in English typically have an (unexpressed) understood subject and perhaps a forceful tone. In every culture and language there are conventional sets of commonly used illocutionary forces which would be instances of #$IllocutionaryForce for that culture; e.g., in English, they include #$Inform, #$Request, #$Offer, #$Promise, and #$Query. Note: although in this comment #$IllocutionaryForce is explained in terms of utterances, it applies to communication generally; so `speaker&apos; and `listener&apos; should be broadly interpreted to mean, respectively, any #$senderOfInfo and #$recipientOfInfo. See also #$Communicating, #$CommunicationAct-Single. In #$CycL, illocutionary forces can be related to communication acts having some propositional content, via #$iteIllocutionaryForce, or to the microtheory containing formulas expressing the information transferred in an illocutionary act with #$componentIF.>, guid = "bd58d8c6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IllocutionaryForce rel isu AttributeType, iss AttributeValue; IlluminationModeAttribute ismem Class; IlluminationModeAttribute has label = "illumination mode attribute", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$IlluminationModeAttribute describes something about the type of illumination falling on a region or an object. For example, #$DirectIllumination, #$IndirectIllumination, #$ReflectedIllumination, #$PartDirectPartIndirect.>, guid = "c0fcdd0c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IlluminationModeAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, iss AttributeValue; ImmediateWeatherProcess ismem Class; ImmediateWeatherProcess has label = "immediate weather process", comment = <The collection of meteorological events of a duration shorter than seasonal processes. A particular hurricane event, for example, might be characteristic of a seasonal process for a region; but the hurricane event itself is an instance of #$ImmediateWeatherProcess. Another example of an #$ImmediateWeatherProcess is a single #$LightningEvent. (Cf. #$AnnualClimateCycle.)>, guid = "bd58dfc6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ImmediateWeatherProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss WeatherEvent, xor AnnualClimateCycle; InanimateObject-Natural ismem Class; InanimateObject-Natural has label = "natural inanimate objects", comment = <A collection of natural (i.e. not man-made) objects. It is a subclass of #$InanimateThing-Natural, distinguished from it mainly by only having subclasses which are existing object-types. Thus, #$CelestialObject would be a subclass of this collection, but #$Dirt would not.>, guid = "bea9777b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InanimateObject-Natural rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss InanimateThing-Natural; InanimateThing ismem Class; InanimateThing has label = "inanimate objects", comment = <A collection of tangibles. Each element of #$InanimateThing is a (at least partly) tangible thing which is not a living structure. Examples: #$YaleUniversity, the #$StatueOfLiberty, a U.S. ten-dollar bill, the #$MoonOfEarth, a safety pin.>, guid = "bd5905ea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InanimateThing rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor BiologicalLivingObject; InanimateThing-Natural ismem Class; InanimateThing-Natural has label = "natural inanimate things", comment = <A collection of tangibles. Each element of #$InanimateThing-Natural is an #$InanimateThing that is not man-made in a #$PurposefulAction. Thus, the #$MoonOfEarth, human #$Sweat staining a shirt, and most footprints left by people in the snow belong to this collection, but wood chips left around a tree being chopped down, tailings left from a mine, a grunt made while lifting a log, and the #$ArcDeTriomphe do not.>, guid = "bda91555-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InanimateThing-Natural rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss InanimateThing, iss NaturalTangibleStuff; IncurringAnInjury ismem Class; IncurringAnInjury has label = "instances of incurring an injury", comment = <A collection of events. An instance of #$IncurringAnInjury is an event in which an animal becomes injured. In such events, the animal which is hurt is the #$bodilyActedOn in the event. The condition which results of an instance of #$IncurringAnInjury would be an instance of #$InjuryCondition (q.v.). Also see the comment on #$AilmentCondition.>, guid = "bd58c658-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IncurringAnInjury rel ismem Class, iss AnimalActivity, iss SingleDoerAction, iss IncurringDamage; IncurringDamage ismem Class; IncurringDamage has label = "instances of incurring damage", comment = <The collection of events in which some sort of damage is incurred to a person or property.>, guid = "bd58a555-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IncurringDamage rel ismem Class, iss PhysicalEvent, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent; IndependentCountry ismem Class; IndependentCountry has label = "independent countries", comment = <A collection of geopolitical entities. Each element of #$IndependentCountry is a distinct, independent geopolitical entity generally recognized by the international community. An independent country typically has a (relatively) stable government and enforced borders, its own currency, laws, culture, etc. Examples: #$UnitedStatesOfAmerica, #$Germany, #$Liberia, #$Mongolia, #$India, #$Taiwan-RepublicOfChina, #$Honduras.>, guid = "bd58e4e7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IndependentCountry rel isu SpatiallyDisjointRegionType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss GeographicalRegion, iss Country, xor CountrySubsidiary; IndependentOrganization ismem Class; IndependentOrganization has label = "independent organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$IndependentOrganization is an organization which is not affiliated with any #$ChainOrganization and that is not a sub-organization of any other #$Organization. An independent organization is neither the top-level organization of a chain, nor a lower level organization in a chain, nor is it an element of #$ChainOrganization. Note, however, that an #$IndependentOrganization may have several locations within a small geographical region; e.g., Texas French Bread (a single, independent business) has multiple locations in Austin, TX.>, guid = "c10ae581-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IndependentOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, xor ChainOrganization; IndexedInfoSource ismem Class; IndexedInfoSource has label = "indexed info source", comment = <The collection of all structured information sources in which the information contained therein is indexed by some set of index terms (the terms could be names, phrases, #$CharacterStrings, #$IDNumbers or codes). For every index term, there is one specific part of the #$IndexedInfoSource associated with that term. Each instance of #$IndexedInfoSource has some format or organizing structure of specified parts or &apos;chunks&apos; imposed on the information. (Although its indexed parts might be be ordered in a certain sequence, in theory it could be indexed without there being any particular sequential ordering of the parts.) An instance of #$IndexedInfoSource is the abstract informational content of the source, not any particular physical object in which the information is stored. Examples include a #$Dictionary, #$Thesaurus, #$Database-AbstractContent, or a #$KnowledgeBase. Some examples that do not qualify are #$Painting-ArtForm, or a #$CharacterString without any structuring information about it or that has no structure beyond being a string of characters. Thus this is not referring to unstructured text, even if it has an &apos;Index&apos;. The fact that a book has an index does not make it an #$IndexedInfoSource.>, guid = "c03febed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IndexedInfoSource rel isu ObjectType, iss AbstractInformationalThing, iss StructuredInformationSource; IndexicalConcept ismem Class; IndexicalConcept has label = "indexicals", comment = <#$IndexicalConcepts are those whose referent essentially depends on the occasion of use and the user, e.g., #$Now, I, Here. When I use the word &apos;I,&apos; I am referring to myself (#$OKeefe), but &apos;I&apos; does not mean #$OKeefe, but refers to whomever the user is. Similarly, #$Now denotes the moment in which it is used.>, guid = "bf400028-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IndexicalConcept rel ismem Class, iss entity; India isu Agent; India has label = "India", comment = <A #$GeopoliticalEntity in South Asia which has been an #$IndependentCountry since 1947. For the preceding century it was a #$Territory of the #$UnitedKingdomOfGreatBritainAndNorthernIreland. The territorial extent of the #$GeopoliticalEntity of #$India occupies most of the #$IndianSubcontinent, although the state of Assam is not considered part of the subcontinent.>, guid = "bd58fb5c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IndianOcean isu Entity; IndianOcean has label = "the Indian Ocean", comment = <The ocean in the #$SouthernHemisphere-Region lying south of Asia and east of Africa, stretching to Australia.>, guid = "bd5887df-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Individual ismem Class; Individual has label = "objects", comment = <#$Individual is the collection of all things that are NOT sets or collections. Thus, #$Individual includes (among other things) physical objects, temporal subabstractions of physical objects, numbers, relations, and groups (see #$Group). An element of #$Individual may have parts or a structure (including parts that are discontinuous); but NO instance of #$Individual can have elements or subsets. Important distinction: Though an element of #$Individual may have parts (e.g., #$physicalParts or #$groupMembers), that individual is NOT the same thing as the collection containing those same parts. For example, your car is an individual, but the collection of all the parts of your car is an instance of #$Collection. The latter -- the collection of parts of your car -- is an abstract collection; it doesn&apos;t have a location, it doesn&apos;t have a top speed, etc. -- it&apos;s just a collection! -- but it does have subsets, supersets, and members. The #$Group of parts of your car IS an #$Individual and has a location and mass. Similarly: `Bill Clinton&apos;s immediate family&apos; is an #$Individual -- a #$Group of #$Persons; however, the #$Collection of persons who belong to that family is not. One final example: A company belongs to #$Individual and is distinct from both the #$Group of its employees (a different #$Individual) and the #$Collection of its employees (which are distict from each other.).>, guid = "bd58da02-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Individual rel ismem CoreConstant, ismem Class, iss entity, xor SetOrCollection; IndividualAgent ismem Class; IndividualAgent has label = "individuals", comment = <The collection of all individuals (in the sense of not being groups) belonging to the collection #$Agent. Each person, each animal, etc., is an element of #$IndividualAgent, in most contexts. Note that instances of #$Organization will in general NOT be elements of #$IndividualAgent. Intelligent robots are considered to be instances of #$IndividualAgent.>, guid = "bd58a562-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IndividualAgent rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Agent-Generic; IndividualDenotingFunction ismem Class; IndividualDenotingFunction has label = "individual denoting function", comment = <The subcollection of #$Function-Denotational whose instances, when applied to any appropriate (sequence of) arguments, return instances of #$Individual. Examples include #$PerimeterFn, #$MedalAwardCeremonyFn, and #$CavityInteriorRegionFn; (#$CavityInteriorRegionFn #$LincolnMemorialInWashingtonDC) denotes the region of space inside the Lincoln Memorial. Cf. #$CollectionDenotingFunction and #$SetDenotingFunction.>, guid = "bd58fad9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IndividualDenotingFunction rel isu RelationshipType, iss Function-Denotational, xor CollectionDenotingFunction; Indonesia-TheNation isu Entity; Indonesia-TheNation has label = "Indonesia", comment = <The country of Indonesia, which comprises 13500 islands. Includes both physical and political aspects.>, guid = "bd58b2d6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Infection ismem Class; Infection has label = "infectious diseases", comment = <A collection of ailments; a subset of #$AilmentCondition. An instance of #$Infection is a disease condition in which microorganisms are abnormally present (or abnormally numerous) within an animal&apos;s body. The microorganisms involved in an infection may be some instance of the collections #$Bacterium, #$Virus, or #$ProtistaKingdom. Specialized subsets of #$Infection include: #$Bronchitis, #$Tonsillitis, #$SexuallyTransmittedInfection (which has further subsets). A particular case of tonsilitis is thus an element of the collection #$Infection.>, guid = "c10c2f7f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Infection rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, isu ObjectType, iss AilmentCondition, xor GeneticCondition; InfectionTransmissionEvent ismem Class; InfectionTransmissionEvent has label = "infection transmission event", comment = <The collection of events in which some instance of #$Infection is transmitted from one member of #$BiologicalLivingObject to another.>, guid = "c0fd53e7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InfectionTransmissionEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss GeneralizedTransfer; InfectionType ismem Class; InfectionType has label = "infection type", comment = <A collection of collections. Instances of #$InfectionType are collections of infections, that is to say, specs of #$Infection. Nonetheless, any collection of infection shouldn&apos;t be promoted to the rank of an instance of #$InfectionType. For instance, #$BacterialInfection is a legitimate instance, more precisely an instance of #$InfectionTypeByPathogenType, itself a spec of #$InfectionType. A negative example would be the collection of infections of which Bertrand Russell picked up an instance during the year 1918. >, guid = "c0fd5f45-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InfectionType rel ismem CollectionType, iss PhysiologicalConditionType, xor SensoryReactionType; InferencePSC isu Microtheory; InferencePSC has label = "inference p s c", comment = <A problem solving context in which all assertions in the entire KB are initially visible. However, down each inference path, the chain of microtheories used are required to have some common descendent microtheory which is capable of inheriting all of the microtheories in the chain. Thus, queries made in #$InferencePSC in effect compute locations in the space of microtheories in which the query is satisfiable. This context is used internally by the inference engine for certain recursive calls to itself, including forward inference. See also #$EverythingPSC.>, guid = "bd58915a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InferenceRelatedBookkeepingPredicate ismem Class; InferenceRelatedBookkeepingPredicate has label = "inference related bookkeeping predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$InferenceRelatedBookkeepingPredicate is a predicate involved in assertions used by the Cyc application to direct inferencing. Examples: #$defnIff, #$defnSufficient, #$termOfUnit, #$afterAdding.>, guid = "bd58d107-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InferenceRelatedBookkeepingPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, ismem CoreConstant, iss BookkeepingPredicate; InflatableBoat ismem Class; InflatableBoat has label = "inflatable boats", comment = <The collection of all inflatable boats, that is, boats (mostly small watercraft) that are composed of some fabric or membrane and are inflated with air to give them buoyancy in water.>, guid = "c1009ce2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InflatableBoat rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType; Inform-CommunicationAct ismem Class; Inform-CommunicationAct has label = "acts of conveying information", comment = <The collection of acts of conveying information by means of intentional communication.>, guid = "bd589e02-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Inform-CommunicationAct rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss PurposefulAction, iss CommunicationAct-Single, iss InformationBearingThing, xor Requesting-CommunicationAct; InformationAdding ismem Class; InformationAdding has label = "information adding", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$InformationUpdating. Each element of #$InformationAdding is an event in which information is added to the information content of an IBO (i.e., an element of #$InformationBearingObject). After the action, the IBO which is the #$informationDestination of the update `has&apos; the new information (i.e., #$infoAdded). The resulting information content of that IBO includes both its content immediately prior to the addition, plus the newly added information. Examples of #$InformationAdding: recording a check in the check register of one&apos;s checkbook; taking the next photograph on a roll of film; adding a new constant to the #$CycKB.>, guid = "bd5e23fb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationAdding rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss InformationUpdating; InformationBearingObject ismem Class; InformationBearingObject has label = "information-bearing objects", comment = <A collection of objects which are both tangible and intangible. (See also the comment for its superset #$CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject.) Each element of #$InformationBearingObject is an object that can be interpreted, by an interpreter understanding its conventions, to yield a chunk or chunks of information. #$InformationBearingObject includes all of the following: (1) artifacts made solely for the purpose of conveying information (e.g., a newspaper, or a children&apos;s science video); (2) artifacts that convey information in addition to their intended function (e.g., Neolithic pottery); and (3) non-artifacts, such as a person&apos;s fingerprints, gestures, and utterances, which may be interpreted to yield information. Note: `an IBO&apos; abbreviates `an information bearing object&apos;. Cf. #$InformationBearingWavePropagation. See also #$containsInformation.>, guid = "bd58f6ac-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationBearingObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss InformationBearingThing, iss CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject; InformationBearingThing ismem Class; InformationBearingThing has label = "information-bearing things", comment = <A collection of temporal objects, including actions and events as well as physical objects. Each element of #$InformationBearingThing is an item that contains information, for an agent who understands how to interpret it. Examples: a copy of the novel `Moby Dick&apos;; a signal buoy; a photograph; a flag; an elevator sign in Braille; a map; a US dollar bill; a resume; an account ledger; a word in ASL; a musical score; the #$Cyc program itself. Note: `an IBT&apos; abbreviates `an information bearing thing&apos;. See also #$SpecifiedInformationBearingThingType. For representation of the propositional content of information bearing things, see #$PropositionalInformationThing; but note that not all IBTs have a propositional content (cf. #$ArtObject). Also note that events in which information is transferred (cf. #$InformationTransferEvent) are not considered instances of #$InformationBearingThing. Rather, such transfer events have, as one of their actors, some instance of #$InformationBearingThing which is the token considered to be transfered in the #$InformationTransferEvent.>, guid = "be436e7e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationBearingThing rel isu ExistingObjectType, xor Conveyance; InformationBearingWavePropagation ismem Class; InformationBearingWavePropagation has label = "information bearing wave propagation", comment = <A collection of information bearing things (IBTs). Each element of #$InformationBearingWavePropagation is a #$WavePropagation (q.v.) event that carries information, for an interpreter which understands its conventions. Examples of #$InformationBearingWavePropagation include sounds, radio signals, and images of visible light. These eventlike IBTs should be contrasted with the relatively static, persistent, objectlike IBTs in the collection #$InformationBearingObject.>, guid = "bf834402-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationBearingWavePropagation rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu WavePropagationType, iss WavePropagation, iss InformationBearingThing; InformationRecordingDevice ismem Class; InformationRecordingDevice has label = "information recording devices", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$InformationRecordingDevice is a device used for the recording of sensory information (i.e., audio and visual, but not encoded as character strings.) So an instance would be your answering machine at home (an #$AnsweringMachine), your cam-corder (a #$VideoCamera), but NOT your address book or your copy of the Yellow Pages. Note: A borderline case is a PDA (such as an Apple Newton) used to record handwritten script. If it then processes that information and converts it to ASCII characters, it has stopped being an #$InformationRecordingDevice in the currently intended sense. Probably a better name for this concept, therefore, would be DeviceToRecordAnalogInformation.>, guid = "bd58feeb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationRecordingDevice rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; InformationRecordingProcess ismem Class; InformationRecordingProcess has label = "information-recording processes", comment = <A collection of events in which information is recorded, using an #$InformationRecordingDevice. Every #$InformationRecordingProcess produces an #$InformationBearingObject.>, guid = "bd58e14f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationRecordingProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss IBOCreation; InformationRemoving ismem Class; InformationRemoving has label = "information removing", comment = <The collection of actions in which information is removed from or erased from an IBO (#$InformationBearingObject). After the action, the remaining info content, if any, of the IBO acted on is only a part of what it started out to be. The removed information doesn&apos;t go anywhere; after removal it doesn&apos;t end up encoded in something else.>, guid = "bd642fa3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationRemoving rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss InformationUpdating; InformationTransferEvent ismem Class; InformationTransferEvent has label = "information transfers", comment = <A collection of events in which information is transferred from a source (#$informationOrigin) to one or more destinations (#$informationDestination), all of which are either intelligent agents or #$InformationBearingThings (IBTs). Examples: reading a book (transfer from book to reader); saying something to someone (transfer from speaker to listener); machine translation (transfer from an encoded IBT in the source language to an encoded IBT in the target language); OCR scanning (transfer of info from visual information source to another IBT in different format); carving initials in a tree (transfer from agent to IBT), making a speech (transfer from agent to agents) etc. See also the specialization #$InformationTransferPhysicalEvent.>, guid = "bd589f07-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationTransferEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss GeneralizedTransfer; InformationUpdating ismem Class; InformationUpdating has label = "information updating", comment = <A collection of information transfer events. Each element of #$InformationUpdating is an event in which the information content of an IBO (i.e., an element of #$InformationBearingObject) is altered, either by removing or by adding information, or both. Note that this is possible only for tangible IBOs.>, guid = "bd616cc0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InformationUpdating rel isu TemporalStuffType; Ingesting ismem Class; Ingesting has label = "ingestions", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$BiologicalIntakeEvent. Each element of #$Ingesting is a complex process in which a thing is brought into some organism&apos;s mouth from the outside, is swallowed, and is moved to the organism&apos;s stomach. Every element of #$Ingesting has among its #$subEvents an instance of #$Swallowing which occurs after the intake. (Thus, though chewing gum is a #$BiologicalIntakeEvent, it is not an #$Ingesting unless the gum is swallowed.) An ingesting event ends when the ingested stuff reaches the ingester&apos;s stomach (where an instance of #$DigestionEvent begins -- provided that what was ingested is an element of #$EdibleStuff).>, guid = "bd5888eb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ingesting rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss VoluntaryBodyMovement, iss BodilyFunctionEvent, iss BiologicalIntakeEvent, iss SingleDoerAction, iss HumanActivity; Inhaling ismem Class; Inhaling has label = "inhalations", comment = <The collection of all body movement events in which an animal takes air in through an appropriate portal (#$Mouth, #$Nose) and passes it into its #$Lungs. The elements of #$Breathing all have #$subEvents which are #$Inhalings.>, guid = "bd58f34d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Inhaling rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss BodilyFunctionEvent, iss BiologicalIntakeEvent; InorganicStuff ismem Class; InorganicStuff has label = "inorganic substances", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$InorganicStuff is a tangible thing which is wholly composed of one or more types of inorganic #$Molecule. Instances of #$InorganicStuff usually didn&apos;t originate as parts or products of living things.>, guid = "bd590a05-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InorganicStuff rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PartiallyTangible, iss InanimateThing, xor OrganicStuff; Insect ismem Class; Insect has label = "insects", comment = <A collection of animals; a subset of #$Arthropod. Each element of #$Insect is a small arthropod whose body is segmented into thirds, with three pairs of legs, and one or two pairs of wings. The most familiar members of #$Arthropod are the &apos;bugs&apos; encountered in human daily life. Some insects bite, some infest houses, and some carry disease. #$Insect is an instance of #$BiologicalClass.>, guid = "bd58b8f7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Insect rel isu BiologicalClass, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss Vermin, iss Arthropod; InsideSurface ismem Class; InsideSurface has label = "inside surface", comment = <The collection of all inside surfaces of (surfaces of the interiors of) tangible things. The tangible thing may have a #$Cavity or several cavities or passageways. Often the tangible thing can be thought of as a container of some sort.>, guid = "bd589b7d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InsideSurface rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss Surface-Physical; Instructions ismem Class; Instructions has label = "instructions", comment = <The collection of all #$ConceptualWorks which are executable pieces of information. Each element of #$Instructions outlines a sequence of tasks to be performed, such as instructions on a food package, verbal instructions, a musical score, etc.>, guid = "bd58db4d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Instructions rel isu ObjectType; InsulatorResistance isu ElectricalResistance; InsulatorResistance has label = "insulator resistance", comment = <A measurable physical attribute. #$InsulatorResistance is the element of #$ElectricalResistance that represents a very high level of electrical resistance. An object having #$InsulatorResistance conducts no electricity at all. See also #$resistanceOfObject.>, guid = "be00f859-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InsuranceProvider ismem Class; InsuranceProvider has label = "insurances", comment = <A collection of organizations; a subset of #$ServiceOrganization. An element of #$InsuranceProvider is an organization whose #$MainFunction is to provide financial and material protection to its clients in the event of sickness, death, natural disaster, loss, theft, lawsuits, etc. (Insurers may specialize in one or more of those areas.) Elements of #$InsuranceProvider may belong to either #$CommercialServiceOrganization or #$NonProfitOrganization (including insurance providers belonging to #$LegalGovernmentOrganization). Examples include State Farm Insurance Co., Aetna Casualty Co., Lutheran Brotherhood, and all fifty members of U.S. #$StateMedicaidAdministrationOrganizations.>, guid = "bd588b6e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InsuranceProvider rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss ServiceOrganization; Intangible ismem Class; Intangible has label = "intangibles", comment = <The collection of things that are not physical -- are not made of, or encoded in, matter. Every #$Collection is an #$Intangible (even if its instances are tangible), and so are some #$Individuals. Caution: do not confuse `tangibility&apos; with `perceivability&apos; -- humans can perceive light even though it&apos;s intangible--at least in a sense. For more on this issue, see the relevant #$cyclistNotes.>, guid = "bd58e3a3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Intangible rel ismem Class, iss entity, iss PartiallyIntangible, xor PartiallyTangible; IntangibleExistingThing ismem Class; IntangibleExistingThing has label = "intangible existing thing", comment = <The set of things which are intangible yet exist in time. E.g., the code of conduct for a formal dinner party, the standards for acceptance to Caltech as an undergrad, an account at Sears, etc.>, guid = "bd58b123-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntangibleExistingThing rel isu StuffType, iss SomethingExisting, iss IntangibleIndividual; IntangibleIndividual ismem Class; IntangibleIndividual has label = "intangible individual", comment = <The collection of intangible individuals, a subset of #$Intangible and of #$Individual. The elements of #$IntangibleIndividual do not have mass, volume, color, etc. E.g., hours, ideas, algorithms, integers, distances, and so on. However, as a subset of #$Individual, this collection EXCLUDES sets and collections, which are elements of #$Intangible but not of #$IntangibleIndividual.>, guid = "bd58e3e3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntangibleIndividual rel isu ObjectType, iss PartiallyIntangibleIndividual, iss Intangible, iss Individual; IntangibleObjectPredicate ismem Class; IntangibleObjectPredicate has label = "intangible object predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$IntangibleObjectPredicate is a predicate used in assertions which describe the properties of intangible objects. For example, #$arg3Isa, #$titleOfHeadOfPoliticalParty, #$religionOfRule, #$territoriesControlled.>, guid = "bd58ecf0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntangibleObjectPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate; Integer ismem Class; Integer has label = "integers", comment = <The collection of all whole numbers; a subset of #$RationalNumber. Each element of #$Integer is a whole number, resolvable into units with no fractional remainder. An integer may be positive (e.g., 42), zero, or negative (e.g., -42). Note that 42.0 is a floating-point real number which is close to the integer 42 within the tolerance of the floating-point representation but is not necessarily equal to the integer 42. Therefore, 42.0 is not an element of #$Integer.>, guid = "bd589e12-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Integer rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, ismem CoreConstant, iss RationalNumber; IntelligentAgent ismem Class; IntelligentAgent has label = "intelligent agents", comment = <The collection of all intelligent agents. Each element of #$IntelligentAgent is an agent that is capable of having knowledge which it employs in its actions. An intelligent agent #$knowsAbout certain things, and having #$beliefs (and possibly #$goals) concerning those things may influence its actions. In addition to persons, Cyc considers certain social beings, such as business and government organizations, and intelligent machines, to be intelligent agents. See also #$Agent, #$performedBy.>, guid = "bd58a76f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntelligentAgent rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Agent-Generic, iss Agent; IntendedFunction isu CapacityAttribute; IntendedFunction has label = "intended function", comment = <An element of #$CapacityAttribute. The attribute #$IntendedFunction characterizes an entity participating in a situation as doing so in its intended function.>, guid = "bd588246-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntensionalRepresentationPredicate ismem Class; IntensionalRepresentationPredicate has label = "intensional representation predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$IntensionalRepresentationPredicate is a predicate used to form assertions about the properties of collections. These predicates implement the intensional structure of the ontology; e.g., #$citizens, #$unitsMeasuringThisQuantity, #$hasDepartmentTypes, #$granuleOfTime, #$objectTypeTransported, #$contraryFeelings.>, guid = "bd58b54a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntensionalRepresentationPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; InterActorSlot ismem Class; InterActorSlot has label = "inter actor slot", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$InterActorSlot is a binary predicate used in assertions that state the relationship between two actors in some event, actual or implied. The event in which the actors participate may or may not be explicitly represented in the KB. For example, (#$authorOfPublication-IBT X Y) implies the existence of a #$Writing event in which X is the author and Y is the book written. Examples: #$agreeingAgents, #$artisticWorksCreated, #$spouse, #$wornOn.>, guid = "bd58f091-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InterActorSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss Property, iss ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate; InterExistingObjectSlot ismem Class; InterExistingObjectSlot has label = "inter existing object slot", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$InterExistingObjectSlot is a binary predicate used in assertions that relate two elements of #$SomethingExisting (i.e., two objects). Examples: #$soldAt, #$derivedFrom, #$cohabitants, #$capitalCity, #$electricallyConnectedTo.>, guid = "bd58d517-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InterExistingObjectSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate, iss Property; InterPersonalRelationSlot ismem Class; InterPersonalRelationSlot has label = "human relationships", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$InterPersonalRelationSlot is a binary predicate used to represent relationships between two instances of #$Animal. Examples: #$mate, #$friends.>, guid = "be00bb8e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InterPersonalRelationSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss InterExistingObjectSlot; InterconvertibleUnitType ismem Class; InterconvertibleUnitType has label = "interconvertible unit types", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$InterconvertibleUnitType is a collections of functions (all belonging to #$UnitOfMeasure) that are used to measure quantities whose units are convertible into one another. Some collections of interconvertible units include #$UnitOfTime, #$UnitOfDistance, #$UnitOfCPUSpeed. For example, #$UnitOfTime includes the functions #$HoursDuration and #$SecondsDuration (among others). Any quantity denoted by applying one of those functions can also be expressed in terms of the other. For example, (#$HoursDuration 1) equals (#$MinutesDuration 60). On the other hand, not all the instances of #$UnitOfMeasure constitute types of interconvertible units. #$UnitOfRate is not an element of #$InterconvertibleUnitType; therefore, it does not necessarily follow that quantities denoted by its elements are interconvertible. For example, #$TimesPerDay and #$MilesPerHour are both elements of #$UnitOfRate; however, quantities denoted using either function are not convertible into one another.>, guid = "bd5888e2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InterconvertibleUnitType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType; Interjection-SpeechPart ismem Class; Interjection-SpeechPart has label = "interjections", comment = <The collection of all interjections, also called exclamations. Interjections often serve a purely pragmatic or discourse function, and can often stand alone as utterances. Examples: &apos;ugh&apos;, &apos;abracadabra&apos;, and &apos;wow!&apos;.>, guid = "be0c0312-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Interjection-SpeechPart rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu SpeechPart; InternalSensoryAttribute ismem Class; InternalSensoryAttribute has label = "internal sensory attribute", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$InternalSensoryAttribute is a state of a sentient being in which it experiences within itself some somatic or psycho-somatic feeling, urge, or impulse. An internal sensory attribute differs from an `external&apos; one in that the sensing agent refers the former to itself and the latter to external objects. #$InternalSensoryAttribute includes states of feeling hungry, thirsty, tired, or in pain, as well as various bodily urges such as the urge to sneeze, burp, or urinate. Sensory attributes that may occur with more or less intensity are represented by indicating a #$LevelOfPain, #$LevelOfPhysicalPleasure, #$LevelOfStress, etc.>, guid = "bd58e809-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InternalSensoryAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, iss SensoryAttribute; InternationalOrganization ismem Class; InternationalOrganization has label = "international organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$InternationalOrganization is an organization of international `scope&apos; -- that is, one which has substantial operations, physical facilities, or substantial membership in multiple countries. International organizations may have individual #$Persons, #$Organizations, or countries as members. They may be political or commercial in nature. International organizations with countries as members belong to the subset #$InternationalOrganizationOfCountries. Examples of #$InternationalOrganization: #$UnitedNationsOrganization, #$OPEC, #$IBMInc. See also #$internationalOrg-MemberCountry.>, guid = "bd5889e7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InternationalOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LegalAgent, iss Organization; InternationalOrganizationOfCountries ismem Class; InternationalOrganizationOfCountries has label = "organizations of countries", comment = <A collection of organizations; a subset of #$InternationalOrganization. An element of #$InternationalOrganizationOfCountries is an organization whose members are countries (as represented by their goverments). Examples: the United Nations, NATO, SEATO, OAU, the League of Arab States, and OPEC.>, guid = "bdc17522-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InternationalOrganizationOfCountries rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss InternationalOrganization, xor RegionalGovernment, xor Country; InternationalWaters ismem Class; InternationalWaters has label = "international waters", comment = <The collection of all instances of #$BodyOfWater such that they are considered to be accessible to international maritime traffic and trade. They may be subject to the customs and laws of a particular country, or of the international community. Examples include instances of #$ShippingLane-International, the #$HighSeas, and, ordinarily, territorial waters like (#$TerritorialSeaFn #$UnitedStatesOfAmerica), unless these have been closed to shipping in a particular context.>, guid = "be57a01e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InternationalWaters rel ismem Class, isu ExistingObjectType, iss GeographicalRegion, iss BodyOfWater; IntervalBasedQuantitySlot ismem Class; IntervalBasedQuantitySlot has label = "interval based quantity slots", comment = <A collection of binary predicates (i.e., slots). Flexibility in the representation of quantities is allowed in assertions made with the binary predicates that are elements of #$IntervalBasedQuantitySlot. Each of these predicates, like those in their superset #$QuantitySlot, is a binary predicate whose second argument must be an element of #$ScalarInterval, i.e., an interval or point representing the value of some measurement. For example, take the predicate #$heightOfObject, which relates an object to its vertical length. Although we suppose that in reality there is only a single distance that is the height of some one particular object, our measurement systems are in practice less precise--and typically we need a measurement only within a certain tolerance. For example, in measuring the #$heightOfObject of a person, usually a measurement to the nearest inch or centimeter will do. Or we may be even less detailed in our descriptions, perhaps caring only whether someone is more than four feet tall, or `Tall enough to ride&apos; on an amusement park ride. By allowing an #$IntervalEntry #$Format (qq.v.) in the second argument of the measuring predicate, we are telling Cyc that it&apos;s okay to describe the (e.g.) #$heightOfObject in several different ways, with varying levels of precision, SO LONG AS all of the measurements asserted for the same object `overlap&apos;. For example, it is consistent to say both that Jenny is 4&apos;10&apos;&apos; tall, between four and five feet tall, and that she is `Tall enough to ride&apos; the Dodgems (provided that `Tall enough to ride&apos; is an interval whose minimum is at 4&apos;10&apos;&apos; or lower). Even though there is only one height of a person in reality, using an #$IntervalBasedQuantitySlot allows us to represent that height in many different ways, avoiding contradictions while still checking for consistency. For example, asserting both that Jeff&apos;s #$heightOfObject is 5&apos;9&apos;&apos; and in the range 4.5-5.5 feet tall is an inconsistency.>, guid = "bd588162-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntervalBasedQuantitySlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss QuantitySlot, iss FunctionalSlot; IntervalEntry isu Format; IntervalEntry has label = "interval entry", comment = <Arguments to Cyc predicates may have specified formats that constrain their values. #$IntervalEntry is the format used to constrain argument positions that must be filled with measurable quantities. If #$IntervalEntry is the entry format of some Nth argument to a predicate PRED, then all assertions with PRED that contain the same particular values in their other arguments must have, in the Nth (i.e., #$IntervalEntry) argument, quantitative values that `overlap&apos;. (See #$ScalarInterval and #$overlapsIntervals.) #$IntervalEntry is provided because, for functional arguments like the second argument to #$volumeOfObject, we know that a single `real&apos; value does exist, though we may have various ways of concluding limits on that value in the form of intervals. As long as all the intervals overlap, those assertions are not contradictory. For more explanation, see #$Format and the related predicates #$arg1Format, #$arg2Format, etc.>, guid = "bd5880e0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntervalOnNumberLine ismem Class; IntervalOnNumberLine has label = "intervals", comment = <A collection of measurable intervals; a subset of #$ScalarInterval. Each element of #$IntervalOnNumberLine is an interval on the real number line; for example, the interval described by `numbers greater than zero and less than or equal to 10&apos;. A common special case of such intervals is that of a single point on that line, viz., a number such as five or 125. Note that such an interval need not be contiguous; e.g., `even numbers between Pi and the square root of 1000&apos; describes a legitimate element of #$IntervalOnNumberLine. The collection #$RealNumber is a subset of #$IntervalOnNumberLine. The elements of #$IntervalOnNumberLine are measured by elements of #$DimensionlessUnitOfMeasure, e.g., units or percentages. See also #$Unity, #$Percent, #$UnitOfMeasure.>, guid = "bd58f32f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntervalOnNumberLine rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; IntrinsicAxisOfObject ismem Class; IntrinsicAxisOfObject has label = "intrinsic axis of object", comment = <The collection of all intrinsic axes of objects (where those objects can be either spatially localized or abstract), being the conventional or obvious axes depending on shape, movement or function of the object. For example, for a chest-of-drawers, the intrinsic axes are top-to-bottom, side-to-side, and front-to-back. See also #$AxisFn. Each intrinsic axis is a direction relative to the object&apos;s orientation.>, guid = "bd58eb96-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntrinsicAxisOfObject rel isu ObjectType; IntrinsicStateChangeEvent ismem Class; IntrinsicStateChangeEvent has label = "changes of state", comment = <The collection of #$Events which are characterized primarily by a change in some intrinsic property of one main entity involved in the event (i.e., one of the #$actors). Such intrinsic changes may include changes of a thing&apos;s color, temperature, device state, size, and so on. Events where the main change is extrinsic (such as a change in location or ownership) are not #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvents. In events which have more than one actor, the event may be an #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvent for one actor but not for another. For example, in a #$FasteningSafetyBelt event, the #$SafetySeatBelt (the device used) goes from unconnected to connected (to itself), which is an intrinsic change; however, the agent who does the fastening (i.e., who is #$HandlingADevice) does not change intrinsically, but only in its configuration to the belt, an external object. Another example: in a #$HairCuttingEvent, the hair that is barbered undergoes an #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvent due to its role in that kind of event, but the barber undergoes no intrinsic change due to the hair cutting. Note: Some events, such as an ice cube melting into a small puddle of water, could be represented in Cyc either as an #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvent or as a #$TransformationEvent but not (within a single micro-theory) as both; see the comments on those constants.>, guid = "bd611277-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IntrinsicStateChangeEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Event; Invertebrate ismem Class; Invertebrate has label = "invertebrates", comment = <A collection of animals; every element of #$Invertebrate is an animal that has no backbone. #$Invertebrate includes insects, molluscs, sea squirts, worms (in a large variety of worm phyla), and many others. Note: Although #$Invertebrate is a scientific category, it is not a standard taxon in the biological taxonomy, hence it is not an instance of #$BiologicalTaxon.>, guid = "bd58984b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Invertebrate rel isu OrganismClassificationType, iss WildAnimal, iss Animal, xor Vertebrate; InvoluntaryBodyMovement ismem Class; InvoluntaryBodyMovement has label = "involuntary body movements", comment = <The collection of involuntary bodily movements, those movements in which an #$Animal&apos;s body does the action automatically -- the agent&apos;s consent doesn&apos;t enter into it. Subsets of #$InvoluntaryBodyMovement include #$Heartbeating, #$Sneezing, #$Snoring, etc.>, guid = "bd590662-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; InvoluntaryBodyMovement rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss BodyMovementEvent, iss BodilyFunctionEvent-Involuntary; IranianStudentAgriculturalCenter01 isu Organization; IranianStudentAgriculturalCenter01 has label = "iranian student agricultural center 01", comment = <The target of the Saudi Arabian attack on Iran in Stage 3 of the HPKB Crisis Scenario.>, guid = "bfdf0ffe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IrreflexiveBinaryPredicate ismem Class; IrreflexiveBinaryPredicate has label = "irreflexive binary predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates; the subset of #$BinaryPredicate whose elements represent irreflexive relations. A predicate F is an element of #$IrreflexiveBinaryPredicate if and only if F is a binary predicate and, for every X in the domain of F, (#$not (F X X)). Examples: #$spouse, #$causes-ThingProp, #$northOf, #$temporallyDisjoint. Note this additional restriction: A Cyc predicate F can be an element of #$IrreflexiveBinaryPredicate only if the type (i.e., arg-Isa) constraint applicable to F&apos;s first argument is not disjoint with the type constraint applicable to F&apos;s second argument. See also #$NoteOnArgumentTypingAndPropertiesOfRelations.>, guid = "bd654be7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IrreflexiveBinaryPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, ismem CoreConstant, iss Property, xor ReflexiveBinaryPredicate; IsaVsMainConstituentVsConstituents isu SharedNote; IsaVsMainConstituentVsConstituents has label = "isa vs main constituent vs constituents", comment = <When to use #$isa, #$mainConstituent, or #$constituents. We develop the following example as a basis for explaining the differences. Consider X, where (#$isa X #$Water). If we add some other substance(s) to X, to the point where the mixture acquires some salient characteristic(s) different from #$Water while retaining all the main properties, then we should assert (#$mainConstituent X W), where W is the original water -- i.e., (#$isa W #$Water) -- and X is the whole new mixture of W with some other stuff(s). Suppose we add enough enough other stuff that the physical properties of the mixture become significantly different from those of water; then we should assert only (#$constituents X W). #$isa - Use #$isa if X would commonly be referred to as `water&apos;, including cases in which a small number of minor characteristics are different due to some admixture. Examples (arguably, 3 and 4 are borderline cases): 1. An instance of (#$PureFn #$Water) #$isa #$Water. 2. An instance of #$Water-Ingestible #$isa #$Water (but may have trace constituents). 3. An instance of #$PoolWater #$isa #$Water (but has some #$Chlorine as a salient #$constituents). 4. An instance of #$SeaWater #$isa #$Water (but has some #$Salt-NaCl as a salient #$constituents). #$mainConstituent - Use #$mainConstituent when X contains other substances besides water, would NOT commonly referred to as `water&apos;, and yet has MOST of the material properties of water. As a rule, most of the properties of the #$mainConstituent transfer to the substance it&apos;s a part of. Often such substances have at least one important and/or perceptible characteristic (due to admixture) that is quite different from the properties of water. Examples: 1. An instance of #$Lemonade is NOT called `water&apos; but has water as a #$mainConstituent. It tastes quite different from water. It has nutritional (caloric) value. It is a human-made beverage. 2. An instance of #$Coffee-Beverage is NOT called `water&apos; but has water as a #$mainConstituent. It tastes quite different from water. It contains caffeine. Also, a specific inference about coffee&apos;s (lack of) transparency should override the transparency which would otherwise be inferred from the material properties of its #$mainConstituent. 3. Aqueous hydrochloric acid has many of the properties of its main constituent, water -- for example, transparency, viscosity, density, freezing point, etc. But it also has the very important difference that it is highly acidic, caustic, etc. -- and attributing to it water&apos;s potability would be disastrous. #$constituents - Use #$constituents when X is NOT commonly referred to as `water&apos; and has FEW properties of water, even though X contains water. Examples: 1. An instance of (#$SolidFn #$Gelatin) is NOT called `water&apos;, and though it has water among its #$constituents, gelatin has very few of the properties of water. 2. An instance of #$Concrete is NOT called `water&apos;; though it has water among its #$constituents, it has none of the salient characteristics of water. 3. An instance of #$Mud is NOT called `water&apos; and has few characteristics of water, though water is among its #$constituents. Its #$mainConstituent is some portion of #$Soil.>, guid = "c0fb9e28-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Island ismem Class; Island has label = "islands", comment = <The collection of all islands, each being a #$LandBody (smaller than a #$Continent) surrounded by water.>, guid = "bd58bb39-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Island rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LandBody, iss IslandsAndIslandGroup; IslandAndContinentNote isu SharedNote; IslandAndContinentNote has label = "island and continent note", comment = <For most elements of #$GeopoliticalEntity, we&apos;ve been content in the #$DualistGeopoliticalMt simply to assert directly of the #$GeopoliticalEntity various geographical features, without reifying the physical extent of that entity. Why, then, do island-nations and territories like #$Iceland, #$Greenland, and #$Australia all have explicitly reified geographical &apos;doubles&apos; like #$Iceland-TheIsland, #$Greenland-TheIsland, and #$ContinentOfAustralia ? Note that in the #$DualistGeopoliticalMt we still can assert various geographical properties directly of the #$GeopoliticalEntity. The reason for creating the geographical regions in addition to the geopolitical entities is that islands and continents have very different identity-conditions, ending and starting points, etc., than does a #$GeopoliticalEntity, even if we consider those geopolitical entities to be geographical regions also: the continent of Australia has existed for far longer than has the country of Australia.>, guid = "be0b4987-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IslandsAndIslandGroup ismem Class; IslandsAndIslandGroup has label = "islands or island group", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each element of #$IslandsAndIslandGroup is either an #$Island or a group of islands (see #$Archipelago), or an area which includes part but not all of an island (#$IslandSubregion). Elements of #$IslandsAndIslandGroup include groups of scattered islands which do not form a natural geographical area; the chief reasons for representing such groups is that they are geopolitical areas and/or were historically significant. Examples: #$FrenchPolynesia, #$Cyclades, #$OuterHebrides-Archipelago, #$Grenadines-Islands.>, guid = "bd58bb7f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; IslandsAndIslandGroup rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LandTopographicalFeature; ItineraryDocument ismem Class; ItineraryDocument has label = "itineraries", comment = <The collection of documents that contain information about the time/location of each leg of a trip, accomodations, etc.>, guid = "c0fd5222-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ItineraryDocument rel isu ExistingObjectType; January ismem Class; January has label = "January", comment = <The collection of all Januaries, the first month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58b833-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; January rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; Japan isu Agent; Japan has label = "Japan", comment = <Japan (the Empire of Japan), a medium-sized #$IndependentCountry consisting of four islands off the east coast of the #$ContinentOfAsia, with several island possessions. This includes Japan as it has been throughout history, geographically and politically.>, guid = "bd5902a2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; JapaneseLanguage isu LivingLanguage; JapaneseLanguage has label = "Japanese Language", comment = <The language of the people of #$Japan.>, guid = "bd5886ea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Jealousy ismem Class; Jealousy has label = "jealousy", comment = <Intolerance of rivalry; feeling of suspicion and resentment of one&apos;s rivals. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. Note: #$Envy is related to covetousness, wanting (perhaps in the future) what someone else has; #$Jealousy is related to possessiveness, wanting to keep what is (or was or could have been) already yours.>, guid = "bd58a4d3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Jealousy rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Resentment; JobAttribute ismem Class; JobAttribute has label = "job attribute", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$JobAttribute describes a general property of a job or type of job. Examples of #$JobAttribute include #$BlueCollar, #$WhiteCollar, and #$FlexibleWorkingHours.>, guid = "bd58c9c2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; JobAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, iss AttributeValue; JobCapacity isu CapacityAttribute; JobCapacity has label = "job capacity", comment = <the attribute of performing something as a job>, guid = "bd58817f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Joint-AnimalBodyPart ismem Class; Joint-AnimalBodyPart has label = "joints", comment = <The collection of all joints of #$Animals. A joint is the juncture between the ends or edges of abutting bones of the animal&apos;s skeleton. Joints are of several types mechanically (e.g., ball-and-socket). Many major joints function as hinges, in which the ends of the abutting bones are joined with ligaments and cushioned by cartilege.>, guid = "bd58e376-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Joint-AnimalBodyPart rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss SolidTangibleThing, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; July ismem Class; July has label = "July", comment = <The collection of all Julys, the seventh month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c1ad-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; July rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; JunctionOfPaths ismem Class; JunctionOfPaths has label = "junctions", comment = <The collection of junctions of paths, each junction being an arrangement of three or more distinct instances of #$Path-Customary such that they are all locally connected to each other by joining at the #$JunctionOfPaths. It includes the case of two or more paths that &apos;cross&apos; at a junction (because four path segments are thereby joined), but not the case in which the end of one path simply joins the end of another path, and no others. For junctions in #$PathSystems, see #$junctionInSystem. (Determining what constitutes a #$JunctionOfPaths depends on the #$PathTypes of the joined paths; if it is #$River then only a junction of rivers qualifies, not the place where a road joins a river.)>, guid = "c0fbbdc4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; JunctionOfPaths rel ismem Class, iss PartiallyTangible; JunctionOfPipes ismem Class; JunctionOfPipes has label = "junction of pipes", comment = <The collection of all junctions of pipes or tubes. Each junction permits flow between any two #$Pipe-GenericConduits joined at that junction. At any #$JunctionOfPipes, three or more distinct (non-overlapping) lengths of #$Pipe-GenericConduit must be joined at their ends at the junction. (Some of the so-joined pipes may loop back to the same junction.)>, guid = "bf53bf8d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; JunctionOfPipes rel isu RegionType, iss JunctionOfPaths; June ismem Class; June has label = "June", comment = <The collection of all Junes, the sixth month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c1f0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; June rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; JuvenileAnimal ismem Class; JuvenileAnimal has label = "young animals", comment = <An element of #$LifeStageType. #$JuvenileAnimal is the collection of all animals that are not fully grown nor fully mature.>, guid = "c10c20a8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; JuvenileAnimal rel isu LifeStageType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal, iss PortableObject, xor AdultAnimal; Killing-Biological ismem Class; Killing-Biological has label = "killing - biological", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of this collection, one living organism ends the life of another, either intentionally or unintentionally.>, guid = "bd58ac2e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Killing-Biological rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss AnimalActivity; KineticEnergyPoweredDevice ismem Class; KineticEnergyPoweredDevice has label = "kinetic energy powered device", comment = <A collection of devices; a subset of #$PoweredDevice. An instance of #$KineticEnergyPoweredDevice does not have an `on-board&apos; energy source incorporated into it, at least not one supplying the bulk of the power requirements of the device. Instead, its operating power is supplied by the kinetic energy from something else in motion -- such as animal muscle power (including human labor), wind energy, or hydraulic power. Examples include elements of the collections #$Hammer and #$Piano-Acoustic. (Contrast with #$SelfPoweredDevice --- e.g., an electric organ is a #$SelfPoweredDevice, not a #$KineticEnergyPoweredDevice.)>, guid = "bd58942f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; KineticEnergyPoweredDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PoweredDevice, xor SelfPoweredDevice, xor NuclearPoweredDevice; KnotShaped isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; KnotShaped has label = "knot shaped", comment = <#$KnotShaped is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all knot-shaped objects.>, guid = "c11652df-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; KnowledgeBase ismem Class; KnowledgeBase has label = "kb", comment = <A collection of intangible individuals; a subset of #$Database-AbstractContent. Each element of #$KnowledgeBase is a database that attempts to represent the structure of at least part of the world. Instances include the #$CycKB and #$SENSUS-Information1997.>, guid = "bd58d211-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; KnowledgeBase rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss Database-AbstractContent, iss ConventionalClassificationSystem; Lake ismem Class; Lake has label = "lakes", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each instance of #$Lake is a land-locked body of water, typically but not necessarily of freshwater. These are subdivided into freshwater [#$FreshWaterLake] and salt-water [#$InlandSea] lakes. Examples: #$LakeMaracaibo, #$LakeWinnipeg, #$LakeTanganyika, #$LochNess-Lake, #$LakeErie, #$LakeTahoe, #$CaspianSea, #$BlackSea, #$DeadSea.>, guid = "bd58b822-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Lake rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BodyOfWater; LandBody ismem Class; LandBody has label = "landmasses", comment = <A collection of geographical regions. Each element of #$LandBody is a cohesive chunk of land whose extent is principally defined by one or more bordering bodies of water (liquid or frozen). Types of #$LandBody include the subsets #$Island and #$Continent. Examples: #$Australia, #$ContinentOfNorthAmerica, #$Trinidad-Island, #$Crete-Island-Greece. Areas of land defined by human occupation or political boundaries, e.g., #$NorthernCalifornia or #$NorthernIreland, are elements of #$GeographicalRegion, but not of #$LandBody.>, guid = "bd58e9d5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LandBody rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TopographicalFeature; LandTopographicalFeature ismem Class; LandTopographicalFeature has label = "topographical features", comment = <A collection of geographical regions. Each element of #$TopographicalFeature is a region of land distinguishable from surrounding regions by salient physical differences in surface texture, three-dimensional shape, or elevation. For example, the #$ArabianPeninsula, #$MountZion, the #$SanAndreasFault, the #$GreatSmokyMountains.>, guid = "bd58ce87-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LandTopographicalFeature rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss EarthStuff; LandTransportationDevice ismem Class; LandTransportationDevice has label = "land vehicles", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$LandTransportationDevice is a device used for transportation on land. Subsets of #$LandTransportationDevice include the collections #$Automobile, #$Snowmobile, #$TrainCar, #$HorseCarriage, #$BabyCarriage, #$Bicycle, #$SkateBoard, and more.>, guid = "bd58d4ff-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LandTransportationDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TransportationDevice; Language ismem Class; Language has label = "languages", comment = <The collection of systems which use conventionalized signs or symbols. This includes dead languages, computer languages, unspoken languages, codes - anything which relates symbols to meaning.>, guid = "bd58f489-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Language rel isu ObjectType, iss CommunicationConvention, xor Microtheory, xor LinguisticObject, xor TimeInterval, xor AttributeValue; LawEnforcementOfficer ismem Class; LawEnforcementOfficer has label = "policemen", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$LawEnforcementOfficer is a person whose job is to prevent, detect, stop, and/or punish people committing illegal activities. The collection #$LawEnforcementOfficer includes local, state, and special police (e.g., transit police), and federal agents (e.g., border patrol, national security agents). An instance of #$LawEnforcementOfficer typically also belongs to one of the following collections: #$StateEmployee, #$LocalGovernmentEmployee, or #$NationalGovernmentEmployee (see #$PublicSectorEmployee).>, guid = "bd58e004-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LawEnforcementOfficer rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional, iss PublicSectorEmployee; LawEnforcementOrganization ismem Class; LawEnforcementOrganization has label = "law-enforcement organizations", comment = <#$LawEnforcementOrganization is the collection of official organizations whose purpose is to support or perform law enforcement. This includes both police organizations, at all levels, and information agencies such as #$INTERPOL whose purpose is to assist and coordinate police activities. See the subset #$PoliceOrganization for only those organizations which are legally empowered to enforce laws.>, guid = "bd58a14b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LawEnforcementOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, iss LegalAgent; Layer ismem Class; Layer has label = "layers", comment = <The collection of all layers of things, each layer being a #$SheetOfSomeStuff that is #$sheetSurfaceConnected, or situated adjacent, surface-to-surface, to at least one surface or layer or region on one side, and possibly to other layers or surfaces on both sides. A layer may be part of a larger object, or it may be an independent whole object such as a hide confined in a stack of hides. A #$Layer is not a #$FreeSheet. See the #$OneSidedVsTwoSidedObjectNote.>, guid = "bdee251a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Layer rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss SheetOfSomeStuff, xor FreeSheet; Layered isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Layered has label = "layered", comment = <The physical structural attribute of being layered, laminate, or made of #$Layers, like stratified rock or an onion. An object that is #$Layered has two or more parts that are each #$Layers.>, guid = "be00c275-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Leader ismem Class; Leader has label = "leaders", comment = <A collection of persons. Each element of #$Leader is a person who heads an instance of #$Organization. Typically, a leader of an organization makes major decisions on behalf of the whole organization, has the authority to direct the organization&apos;s personnel to carry out those decisions, and is empowered to engage or negotiate with external agents to achieve the organization&apos;s goals. This collection includes leaders of #$subOrganizations, such as department heads within larger organizations. Also, a single person may be a leader in more than one organization. In addition, see #$hasLeaders, #$Manager, and #$seniorExecutives.>, guid = "c10af978-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Leader rel isu PositionType, iss Person; LeapYear ismem Class; LeapYear has label = "leap years", comment = <The collection of #$CalendarYears which are leap years; i.e., calendar years in which February has 29 days>, guid = "bd58b9ba-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LeapYear rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss CalendarYear, xor NonLeapYear; Learning ismem Class; Learning has label = "learning events", comment = <The collection of all events, brief or extended, in which an agent is acquiring information or know-how.>, guid = "bd58ef72-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Learning rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss AtLeastPartiallyMentalEvent; Leather ismem Class; Leather has label = "leather", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Leather is a piece of tanned animal hide. Pieces of #$Leather are commonly used as material inputs to the manufacture of shoes, gloves, upholstery, satchels and purses, saddles, etc.>, guid = "bd58c1b3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Leather rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss FreeSheet, iss SolidTangibleThing, xor TextileProduct; LeftObject ismem Class; LeftObject has label = "left object", comment = <The collection of objects that are meant for, or are found on and distinctively structured for, the left side of some larger entity or ensemble of parts. Examples include left hands, left shoes, left automobile turning signals.>, guid = "bd58d4ba-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LeftObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor RightObject; Leg ismem Class; Leg has label = "legs", comment = <The collection of all #$Animal appendages used for locomotion overland, supporting the animal and moving it along by walking, running, etc. Thus wings, fins, etc., are not #$Legs. The #$Foot-AnimalBodyPart is considered part of the #$Leg>, guid = "bd5898cd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Leg rel isu SymmetricAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; LegalAgent ismem Class; LegalAgent has label = "legal agents", comment = <The collection of all legal agents; a subset of #$Agent. A legal agent is one that has some legal status in a particular legal system. At the very least, such an agent is recognized by some legal authority as having some kinds of rights and/or responsibilities as an agent (e.g., #$citizens of Germany), or as being subject to certain restrictions and penalties (e.g., a company that has been blacklisted by Iraq). Thus, instances of #$LegalAgent include agents that may have property rights, may be taxed, may have a government identification number, may be sued, may have an address, may buy or sell, etc. Note: membership in this collection is very much dependent upon context. In some societies, only adult males and various kinds of state-run organizations would be included in #$LegalAgents.>, guid = "bd58a7b1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LegalAgent rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SocialBeing; LegalAgreement ismem Class; LegalAgreement has label = "legal agreements", comment = <A collection of microtheories; a subset of #$Agreement. Each element of #$LegalAgreement is an agreement which has a legal status, i.e., is recognized as a valid agreement by a government. #$LegalAgreement includes the elements in its subsets #$SalesContract, #$PublicHealthRegulations, #$Patent, #$InsurancePlan, #$Visa-Permit, and the different kinds of #$License-LegalAgreement -- among many others.>, guid = "bd58b05e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LegalAgreement rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Agreement; LegalCode ismem Class; LegalCode has label = "legal code", comment = <A collection of microtheories. Each element of #$LegalCode is a microtheory for collecting all the instances of #$Law which hold in a given #$GeopoliticalEntity. For example, #$LegalCode-ModernUnitedStates.>, guid = "bd65c7ba-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LegalCode rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu MicrotheoryType, iss GovernmentCOC; LegalCorporation ismem Class; LegalCorporation has label = "corporations", comment = <The collection of all #$Organizations which have been incorporated in accordance with the laws of a jurisdiction. Each instance of #$LegalCorporation is a legal entity distinct from its owners and employees and is afforded certain powers both by law and by its incorporating documents. Instances of #$LegalCorporation may be either #$CommercialOrganizations or #$NonProfitOrganizations. Each instance of #$LegalCorporation organized in the #$UnitedStatesOfAmerica is incorporated under the laws of a particular state, although it may be empowered to carry on activities in any state. Most American jurisdictions require that one of the words or abbreviations &apos;corporation&apos;, &apos;company&apos;, &apos;incorporated&apos;, &apos;corp&apos;, &apos;co&apos;, or &apos;inc&apos; be included in the registered name of a corporation. Instances of #$LegalCorporation include #$IBMInc and #$Cycorp.>, guid = "bd589295-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LegalCorporation rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, iss LegalAgent, xor SoleProprietorship; LegalGovernmentOrganization ismem Class; LegalGovernmentOrganization has label = "government organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$LegalGovernmentOrganization is an organization which is a part of, and funded by, the government of a geopolitical entity. Examples include the #$InternalRevenueService, #$UnitedStatesNavy, and #$CityCouncilOfAustin (TX). Some elements of #$LegalGovernmentOrganizations have legal standing in courts.>, guid = "bd588aa6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LegalGovernmentOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, iss LegalAgent; LegalHoliday ismem Class; LegalHoliday has label = "national holidays", comment = <The subset of #$Holidays which are typically declared to be #$Holidays by the governments of western countries, and which are therefore days on which most people governed by that government do not work and on which students do not attend classes. Such #$Holidays may coincide with #$ReligiousHolidays, especially where there is a government-sanctioned religion.>, guid = "be01edce-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LegalHoliday rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss Holiday; LegalProfessional ismem Class; LegalProfessional has label = "legal professionals", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$LegalProfessional is a person working in the field of law. This collection includes lawyers, judges, paralegals, and law clerks.>, guid = "bd58bab4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LegalProfessional rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; LevelOfAConstruction ismem Class; LevelOfAConstruction has label = "stories", comment = <The levels, also called floors or stories, of a #$ConstructionArtifact. Levels are regions in space; they are not two-dimensional planes.>, guid = "bd58ca09-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LevelOfAConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SpaceInAHOC; LevelOfDiscomfort ismem Class; LevelOfDiscomfort has label = "levels of discomfort", comment = <An #$AttributeType whose elements represent the various levels of discomfort that may be felt by a perceptual agent. Typically, the agent must be a living entity. Typically, the sensation is an internal feeling, and is more of a long-lasting dull ache than a sharp pain (see: #$LevelOfPain).>, guid = "bd588a7f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LevelOfDiscomfort rel isu SensoryReactionType, iss ScalarInterval, iss InternalSensoryAttribute, iss AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute; LevelOfExhaustion ismem Class; LevelOfExhaustion has label = "exhaustion", comment = <An #$AttributeType whose elements represent the qualitative degrees of exhaustion that an animal may feel. Note that this predicate is NOT properly used for any other purpose (e.g., to describe metal fatigue, or the depletion of natural resources, or the gradual inhibition that a single cell devlops to repeated stimuli, etc., even though in English the words `exhaustion&apos; and `fatigue&apos; have those meanings.) This is a good example of how Cyc&apos;s internal representation must, and does, disambiguate different concepts even though they might be metaphors for each other, and even though those distinct meanings might be mixed together at a word level in a natural language like English.>, guid = "bd58a0aa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LevelOfExhaustion rel isu PhysicalUrgeType, isu SensoryReactionType, iss AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute, iss InternalSensoryAttribute; LevelOfHunger ismem Class; LevelOfHunger has label = "hungers", comment = <A collection of #$AnimalPhysiologicalAttributes that express how hungry an #$Animal is (e.g., #$Hungry, #$NotHungry, #$Starving). These #$LevelOfHunger attributes are the first argument to the predicate #$hungerLevelOf (q.v.).>, guid = "bd58a236-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LevelOfHunger rel isu PhysicalUrgeType, iss InternalSensoryAttribute, iss AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute, iss ScalarInterval; LevelOfPain ismem Class; LevelOfPain has label = "pains", comment = <An #$AttributeType whose elements represent the qualitative levels of pain that may be felt by a perceptual agent. Although the agent is often a living entity, this is not required. The source of the pain could be either external or internal; in either case, the subjective feeling is generally `sharper&apos; and hopefully shorter-lived than just `a feeling of discomfort&apos; (see: #$LevelOfDiscomfort.)>, guid = "bd58ae66-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LevelOfPain rel isu SensoryReactionType, iss SensoryAttribute, iss ScalarInterval, iss LevelOfDiscomfort; LevelOfRelaxationFeeling ismem Class; LevelOfRelaxationFeeling has label = "level of relaxation feeling", comment = <An #$AttributeType whose elements represent the qualitative levels of comfort/relaxation/ease that an animal may have. This feeling is generally internal, and relatively long-lasting (compared with, e.g., the duration of a painful twinge.) Any positive degree of this #$LevelOfRelaxationFeeling is incompatible with a high level of #$MuscleTenseness, a high #$LevelOfPain, or a high #$LevelOfDiscomfort.>, guid = "bd58d7e3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LevelOfRelaxationFeeling rel isu SensoryReactionType, iss InternalSensoryAttribute; LexicalItem ismem Class; LexicalItem has label = "lexical item", comment = <The collection of items which form the lexicon of a language. These include both free morphemes, like &apos;dog&apos;, and bound morphemes, like affixes.>, guid = "be1903ee-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LexicalItem rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss LinguisticObject, iss HLReifiedDenotationalTerm; LexicalWord ismem Class; LexicalWord has label = "words", comment = <The collection of all words. A lexical word is a free morpheme; it need not be bound to another lexical item. Note that inflectional forms of a word, if there are such, do not constitute distinct words. Examples of #$LexicalWord: #$Aluminum-TheWord, #$Confetti-TheWord, #$To-TheWord, #$Confetti-TheWord, #$Hang-Glide-MWW.>, guid = "bd58e4ae-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LexicalWord rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss LexicalItem; LifeStageType ismem Class; LifeStageType has label = "life stage type", comment = <#$LifeStageType is a collection of collections. Each member of this collection is itself a collection whose members are organisms which all share a specific level of biological or social development. One member of #$LifeStageType is #$HumanChild, which has as its members all human children. Other members of #$LifeStageType include #$HumanAdult and #$HumanInfant.>, guid = "bd58fab5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LifeStageType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ExistingObjectType; LifeThreateningCondition ismem Class; LifeThreateningCondition has label = "life threatening conditions", comment = <A collection of ailments which are distinguished by the shared characteristic that if left untreated, those ailments may cause an organism to die (but will not certainly do so). Cases of #$Poisoning and of #$Pneumonia are often instances of #$LifeThreateningCondition. Cf. #$TerminalPhysiologicalCondition. >, guid = "c0fd50b1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LifeThreateningCondition rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss PhysiologicalCondition; LightIntensity ismem Class; LightIntensity has label = "light intensity", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$ScalarInterval. Each element of #$LightIntensity is a characterization of how brightly illuminated a location is. (At the low extreme is total darkness.) The light intensity of a location is indicated with the predicate #$illuminationLevel.>, guid = "bd58e0ed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LightIntensity rel iss ScalarInterval, iss PhysicalAttribute, iss SensoryAttribute; LightingDevice ismem Class; LightingDevice has label = "lights", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$LightingDevice has the #$primaryFunction of providing light. The light provided may be provided in different ways and for different specialized purposes. For example, it may be for general illumination of a fixed area (as by instances of #$Candle, #$Lantern, #$ElectricLamp, and #$Streetlight); or it may be for specially directed illumination (as by instances of #$AutomotiveLight and #$Flashlight); or it may be for use in a signal or sign (as by instances of #$TrafficLight and #$IndicatorLight); or it may be for some other special purposes (as by instances of StrobeLight).>, guid = "bd58a5ec-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LightingDevice rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss PoweredDevice, iss PhysicalDevice; LightningEvent ismem Class; LightningEvent has label = "lightning", comment = <The collection of lightning flashes, events in which the atmosphere discharges electricity.>, guid = "bd589322-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LightningEvent rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss Emission, iss ImmediateWeatherProcess; Line ismem Class; Line has label = "lines", comment = <A subset of #$GeometricThing. Each instance of #$Line is a one-dimensional path through two- or three-dimensional space, whether curved or straight. Formally, this is a 1-manifold. Examples include spatially localized objects, such as the equator, as well as abstract lines.>, guid = "bd5906cb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Line rel isu GenericShapeType, iss GeometricThing, xor SpacePoint, xor TwoDimensionalShape, xor ThreeDimensionalShape; Linear isu ShapeAttribute; Linear has label = "linear", comment = <The shape attribute shared by anything that has only one discernible or relevant dimension. Examples include geometric lines and line segments, curved line segments and arcs, and physical objects whose length is the only relevant dimension, e.g., a length of wire, if we are in a context in which other dimensions of the wire are small enough to be ignored, or the outer rim of a glass. Also note that this attribute holds of anything which is linear even if the object does not remain in a single plane. For instance, a spiral-shaped line or a length of string wrapped around a pencil may be linear despite the fact that they do not remain in a single two dimensional plane.>, guid = "bf628acb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Linear-Planar isu ShapeAttribute; Linear-Planar has label = "linear - planar", comment = <The shape attribute shared by all lines, both curved and straight that belong to objects that remain in a single two-dimensional plane. Spatial things in addition to purely geometric objects can have this attribute. For instance, in some microtheories one might deem a length of wire to be linear insofar as width, height or radius is irrelevant to the kind of reasoning required.>, guid = "bdbb00b2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Linear-Straight isu ShapeAttribute; Linear-Straight has label = "linear - straight", comment = <The shape attribute shared by all one-dimensional objects that are not curved. Once again, note that this is very context dependent. To take a very straightforward example, if building a deck the standards for being deemed to have the attribute #$Linear-Straight may vary considerably from the standards for straightness when framing a home.>, guid = "c0af9d58-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LinguisticObject ismem Class; LinguisticObject has label = "linguistic object", comment = <The collection of all intangible objects that are parts of some language or other, in a broad sense of part whereby #$LinguisticObject&apos;s specializations include such diverse collections as #$Title, #$WordSense, #$SententialConstituent, #$NonlexicalLinguisticObject, and #$LinguisticAttribute.>, guid = "bd58d0fb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LinguisticObject rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss AbstractInformationalThing, xor TimeInterval, xor Microtheory, xor Language, xor UnitOfMeasure, xor SomethingExisting; LinguisticObjectType ismem Class; LinguisticObjectType has label = "linguistic object type", comment = <#$LinguisticObjectType is the collection of subcollections of #$LinguisticObject.>, guid = "bd5900f4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LinguisticObjectType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ObjectType; LiquidAsset ismem Class; LiquidAsset has label = "liquid assets", comment = <A collection of objects. Each element of #$LiquidAsset is either an instance of #$Currency or some asset that is readily convertible to currency by selling or borrowing againstit. Examples: stocks, bonds, money market accounts.>, guid = "bd58afb3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LiquidAsset rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SomethingExisting; LiquidStateOfMatter isu StateOfMatter-SolidLiquidGaseous; LiquidStateOfMatter has label = "liquid state of matter", comment = <A basic physical state of matter. #$LiquidStateOfMatter characterizes pieces of matter which are at a temperature and pressure such that the molecules of the matter move freely relative to their neighbors, but are not excited enough to break free. Liquid objects are characterized at the macroscopic level by special qualities of flow, such as being #$Pourable and conforming to whatever container they occupy. Examples of things that typically have this attribute are: liquid nitrogen; the water component of a gallon of seawater; a lump of mercury at room temperature; and some molten silver about to be poured into a teapot mold.>, guid = "bd590948-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LiquidTangibleThing ismem Class; LiquidTangibleThing has label = "liquid objects", comment = <A collection of pieces of tangible stuff. Each element of #$LiquidTangibleThing is a tangible thing which shares many of the properties that matter in the #$LiquidStateOfMatter exhibits; i.e., its volume is relatively constant at varying pressures, and its freely changes shape (e.g., to conform to the shape a vessel containing it). Liquids can never be said to break. Note that not all instances of #$LiquidTangibleThing are in #$LiquidStateOfMatter, because that attribute applies to quantities of a single type of substance. Examples of #$LiquidTangibleThing: substances in #$LiquidStateOfMatter, such the water in a room-temperature glass of beer; liquid/liquid mixtures like the beer itself; solutions of solids in liquids, such as sea water; emulsions such as milk; and suspensions of solids in liquids like blood. Cf. #$FluidTangibleThing and #$GaseousTangibleThing.>, guid = "bd58d2a0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LiquidTangibleThing rel isu TangibleStuffStateType, iss FluidTangibleThing, xor Molecule, xor GaseousTangibleThing; List ismem Class; List has label = "lists", comment = <The collection of all lists or finite sequences of items, as an abstract notion. A #$List is a special kind of #$Tuple that is a finite structure with a first and last member-position, and for each member-postion but the last, there is a successor member-position. A #$List, like other #$Tuples, allows repetition of its members -- the same item can appear at multiple member-positions in the list. A list can be viewed formally as a function from a finite index set of counting numbers, beginning with one, into the domain of #$Things or perhaps some more restrictive domain. Unlike #$Series, #$List is purely abstract and the only implied relation between an item and its successor is the successor relation of the list itself. #$List is, technically, more specific than #$Tuple only in that the index set must be the counting numbers in their usual order rather than some other index set. Note that the operators defined on lists do not correspond exactly to similar operators in Common LISP; #$List includes commonsense lists like grocery list and the first item on a list is at position number 1.>, guid = "bed50053-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; List rel isu StuffType, ismem CoreConstant, iss Tuple; ListTheFormat isu Format; ListTheFormat has label = "list the format", comment = <A Format or datatype. Multiple copies of entries, &amp; any number of entries, are OK; and order matters; i.e., if you change the order of two different elements of a list, the resultant list is not equal to the original one>, guid = "bd58f26f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ListWithoutRepetition ismem Class; ListWithoutRepetition has label = "OSET", comment = <The collection of all those #$Lists, for each of which, no element appears more than once in the list. A #$ListWithoutRepetition is sometimes called an &apos;OSET&apos;. Note that a #$ListWithoutRepetition amounts to a finite #$TotalOrdering-Strict. (In general a #$List and #$Series may have repeated elements.) See also #$SeriesWithoutRepetition.>, guid = "bdb9081e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ListWithoutRepetition rel ismem Class, iss List; ListeningDeliberately ismem Class; ListeningDeliberately has label = "listening", comment = <The collection of events in which an #$Agent deliberately facilitates and does #$Hearing.>, guid = "bd58c048-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ListeningDeliberately rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss AccessingAnIBT, iss Hearing, iss Perceiving-Voluntary; Liver ismem Class; Liver has label = "livers", comment = <The collection of all living #$Animal livers. Each instance of #$Liver is a large compound #$InternalOrgan. A #$Liver breaks down dead #$RedBloodCells, removes certain poisons and waste material from the blood stream, creates glycogen from sugars and proteins, stores glycogen, removes certain chemicals from the blood, secretes bile (#$BileTheSecretion) which is used for digestion,and regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, #$Proteins, #$Vitamins, #$Minerals, and fats.>, guid = "bd58a6a6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Liver rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; LivingLanguage ismem Class; LivingLanguage has label = "living languages", comment = <#$LivingLanguage, a subset of #$NaturalLanguage, is the collection of all natural languages which have some native speaker(s).>, guid = "bd58fc55-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LivingLanguage rel ismem Class, iss NaturalLanguage, xor DeadLanguage; LocalGovernmentOrganization ismem Class; LocalGovernmentOrganization has label = "local government organizations", comment = <A collection of government organizations; a subset of #$LocalOrganization. An element of #$LocalGovernmentOrganization is any government organization -- whether federal, state, county, or municipal -- that is specific to, i.e., has jurisdiction and/or services generally limited to, one (local) location. For example, a Board of Education of a particular school district is a #$LocalGovernmentOrganization, because its authority extends to schools in a limited (local) area; in the U.S., such a Board answers to another #$LocalGovernmentOrganization, typically a city or township government. In another example, an element of #$VeteransAdministrationMedicalCenter is a local organization in terms of its service area, but bureaucratically it belongs to the U.S. Federal government; thus, #$VeteransAdministrationMedicalCenter is a subset of both #$LocalGovernmentOrganization and #$USFederalGovernmentOrganization.>, guid = "c10c233a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LocalGovernmentOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LegalGovernmentOrganization, iss LocalOrganization; LocalOrganization ismem Class; LocalOrganization has label = "local organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$LocalOrganization is an organization having local `scope&apos; -- that is, members distributed in a local area (a #$Neighborhood, #$City, rural region, etc.) or having a local area of activity and concern, as opposed to statewide, national, or international organizations.>, guid = "bd58eedb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LocalOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; LocomotionEvent-Animal ismem Class; LocomotionEvent-Animal has label = "locomotion event - animal", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of #$LocomotionProcess-Generic. In an instance of #$LocomotionEvent-Animal, the #$objectMoving (at least the object that is playing the role of #$doneBy in the event) is an #$Animal. In addition to episodes of walking and swimming, #$LocomotionEvent-Animal includes events in which an agent moves itself using a device, with that agent supplying the motive force to the device -- as in instances of #$PedalingABicycle, #$IceSkating, #$InLineSkating, etc. Since the locomotor virtually always supplies the vast majority of the force required to make the motion happen, it is safe to infer that IF something plays the role of #$providerOfMotiveForce, THEN it is an #$objectMoving. In certain abnormal situations this rule will make the wrong conclusions: e.g. if a mountain climber&apos;s assent is aided by another stationary person above. Some locomotion events are also transportation events, e.g. when someone is walking while carrying something else. Note: Elements of #$LocomotionEvent-Animal may be `non-homogeneous&apos; (by contrast, each #$LocomotionProcess-Animal is `homogeneous.&apos;) That is, if you take #$timeSlices of a #$LocomotionEvent-Animal, they may or may not be #$LocomotionEvent-Animals. E.g., even though a mountain-climbing event is a #$LocomotionEvent-Animal, if you take a time-slice of it -- even a quite long time-slice of it! -- that whole time-slice could be where you were tying your climbing rope to a piton you&apos;d just pounded into the mountainside, and that tying event is not a #$LocomotionEvent-Animal. Note that this is not quite the same thing as the granularity of a process, such as #$AnimalWalkingProcess, where if you take a fine enough time-slice you are just lifting your leg up into the air. In the case of a #$LocomotionEvent-Animal such as scaling a sheer rock wall, very little of the time actually involves the motion of your body up the wall. >, guid = "bd58e64e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LocomotionEvent-Animal rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss AnimalActivity; LocomotionProcess-Animal ismem Class; LocomotionProcess-Animal has label = "locomotion processes", comment = <The collection of processes in which an animal moves from one place to another by its own power. A #$LocomotionProcess-Animal is an activity considered as a #$TemporalStuffType, in which any time-slice of the activity can also be considered an instance of that activity. Subsets of #$LocomotionProcess-Animal include: #$AnimalWalkingProcess, #$Brachiating, #$Climbing, #$WheelchairLocomotionEvent, #$Boring-Locomotion, etc.>, guid = "bd58e68c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LocomotionProcess-Animal rel ismem Class, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss LocomotionEvent-Animal, iss Movement-TranslationProcess; LogicalConnective ismem Class; LogicalConnective has label = "logical connective", comment = <A collection of mathematical objects, including the basic logical connectives. Each element of #$LogicalConnective is a #$Relation which takes one or more truth-valued expressions (sentences) as arguments and returns a truth-valued sentence. The elements of #$LogicalConnective include #$and, #$or, #$not, and #$implies.>, guid = "bd58b9f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LogicalConnective rel ismem Class, isu RelationshipType, ismem CoreConstant, iss TruthFunction; Loneliness ismem Class; Loneliness has label = "lonely", comment = <The disagreeable feeling of being without company. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. Some more specialized #$FeelingAttributeTypes are #$Loneliness, #$Solitude, etc.>, guid = "c0ed0b82-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Loneliness rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; LongAndThin isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; LongAndThin has label = "long and thin", comment = <A physical attribute. #$LongAndThin is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute that characterizes a tangible object which has one dimension whose length exceeds that of each of the other two dimensions by at least a factor of three. E.g., pencils, straws, telephone wire, submarines, skyscrapers. Cf. #$SheetShaped.>, guid = "c0f2a0fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LongitudeLine ismem Class; LongitudeLine has label = "lines of longitude", comment = <A line between the #$NorthPole and the #$SouthPole, intersecting the #$Equator at 90 degrees.>, guid = "bddab4a1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LongitudeLine rel isu ExistingObjectType; LookingForSomething ismem Class; LookingForSomething has label = "searches", comment = <Searching for something with the intent to find it. Instances of failure to find the object of the search are still instances of #$LookingForSomething.>, guid = "bd58fb33-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LookingForSomething rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss Perceiving-Voluntary; LosingUserRights ismem Class; LosingUserRights has label = "losses of user rights", comment = <A collection of events. In an instance of #$LosingUserRights, some #$Agent loses possession of something. Thus, in such an event, that agent loses a previously held right (viz., some #$UserRightsAttribute) to use some item. The item in question is identified as the #$objectOfPossessionTransfer, and the agent is the #$fromPossessor (i.e., the one from whom possession is taken). The #$Agent may or may not be a #$deliberateActors in the event; e.g., selling one&apos;s car is done on purpose, but having one&apos;s car repossessed probably isn&apos;t. If either of those two events happen to you, though, it is an element of the collection #$LosingUserRights.>, guid = "bd641ca1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; LosingUserRights rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss ChangeInUserRights, iss TransferOut; Love ismem Class; Love has label = "loves", comment = <Strong affection for another agent arising out of kinship or personal ties. Love may be felt towards things, too: warm attachment, enthusiasm, or devotion. This does not, however, mean something as specialized/metaphorical as `Fred loves to eat ice cream&apos; or `Ethel loves to get her way.&apos; #$Love is a collection, as further explained under #$Happiness. Specialized forms of #$Love are #$Love-Romantic, platonic love, maternal love, infatuation, agape, etc.>, guid = "bd589433-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Love rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss Affection; Lung ismem Class; Lung has label = "lungs", comment = <The collection of all lungs, the primary respiratory organs of #$AirBreathingVertebrates.>, guid = "bd58cacb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Lung rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, isu SymmetricAnatomicalPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; MKSUnitOfMeasure ismem Class; MKSUnitOfMeasure has label = "meter-kilogram-second units of measure", comment = <A subset of #$UnitOfMeasure. #$MKSUnitOfMeasure is the collection of all the measurement functions whose results use the MKS (i.e., meter-kilogram-second) system of measure to describe physical quantities. Examples: #$MetersPerSecondPerSecond, #$Liter, #$MetricTon.>, guid = "bd5901ca-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MKSUnitOfMeasure rel isu RelationshipType, iss UnitOfMeasure; MailingLocation ismem Class; MailingLocation has label = "mailing locations", comment = <A collection of places; a subset of #$ContactLocation. Each element of #$MailingLocation is a location at which an agent can be contacted by mail, e.g., a home, office, or post office box.>, guid = "be01f510-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MailingLocation rel isu ContactLocationType, iss ContactLocation; MainFunction isu CapacityAttribute; MainFunction has label = "main function", comment = <One of the attributes which characterize the capacity in which some agent does a kind of action. #$MainFunction indicates that an agent does a certain type of action as its main function (rather than, say, as a hobby). #$MainFunction can be used to indicate the function that an organization was created to do; e.g., the #$MainFunction of the #$USBorderPatrol is #$Patrolling the U.S. border. See #$actsInCapacity.>, guid = "bd588c81-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingAGesture ismem Class; MakingAGesture has label = "gesture", comment = <The collection of acts of #$IBOCreation done by an #$Animal (including #$Person) arranging its limbs or other body parts (and whatever objects the limbs might be holding) in some meaningful configuration (static or dynamic). Vocal #$IBTGenerations are not considered to be gestures (see #$MakingAnOralSound for this), but they might be done in conjunction with gestures. NB: #$MakingAGesture is NOT a subset of #$NonVerbalCommunicating; at most, an instance of #$MakingAGesture is only half of a communication event. And someone can make a gesture while alone, without using it for communication. Thus, only some gestures are #$subEvents of #$NonVerbalCommunicating. (But note that #$MakingAGesture IS a subset of #$IBTGeneration-Original (q.v.), since every gesture encodes information, whether or not it is used for communication in a particular instance.)>, guid = "bd58f623-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingAGesture rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss VoluntaryBodyMovement, iss VisualInformationConveyingAct; MakingAnAgreement ismem Class; MakingAnAgreement has label = "agreement-making events", comment = <A collection of events. Each element in the collection #$MakingAnAgreement is an event in which two or more parties specify the terms of an #$Agreement to which they will be #$agreeingAgents, and enter into it. Some types of #$MakingAnAgreement include its subsets #$EngagementEventPart-BecomingEngaged, #$EmployeeHiring, #$DeclaringCeaseFire, and #$MakingAReservation.>, guid = "bd58a184-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingAnAgreement rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss Communicating, iss CreationEvent; MakingAnOralSound ismem Class; MakingAnOralSound has label = "verbalize", comment = <The collection of actions in which the lips and other mouth parts are used to make sound. #$MakingAnOralSound means the event in which sound is produced more-or-less voluntarily, using the mouth, mouth portal, lips, and tongue.--Kean, July 11, 1997>, guid = "bd589df6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingAnOralSound rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss EmittingSound, iss BodyMovementEvent; MakingFacialExpression ismem Class; MakingFacialExpression has label = "making facial expression", comment = <The collection of events during which the configuration of an agent&apos;s face changes. This is usually associated with the expression of some emotion.>, guid = "bd58c58d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingFacialExpression rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss BodyMovementEvent; MakingSomething ismem Class; MakingSomething has label = "making events", comment = <A collection of creation events. #$MakingSomething is a specialization of #$CreatingAnArtifact instances of which involve some partially tangible thing being made from raw materials or from parts. The end result (see #$productsCreated) might or might not be a #$Product.>, guid = "bd58fe38-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingSomething rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType; MakingSomethingAvailable ismem Class; MakingSomethingAvailable has label = "provisions of goods or services", comment = <The collection of all activities in which an #$Agent makes it possible for another #$Agent to use (but not necessarily own) a good or service.>, guid = "bd58a246-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingSomethingAvailable rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss HumanActivity; MakingTravelArrangements ismem Class; MakingTravelArrangements has label = "making travel arrangements", comment = <The collection of all events in which an agent arranges for some kind of travel event.>, guid = "bd58bd9c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MakingTravelArrangements rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType; MalayIndonesianLanguage isu LivingLanguage; MalayIndonesianLanguage has label = "Indonesian Language", comment = <A Malayan language spoken in Indonesia.>, guid = "bd58b9cd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MaleAnimal ismem Class; MaleAnimal has label = "males", comment = <The collection of all male animals.>, guid = "bd58e943-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MaleAnimal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal, xor FemaleAnimal; MalePerson ismem Class; MalePerson has label = "males", comment = <The collection of all male persons.>, guid = "bd58d6a1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MalePerson rel isu OrganismClassificationType, iss Person, iss MaleAnimal, xor FemalePerson; Malleability ismem Class; Malleability has label = "malleabilities", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Malleability represents a specific capacity of a physical material to be shaped or formed. Different degrees of malleability may be designated using a #$GenericValueFunction. Malleability of objects is indicated with the predicate #$malleabilityOfObject.>, guid = "bd58955d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Malleability rel isu MaterialStrengthType, isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; Malnutrition ismem Class; Malnutrition has label = "malnutrition", comment = <A collection of physiological conditions caused by the lack of essential #$Nutrients (usually vitamins, minerals or proteins). Specialized forms of #$Malnutrition are: (1) #$DietaryDeficiencyCondition, in which the necessary nutrients are not ingested; and (2) #$Malnutrition-Secondary, in which the necessary nutrients are not properly metabolized.>, guid = "be00bb98-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Malnutrition rel isu PhysiologicalConditionType, iss AilmentCondition; Mammal ismem Class; Mammal has label = "mammals", comment = <The collection of mammals; a subset of #$Vertebrate. Each element of #$Mammal is an air-breathing, warm-blooded animal which, if female, nurses its young with milk secreted by mammary glands. The collection #$Mammal includes the subsets #$Dog, #$Horse, #$Person, #$Elephant, etc. The skin of mammals is typically covered with hair (or sometimes hair modified into scales or plates (e.g. pangolins)), but some types are almost hairless. All mammals other than the Monotremes of Australia bear live young rather than laying eggs and have teats, which on females are used for nursing the young. Monotremes do not have teats, but both male and female produce milk from #$MammaryGlands. #$Mammal is an instance of #$BiologicalClass.>, guid = "bd58a628-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mammal rel isu BiologicalClass, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss Vertebrate; Manager ismem Class; Manager has label = "manager", comment = <A collection of people. An instance of #$Manager is a person whose primary job is to manage other people, directing their work activity in an #$Organization or for a #$Project. A #$Manager tells his or her subordinate workers what to do.>, guid = "bd58b762-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Manager rel isu OccupationType; MandarinChineseLanguage isu LivingLanguage; MandarinChineseLanguage has label = "Mandarin Chinese", comment = <One of the major languages spoken in China; also the official language.>, guid = "bd58a106-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Manufacturing ismem Class; Manufacturing has label = "fabrications", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$Manufacturing event, raw materials or component parts are combined to produce a product. In a typical #$Manufacturing process, the motivation of the manufacturer is that the value of the #$outputs should exceed the value of the #$inputs. #$Manufacturing does not include related or supportive processes such as transporting the raw materials to the manufacturing site, scheduling done ahead of time, etc. -- the concept #$ProductionEvent covers that bigger picture.>, guid = "bd58e175-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Manufacturing rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss MakingSomething; ManufacturingOrganization ismem Class; ManufacturingOrganization has label = "manufacturing organization", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$ManufacturingOrganization is any organization whose #$MainFunction is #$Manufacturing or production of goods. These may be departments, suborganizations, companies, or conglomerate enterprises.>, guid = "bd58ef23-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ManufacturingOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CommercialOrganization, iss Organization; Map ismem Class; Map has label = "maps", comment = <A collection of #$ConceptualWorks. Each element of #$Map can be properly interpreted, models a region of physical space which may be many times greater or smaller than its own size by using graphical symbols (or possibly another code), often in conjunction with a natural language, to represent features of one or more of the following kinds: geographical areas (#$GeographicalRegion), topographical features (#$TopographicalFeature), political regions (#$GeopoliticalEntity), climate zones (#$ClimateCycleType), human artifacts (#$ConstructionArtifact), population densities (#$populationDensity), etc. Maps are generally intended to help an agent to orient itself in space or to understand some aspect(s) of a large spatial area. #$Maps are physically instantiated in map copies, which may be on paper, in computerized geographical information systems, or in other forms.>, guid = "bd58e7b4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Map rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType; March ismem Class; March has label = "March", comment = <The collection of all Marches, the third month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c2bd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; March rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; MarineCorps ismem Class; MarineCorps has label = "Marine corps", comment = <A collection of military organizations. An instance of #$MarineCorps is a military organization, modern or historical, composed mainly of soldiers (i.e., combat personnel) who serve on ships or in conjunction with naval forces, with the purpose of defending or attacking coastal areas.>, guid = "beebd6c2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MarineCorps rel isu ExistingObjectType; MarinePersonnel ismem Class; MarinePersonnel has label = "marines", comment = <A soldier who is in the Marines.>, guid = "bd58a78c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MarinePersonnel rel isu OccupationType, iss MilitaryPerson; MaritalStatusOfPeople ismem Class; MaritalStatusOfPeople has label = "marital statuses", comment = <The attribute values indicating the #$maritalStatus of a #$Person. Members of this collection include #$Divorced, #$Widowed, #$Single, and #$Married.>, guid = "bd590574-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MaritalStatusOfPeople rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, isu AttributeType, isu SiblingDisjointAttributeType; MarkingOnASurface ismem Class; MarkingOnASurface has label = "marking on a surface", comment = <A collection of events. In a #$MarkingOnASurface event, visible markings are placed on a surface by an #$Agent. The marking may be done by adding material to or removing material from the surface; e.g., by painting or by engraving the surface.>, guid = "bd588d33-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MarkingOnASurface rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss IBOCreation; Masculine isu GenderOfLivingThing; Masculine has label = "masculine", comment = <#$Masculine is a gender, indicating either that an #$Animal or #$Plant is male, or that a word has what is called masculine gender.>, guid = "bd590c7e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mass ismem Class; Mass has label = "masses", comment = <A collection of physical attributes. Each element of #$Mass is an amount of matter present in a given object. Elements of #$Mass may be either a fixed interval, such as two pounds, or a range, such as a legal load for a certain type of trailer. The more mass an object has, the greater is the force required to accelerate it. See #$UnitOfMass for the units used by Cyc to measure mass.>, guid = "bd58dbe6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mass rel isu FundamentalNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; MassNoun ismem Class; MassNoun has label = "mass noun", comment = <The collection of all mass nouns. Mass nouns are syntactically singular, and often they denote stufflike things. Example: &apos;water&apos;.>, guid = "bd652289-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MassNoun rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu SpeechPart, iss MassNoun-Generic; MassNoun-Generic ismem Class; MassNoun-Generic has label = "mass noun - generic", comment = <The collection of all mass nouns. Mass nouns are syntactically singular, and often they denote stufflike things. Example: &apos;water&apos;. This collection also includes proper mass nouns like &apos;Pepsi&apos;, agentive mass nouns like &apos;moisturizer&apos;, etc.>, guid = "c0c8418b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MassNoun-Generic rel isu SpeechPart, iss Noun; MaterialStrengthType ismem Class; MaterialStrengthType has label = "material strength type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$MaterialStrengthType is a specific collection of attributes used in determining the strength of a material. Examples: #$Hardness, #$Malleability, #$Ductility, #$Elasticity, #$ShearStrength.>, guid = "bd58d2da-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MaterialStrengthType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss DerivedNumericAttributeType; MathematicalObject ismem Class; MathematicalObject has label = "mathematical object", comment = <A collection of intangible objects; a subset of #$MathematicalThing. Each element of #$MathematicalObject is a purely abstract mathematical thing which is an individual (see #$Individual). Examples of #$MathematicalObject include: #$Quantifiers, #$RealNumbers, #$Triangles, #$TruthValues, etc. But instances of #$SetOrCollection are not #$MathematicalObjects in Cyc, because they are not #$Individuals.>, guid = "bf461f37-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MathematicalObject rel isu ObjectType, iss IntangibleIndividual; MathematicalOrComputationalThing ismem Class; MathematicalOrComputationalThing has label = "mathematical or computational thing", comment = <A collection of abstract (#$Intangible) objects. Each element of #$MathematicalOrComputationalThing is a massless, timeless abstraction, such as an algorithm, logical connective, character string, assertion, integer, etc.>, guid = "bd58e31f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MathematicalOrComputationalThing rel isu ObjectType, iss Intangible, xor TemporalThing; MathematicalOrdering ismem Class; MathematicalOrdering has label = "mathematical ordering", comment = <The collection of all those #$RelationalStructures that are called &apos;orderings&apos;. A #$MathematicalOrdering is usually described as an ordered pair &lt;S, R&gt; where S is a set and R is a binary relation on S that is transitive, i.e., for each X, Y and Z in S, R(X Y) and R(Y Z) imply R(X Z). We do not have to define a #$MathematicalOrdering in Cyc as an ordered pair, but it is essential that each such #$MathematicalOrdering has a unique #$baseSet and a unique ordering relation. We use, for each #$MathematicalOrdering ORDER, (#$orderingRelations ORDER PRED) to specify a binary predicate PRED, the restriction of which to the #$baseSet S of ORDER indicates the ordering relation R on S, and we require the collections that are used to specify the arguments to PRED to be supersets of S. In principle, there could be different predicates PRED1 and PRED2 such that when restricted to the same #$baseSet S of a #$MathematicalOrdering ORDER, they order the elements of S exactly the same way. When we said that there is a unique ordering relation R on S, we mean to ignore the difference between PRED1 and PRED2 when they are restricted to S, and treat the results of such restrictions the same, as far as they are used to talk about ORDER. Subcollections of #$MathematicalOrdering include #$PartialOrdering, #$PartialOrdering-Strict, #$TreeOrdering, #$TreeOrdering-Strict, #$TotalOrdering, #$TotalOrdering-Strict, #$WellOrdering and #$Lattice-LatticeTheoretic, etc.>, guid = "bf3b5382-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MathematicalOrdering rel isu ObjectType, iss RelationalStructure; May ismem Class; May has label = "May", comment = <The collection of all Mays, the second month to start after the vernal equinox (in the Northern Hemisphere) in the #$GregorianCalendar and #$JulianCalendar. May is the fifth month of the year in the #$GregorianCalendar. May started as the third month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar, but after the beginning of the year was moved to the beginning of #$January it became the fifth month of the year.>, guid = "bd58c232-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; May rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; MeasurableAttributeType ismem Class; MeasurableAttributeType has label = "measurable attribute type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$MeasurableAttributeType is a collection of attributes, the members of which are quantifiable attributes, i.e., they can be assigned a numeric value. For example, #$RateOfRotation and #$ConcentrationPerVolume. For the units in which specific attributes are measured, see #$measuredIn and #$unitsMeasuringThisQuantity. Note that in Cyc, numbers are classified as measurable attributes; see #$RealNumber, etc.>, guid = "bd58d9b3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MeasurableAttributeType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType; MeasuringDevice ismem Class; MeasuringDevice has label = "measuring devices", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$MeasuringDevice is a device used for measuring some quantity such as #$Distance, #$Volume, #$Temperature, etc. Examples include the odometer in your car (an #$Odometer), the graduated glass measuring cup in your kitchen (a #$MeasuringCup), and the thermostat on your wall (a #$TemperatureMeasuringDevice, although it is also a #$ControlDevice.)>, guid = "bd590901-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MeasuringDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; MeasuringSomething ismem Class; MeasuringSomething has label = "measuring events", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$MeasuringSomething is an event in which an agent uses a physical device to measure some physical attribute of a tangible object. The last part of such an event involves the perception (and perhaps recording) of a #$measurementResult by some instance of#$PerceptualAgent. See also #$MeasurementFn.>, guid = "bd588524-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MeasuringSomething rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss PurposefulCompositePhysicalAndMentalActivity; MechanicalDevice ismem Class; MechanicalDevice has label = "mechanical devices", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$MechanicalDevice is a physical device which has at least one part that moves with respect to another of its parts. Thus a spoon is not one of these, but a pair of scissors is, as are more complex devices such as vacuum cleaners and the #$SpaceShuttleChallenger.>, guid = "bd58d581-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MechanicalDevice rel isu ProductType, ismem Class, isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; MedicalCareEvent ismem Class; MedicalCareEvent has label = "medical care event", comment = <A collection of events. When any medical care professional provides a medical service to patients, that is an instance of #$MedicalCareEvent. An instance of #$MedicalCareEvent may be a diagnostic procedure, a treatment, a consultation, routine check-up, a medical test, etc. -- anything a medical care provider can bill for. E.g., (#$BirthFn #$NicoleLenat) represents the birth of a particular person; since she were born in a modern Western hospital, doctors, nurses, and a variety of hospital equipment were present and used, so this is a #$MedicalCareEvent. >, guid = "bd638fc1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalCareEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss ServiceEvent, iss HumanActivity; MedicalCareInstitution ismem Class; MedicalCareInstitution has label = "medical care facilities", comment = <Large organizations that provide medical or psychiatric care and have facilities for patients to stay at least overnight.>, guid = "bd649710-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalCareInstitution rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss MedicalCareOrganization, xor Pharmacy; MedicalCareOrganization ismem Class; MedicalCareOrganization has label = "medical care organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations; a subset of both #$MedicalCareProvider and #$ServiceOrganization. An element of #$MedicalCareOrganization is any organization that provides some kind of medical care; it may be a sub-organization of a larger organization. Examples include all instances of #$DoctorsOffice, #$DentistsOffice, #$OptometricFacility, or #$RehabilitationFacility; #$IndependentPracticeAssociation or #$Hospital; #$EmergencyRoom, #$DialysisUnit, #$AllergyTestingFacility; #$HomeNursingServiceOrganization or #$LongTermMedicalCareFacility; and #$VeterinaryHospital.>, guid = "bd58f48e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalCareOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss ServiceOrganization, iss MedicalCareProvider; MedicalCareProfessional ismem Class; MedicalCareProfessional has label = "medical care professionals", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$MedicalCareProfessional is a person whose occupation principally involves medical care of patients, including surgery, psychological care, physical therapy, practical nursing, and dispensing drugs. The collection #$MedicalCareProfessional includes members of the subsets #$Psychiatrist, #$Pharmacist, #$EmergencyMedicalTechnician, #$Nurse, #$Doctor-Medical, etc., as well as #$Veterinarian.>, guid = "c10c316e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalCareProfessional rel isu OccupationType, iss MedicalCareProvider, iss HealthProfessional, iss Professional; MedicalCareProvider ismem Class; MedicalCareProvider has label = "medical care provider", comment = <The collection of agents who provide medical care in a professional capacity.>, guid = "c0fd5c00-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalCareProvider rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SocialBeing; MedicalFacilityType ismem Class; MedicalFacilityType has label = "medical facility type", comment = <Instances are kinds of medical care facilities. Some may be organizations , some may be places and some are equipment.>, guid = "bd597404-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalFacilityType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ExistingObjectType; MedicalPatient ismem Class; MedicalPatient has label = "patients", comment = <The #$Collection of instances of #$Animal while undergoing medical care - which includes routine examinations as well as treatment for injuries or illnesses.>, guid = "bd5893d4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalPatient rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SocialBeing, iss Animal; MedicalSpecialtyType ismem Class; MedicalSpecialtyType has label = "medical specialty type", comment = <The collection of all medical worker types, divided up by specialty.>, guid = "c10ae933-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalSpecialtyType rel ismem CollectionType, isu SiblingDisjointCollection, iss OccupationType; MedicalTesting ismem Class; MedicalTesting has label = "medical tests", comment = <A collection of events in which some aspect of a patient&apos;s physiological condition is evaluated using medical procedures. An instance of #$MedicalTesting is a test done on a patient -- or, often, on a sample taken from the patient&apos;s body -- in order to gather information (a) about the patient&apos;s general state of health, (b) to help in making a diagnosis, (c) to determine or monitor the severity of a known condition of the patient&apos;s. The collection #$MedicalTesting includes an enormous variety of procedures in modern Western medicine, from simple blood tests to complex MRIs.>, guid = "c0fd5389-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalTesting rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss MedicalCareEvent; MedicalTreatmentEvent ismem Class; MedicalTreatmentEvent has label = "medical treatments", comment = <A collection of medical care events; i.e., a subset of #$MedicalCareEvent. In any instance of #$MedicalTreatmentEvent, the procedures performed by a medical professional are done to alleviate or ameliorate a #$PhysiologicalCondition. The set of treatments for a specific condition may be denoted using #$TreatmentFn (q.v.).>, guid = "bd58ba4f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MedicalTreatmentEvent rel ismem Class, isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss ServiceEvent, iss SimpleRepairing, iss MedicalCareEvent; MediterraneanScrub isu TerrainAttribute; MediterraneanScrub has label = "mediterranean scrub", comment = <Attribute of areas of shrub-dominated vegetation located in the Mediterranean basinand similar climatic regions in coastal parts of California, Chile, South Africa, and southern Australia. A variety of aromatic herbaceous plants grow beneath low shrub thickets. Source: The Times Atlas of the World (1995).>, guid = "bec614ea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MediterraneanSea isu InternationalWaters; MediterraneanSea has label = "the Mediterranean Sea", comment = <A strategically important small sea between southern Europe, western Asia (the Levant), and northern Africa.>, guid = "bd58ecea-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MeetingSomeone ismem Class; MeetingSomeone has label = "meetings", comment = <A collection of actions. In a #$MeetingSomeone event, one #$Agent is moving and meets (comes into close proximity with) another #$Agent. This may or may not be purposeful. It may be performed by non-human animals, and occasionally by other sorts of #$Agents. Note: this does not mean `being introduced to someone&apos;, but rather `going to meet with someone&apos;.>, guid = "c0f29aad-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MeetingSomeone rel ismem Class, iss SocialOccurrence; MeetingTakingPlace ismem Class; MeetingTakingPlace has label = "meetings", comment = <The collection of human meeting events, in which #$Persons gather intentionally at a location in order to communicate or share some experience; business is often transacted at such a meeting. Examples include: a particular conference, a business lunch, etc.>, guid = "bd590388-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MeetingTakingPlace rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss SocialGathering; Melting ismem Class; Melting has label = "melting events", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of this collection, an object is heated to (and then above) its #$freezingPoint and is thereby changed from a #$SolidStateOfMatter to a #$LiquidStateOfMatter.>, guid = "bd58f9f4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Melting rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss PhysicalStateChangeEvent; Memory ismem Class; Memory has label = "memory", comment = <A collection of mental information. Each element of #$Memory is the propositional content of a mental state in which a person recalls past events. Most commonly those memories concern first-person experiences, but they may include recollections of anything that the person has learned in the past.>, guid = "bd58da47-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Memory rel ismem Class, iss MentalInformation; MensClothing ismem Class; MensClothing has label = "men&apos;s clothes", comment = <A collection of objects. Each element of #$MensClothing is a clothing item worn usually by men, i.e., items normally found in the men&apos;s section of department stores. Subsets include #$Tuxedos and #$MensJockeyUnderwear.>, guid = "bd5902fc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MensClothing rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType; MentalAttribute ismem Class; MentalAttribute has label = "mental attributes", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$MentalAttribute is an attribute which pertains to an agent&apos;s mental state or mental ability. Examples: #$HighIntelligence, #$LegallyDrunk, #$VisualAwareness, #$InattentiveMentalActivityLevel.>, guid = "bd58833e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MentalAttribute rel isu AttributeType, iss AttributeValue; MentalInformation ismem Class; MentalInformation has label = "pieces of mental information", comment = <A collection of information. Each element of #$MentalInformation is the propositional content of a specific mental state of an individual person. Thus, this is information which is embodied in a person having a memory or sensory perception or other type of thought. Note that elements of #$MentalInformation are the propositional content of memories, perceptions, judgments, etc. For example, when I remember that my grandmother&apos;s eyes are blue, the mental information contained therein is `my [the rememberer&apos;s] grandmother&apos;s eyes are blue&apos;; it is NOT `I remember that my grandmother&apos;s eyes are blue&apos;. As a consequence, mental information (as defined in Cyc) is not incorrigible.>, guid = "bd58daca-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MentalInformation rel ismem Class, iss PropositionalInformationThing; MetaAssertionsForPolyCanonicalizingAssertions isu SharedNote; MetaAssertionsForPolyCanonicalizingAssertions has label = "meta assertions for poly canonicalizing assertions", comment = <If one wishes to state a fact M about an formula F, i.e. if one wishes to assert the meta-assertion M(F) and if F canonicalizes into multiple assertions, a_1, a_2...a_n, then one may have to do a non-standard procedure. If F canonicalizes into a_1, a_2...a_n *and* when any of a_1, a_2...a_n uncanonicalize back into A then the meta assertion M(F) gets automatically distributed to each of a_1, a_2...a_n. In such a case M(F) ends up in the knowledge base as several assertions, i.e. M(a_1), M(a_2), ... M(a_n). In other cases (i.e. where a polycanonicalizing formula does not uncanonicalize back into itself) (typically rarer), one will have to do the non-standard procedure of distributing the meta-assertions by hand. Example (of the more standard case): (fi-assert &apos;(#$implies (#$isa ?x #$Animal) (#$thereExists ?y (#$and (#$isa ?y #$FemaleAnimal) (#$mother ?x ?y)))) #$BaseKB) produces in the two assertions: #&lt;AS:(#$implies (#$and (#$isa ?X #$Animal) (#$termOfUnit ?Y (#$SKF-16480338 ?X))) (#$mother ?X ?Y)):#$BaseKB&gt; #&lt;AS:(#$implies (#$and (#$isa ?X #$Animal) (#$termOfUnit ?Y (#$SKF-16480338 ?X))) (#$isa ?Y #$FemaleAnimal)):#$BaseKB&gt; Note that these two assertions share the common EL formula: (#$implies (#$isa ?x #$Animal) (#$thereExists ?y (#$and (#$isa ?y #$FemaleAnimal) (#$mother ?x ?y)))) Now if we add a meta assertion that references this formula: (fi-assert &apos;(#$salientAssertions #$mother (#$implies (#$isa ?x #$Animal) (#$thereExists ?y (#$and (#$isa ?y #$FemaleAnimal) (#$mother ?x ?y))))) #$BaseKB) the meta formula automatically distributes over the two assertions: #&lt;AS:(#$salientAssertions #$mother #&lt;AS:(#$implies (#$and (#$isa ?X #$Animal) (#$termOfUnit ?Y (#$SKF-16480338 ?X))) (#$mother ?X ?Y)):#$BaseKB):#$BaseKB&gt; #&lt;AS(#$salientAssertions #$mother #&lt;AS:(#$implies (#$and (#$isa ?X #$Animal) (#$termOfUnit ?Y (#$SKF-16480338 ?X))) (#$isa ?Y #$FemaleAnimal)):#$BaseKB):#$BaseKB&gt; This new behavior was added to the system on December 9, 1998. It can be turned-off by setting the parameter CYC::*DISTRIBUTE-META-OVER-COMMON-EL?* to nil.>, guid = "bfb7415a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MetaKnowledgePredicate ismem Class; MetaKnowledgePredicate has label = "metaknowledge predicates", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$MetaKnowledgePredicate is a predicate used in assertions about the Cyc ontology itself. Examples: #$myCreator, #$cyclistNotes, #$sharedNotes, #$salientAssertions, #$assertionConclusionActionType.>, guid = "bd588097-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MetaKnowledgePredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; MetaPredicate ismem Class; MetaPredicate has label = "meta predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$MetaPredicate can be used to define other predicates.>, guid = "c0d662dc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MetaPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss MetaRelation, iss Predicate; MetaRelation ismem Class; MetaRelation has label = "meta relation", comment = <A collection of relations. Each element of #$MetaRelation can be used to define other relations.>, guid = "bf4f46aa-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MetaRelation rel isu RelationshipType, iss IntangibleObjectPredicate; Metal ismem Class; Metal has label = "metals", comment = <A collection of tangible stuffs. Every instance of #$Metal is a piece of stuff defined as a metal only by its chemical composition, not by its physical properties. Thus, #$Metal includes all instances of #$Mercury and #$Potassium as well as all pieces of #$Brass, #$Lead, #$Iron. Cyc infers only by default that metals are solid. #$MetalAlloy is a subset of #$Metal.>, guid = "bd58ac39-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Metal rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss InorganicStuff; MetalAlloy ismem Class; MetalAlloy has label = "alloys", comment = <A collection of tangible stuffs; a subset of #$Metal. Each instance of #$MetalAlloy is a metallic stuff which is a homogeneous blend of at least one part of #$UnalloyedMetal with at least one other substance. #$MetalAlloy is not a subset of #$Mixture, because each instance of #$MetalAlloy is defined not only by the amounts and kinds of its #$constituents, but also (unlike a mixture) by the internal structures formed during its creation. Furthermore, the creation process is typically more complex than #$Mixing. Common metal alloys include the instances of #$Bronze, #$Brass, and #$Steel. Note that #$GalvanizedMetal is NOT a subset of #$MetalAlloy, because every instance of #$GalvanizedMetal has a coating of some #$Zinc on its surface, and thus (unlike an alloy) the components of galvanized metals are not homogenously distributed throughout.>, guid = "bd58cc8b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MetalAlloy rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss Mixture, iss ArtificialMaterial, iss Metal; MicroscopicScaleObject ismem Class; MicroscopicScaleObject has label = "microscopic scale object", comment = <A collection of objects. Every instance of #$MicroscopicScaleObject is a material object which is so small that human beings cannot perceive it, except (perhaps) with the use of special devices such as electron microscopes. Some types of #$MicroscopicScaleObject include its subsets #$Molecule, #$Atom, #$SubAtomicParticle, #$Chloroplast, and #$Mitochondrion.>, guid = "bd5891ac-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MicroscopicScaleObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartiallyTangible; Microtheory ismem Class; Microtheory has label = "contexts", comment = <The collection of all microtheories, or `mts&apos; for short. Microtheories implement contexts in Cyc. Each mt serves to group a set of assertions together that share some common assumptions. Thus each mt can be thought of as having two parts: a corpus of assertions that represent the `content&apos; of the mt, and a separate corpus of assertions that represent the `assumptions&apos; which are being made. E.g., in a normal modern everyday life microtheory, there might be hundreds of content assertions such as `drivers are at least 16 years old&apos;, and there might be dozens of assumption assertions about that microtheory&apos;s content, such as `all actors are assumed to be law-abiding&apos;. You can think of the assumptions as a set of extra conjuncts on the left hand side (the antecedent or `if&apos;-part) of every content assertion in the mt. Each assertion in the knowledge base must be explicitly stated to be true in at least one mt. It will then (by inference) also be true in all the more specialized contexts. If something is true in the `life in North America&apos; mt, then it should by default be true in the `life in Canada&apos; mt. I.e., the microtheories are organized into a generalization/specialization lattice by the predicate #$genlMt (q.v.), just as collections are organized into such a lattice by #$genls, and just as predicates are organized into such a lattice by #$genlPreds. Just as a collection may have several incommensurable supersets, so too a microtheory may have several incommensurable #$genlMts. Just as each and every collection must have some explicitly recorded superset (except for #$Thing), each and every mt must have some (expicitly recorded) more general mt (except for the #$BaseKB, which is the most general context, containing universal, timeless truths). Just as a Cyc concept may have multiple incommensurable sets of which it is an element (via #$isa), so too a Cyc assertion may be declared to be true in a set of incommensurable mts. Every query is made in some mt, so the answer you get might very well depend on the mt in which you ask the question. Let&apos;s call the current context C1, for the remainder of this paragraph. The only assertions which can be used in C1 to answer the query are those assertions which were explicitly stated to be true in C1 or in some more general mt than C1. But what if you want and need something like assertion P, to answer the question, but P doesn&apos;t fit that criterion, though P is true in some other mts that are unrelated to C1? You can `import&apos; or `lift&apos; P into C1, by conjoining to its left hand side (if-part) the various assumptions of a context C999 in which P is known to be true. I.e., what you actually conclude to be true in C1 is an assertion of the form `if a1 and a2 and... then P&apos;, where a1, a2,... are the assumptions of a context in which P holds (but which are NOT implied by assumptions of C1). When there are several contexts to choose from, from which to import P, you will usually prefer the context whose assumptions are most similar to C1&apos;s assumptions, so there will be few extra conjuncts that need to be inserted in the `lifting&apos; process. There is an implicit third component to each #$Microtheory, namely the Cyc terms which are `known about&apos; in that mt. E.g., #$Lenat is not `known about&apos; in a microtheory set in prehistoric times; #$PhotochemicalEnergyTransduction is not `known about&apos; in a microtheory representing things that a toddler believes to be true; etc. Unlike the content and the assumptions, however, there is no need to explicitly collect into one list all the terms which are `known about&apos;. Rather, one could compute such a list by looking at all the terms which are mentioned anywhere in the content assertions of the mt. Note that #$Microtheory is itself a `first-class object&apos;, as is each and every element of that collection --- e.g., #$CommercialBuyingMt, #$WorldGeographyMt, #$USHealthcareMt, #$HumanSocialLifeMt, etc. The assertions about a #$Microtheory are just like any other Cyc assertions. Note that one important predicate we haven&apos;t mentioned here yet is the one that says `assertion P is true in microtheory M&apos;. That predicate is #$ist. Thus: (#$ist M P). Note that another important predicate we haven&apos;t mentioned here yet is the one that says `microtheory M has the proposition P as a domain assumption&apos;. Thus: (#$domainAssumptions M P).>, guid = "bd5880d5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Microtheory rel ismem Class, isu MicrotheoryType, ismem CoreConstant, xor Individual, iss proposition, iss AbstractInformationalThing, xor Relation, xor Class, xor Language, xor TimeInterval, xor LinguisticObject, xor AttributeValue, xor Event; MicrotheoryDesignatingRelation ismem Class; MicrotheoryDesignatingRelation has label = "microtheory designating relation", comment = <The collection of #$Relations which specify that a #$ELSentence-Assertible is to be interpreted in a given #$Microtheory. It will be canonicalized and checked for well-formedness with respect to that microtheory. Each microtheory-designating relation has an argument which denotes a microtheory, and another argument which denotes a #$ELSentence-Assertible. It may have other arguments as well. Use #$microtheoryDesignationArgnum and #$sentenceDesignationArgnum to specify these argument positions for each microtheory-designating relation.>, guid = "beab9388-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MicrotheoryDesignatingRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, iss Relation; MicrotheoryPredicate ismem Class; MicrotheoryPredicate has label = "microtheory predicates", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$MicrotheoryPredicate is a predicate used to describe the properties and relationships of instances of #$Microtheory. Examples: #$domainAssumptions, #$mtTime, #$genlMt, #$adheresToCodeOfConduct, #$ist-Agreement, #$ist-Obligation.>, guid = "bd58817a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MicrotheoryPredicate rel isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; MicrotheoryType ismem Class; MicrotheoryType has label = "microtheory type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each instance of #$MicrotheoryType is a type of #$Microtheory, for example, #$ProblemSolvingCntxt and #$GeneralMicrotheory.>, guid = "bd58e6e8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MicrotheoryType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType; Microwaved isu PreparationAttribute; Microwaved has label = "microwaved", comment = <The attribute #$Microwaved is a specialized form of #$Cooked. Food that is #$Microwaved has been prepared in an event of #$Microwaving, using a #$MicrowaveOven.>, guid = "bd9fc405-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Microwaving ismem Class; Microwaving has label = "microwave", comment = <A collection of events in which a #$MicrowaveOven is used to heat food (or drink). After a #$Microwaving event, the food involved has been #$Microwaved.>, guid = "bff3797e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Microwaving rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss CookingFood; Midday ismem Class; Midday has label = "middays", comment = <A #$Midday is the daily event where the #$Sun is near its `highest&apos; position in the daily cycle. A #$Midday overlaps the start of an #$Afternoon, and a #$Morning overlaps the start of a #$Midday.>, guid = "bd5887c3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Midday rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss QualitativeTimeOfDay; MigratoryAnimal ismem Class; MigratoryAnimal has label = "migratory animals", comment = <A subset of #$Animal; the collection of animals that change their dwelling place on a periodic, typically seasonal basis. Such behavior is usually characteristic of particular types of #$BiologicalSpecies.>, guid = "c1009f65-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MigratoryAnimal rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal; MilitaryAircraft ismem Class; MilitaryAircraft has label = "military aircraft", comment = <The collection of all aircraft used for military purposes, or equipped to be used for such purposes.>, guid = "bd58b375-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MilitaryAircraft rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss AirTransportationDevice; MilitaryOfficer ismem Class; MilitaryOfficer has label = "officers", comment = <A collection of people, a subset of #$MilitaryPerson. Each element of this collection is somebody who is an officer in some #$MilitaryOrganization.>, guid = "bd58a748-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MilitaryOfficer rel isu PositionType, isu OccupationType, iss Leader, iss MilitaryPerson; MilitaryOrganization ismem Class; MilitaryOrganization has label = "military services", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$MilitaryOrganization is an organization whose function (and expertise) is the use of armed force, or the threat of such use, against enemies, especially other organized, armed enemies. A military organization includes its fighting forces and their command structure, together with dedicated support services controlled by that military command. Typically, there are special conditions in the relationships between a #$MilitaryOrganization and its workers, going beyond what is expected of work agreements in civilian settings, including strict sanctions to enforce obedience. This collection includes #$GovernmentMilitaryOrganizations such as the armies, navies, air forces, etc., of the world&apos;s governments, and in addition private armies, rebel armies, and organized mercenary units.>, guid = "bd58f1ef-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MilitaryOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; MilitaryPerson ismem Class; MilitaryPerson has label = "military people", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of NationalGovernmentEmployee. Each element of ArmedServicesPersonnel is a person who belongs to any of the national military services of some instance of Country.>, guid = "bd58ef05-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MilitaryPerson rel isu OccupationType; Mineral ismem Class; Mineral has label = "minerals", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Mineral is a piece of homogeneous inorganic physical substance that has a crystalline structure. For example, instances of #$Diamond, #$Turquoise-Gem, #$Jade-Gem, #$Corundum.>, guid = "c1008900-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mineral rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss SolidTangibleThing, iss InorganicStuff, iss NaturalTangibleStuff; MineralOre ismem Class; MineralOre has label = "mineral ore", comment = <A collection of tangible things; a subset of #$EarthStuff. Each element of #$MineralOre is a piece of substance from which some useful #$Mineral can be extracted. For example, elements of #$IronOre, #$BauxiteOre, and #$CopperOre.>, guid = "bd588750-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MineralOre rel isu ExistingStuffType, isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss SolidTangibleThing, iss PartiallyTangible, iss EarthStuff; Misty-PhysicalState isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Misty-PhysicalState has label = "misty - physical state", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Misty-PhysicalState is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute that characterizes mist; i.e., being a mixture of a gaseous substance with suspended particles of liquid.>, guid = "bd58d50d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mixing ismem Class; Mixing has label = "mix", comment = <A collection of events. In each #$Mixing, two or more substances are combined to form a #$Mixture.>, guid = "bd58e9f0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mixing rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType; Mixture ismem Class; Mixture has label = "mixtures", comment = <A collection of tangibles. Every instance of #$Mixture is an at-least-partially tangible thing composed of two or more different #$constituents which have been mixed. The stuffs which were inputs to the mixing do not form chemical bonds between them, and at a later time the mixture may be resolved by some #$SeparationEvent. Examples include all elements of the collections #$Blood, #$Mud, #$Air, and #$CarbonatedBeverage. A mixture has a composition but not a structure; thus, the following are NOT mixtures, since all have some structure: a wet sponge, a person, or a portion of plywood. Note: By default, mixtures are assumed to be stable, i.e., they won&apos;t separate on their own. Use #$separatingConstituent to override this default for a constituent that does separate out spontaneously (e.g. a #$CarbonatedBeverage going flat).>, guid = "bd58e89f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mixture rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor PureCompound; Mob ismem Class; Mob has label = "mobs", comment = <A specialization of #$Group. Each instance of #$Mob is a group that contains a large number of objects or events of the same type. Mobs typically have more members than would be feasible to enumerate or reify. One rarely refers to particular members of a given mob; and when one does, it is usually only to relatively few of them. Examples: the #$Andes-Mountains is a mob of mountains; each instance of #$Galaxy is a mob of stars; a cupful of sand is a mob of grains of sand; and making popcorn involves a mob of corn kernel bursting events.>, guid = "bd58ed36-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mob rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss Group; Modal ismem Class; Modal has label = "modal", comment = <The collection of all modal auxiliary verbs. Modals have only tensed forms, do not inflect for person and number, and can take contracted negation. Example: `should&apos;.>, guid = "bd5884c6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Modal rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, isu SpeechPart; ModeratelyAlert isu Alertness; ModeratelyAlert has label = "moderately alert", comment = <#$ModeratelyAlert is an #$Alertness attribute which is a specialization of #$Awake. It is the normal state of an #$Animal which is awake but paying particular attention to its environment. It is a higher #$alertnessLevel than #$Sleepy, but lower than #$VeryAlert.>, guid = "bd58a6bc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ModernHumanResidence ismem Class; ModernHumanResidence has label = "modern residences", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of both #$HumanResidence and #$ModernShelterConstruction. Each element of #$ModernHumanResidence is a humanly constructed shelter of a modern type, in which people live. Such residences are the typical dwellings in the developed world of the late 20th century and may be found in the more affluent regions of the developing world. Examples include houses in suburban `developments&apos;, modern apartment buildings, `modular&apos; homes, etc.>, guid = "bd58f076-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ModernHumanResidence rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss ModernShelterConstruction, iss HumanResidence; ModernNavalShip ismem Class; ModernNavalShip has label = "modern naval ships", comment = <The collection of all #$Ships that have been used since the Nineteenth Century primarily for naval purposes, including military attack and defense, reconnaisance, support, rescue, coastal monitoring, etc. Such a ship is naval in this sense even if it is not operated by a #$Navy. Most ModernNavalShips are specifically constructed for naval purposes.>, guid = "bd58f0f3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ModernNavalShip rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Ship; ModernShelterConstruction ismem Class; ModernShelterConstruction has label = "modern shelter constructions", comment = <A collection of construction artifacts; a subset of #$Building (q.v.). An instance of #$ModernShelterConstruction is a building that provides comfortable shelter for humans during some of their daily activities. Elements of #$ModernShelterConstruction have the kinds of features found in modern-day buildings in Europe, the USA, and other technologically developed parts of the world, namely, amenities like doors, plumbing, electricity, and probably some kind of climate control system for maintaining humanly comfortable conditions indoors. Examples include the #$NewYorkHiltonAtBroadway, the #$SydneyOperaHouse, and instances of the collection #$ModernHumanResidence (e.g., a newly built home in a suburban development or a renovated brownstone in NYC).>, guid = "bd58a081-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ModernShelterConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss RealEstate, iss Building; MolecularStuff ismem Class; MolecularStuff has label = "molecular stuff", comment = <A collection of tangible stuff. Every instance of #$MolecularStuff is a portion of stuff composed of covalently-bonded molecules. Thus, #$Water and #$DNAStuff are subsets of #$MolecularStuff; each of their instances consists of covalently bonded molecules. But instances of #$Salt-NaCl are not examples of #$MolecularStuff. Also, #$Oxygen is not a subset of #$MolecularStuff, since #$Oxygen denotes anything composed of that element, not just O2 (molecular oxygen) and O3 (ozone). >, guid = "bd59e38c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MolecularStuff rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss PartiallyTangible; Molecule ismem Class; Molecule has label = "molecules", comment = <A collection of microscopic-scale objects; a subset of #$ChemicalObject. Every instance of #$Molecule is a microscopic object whose component atoms are all chemically bonded to each other; typically, this means that the atoms are covalently bonded. Examples: some instances of #$Molecule, including molecules of oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), etc., contain covalently bonded atoms belonging to the collection #$Oxygen. Some highly complex examples of #$Molecule are those belonging to the collection #$DNAMolecule. See also #$MoleculeFn. Note: #$Diamond and other macroscopic covalent solids are excluded from belonging to #$Molecule by the constraint that instances of #$Molecule are microscopic.>, guid = "bd58f0b2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Molecule rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss ChemicalObject, xor Solution, xor LiquidTangibleThing; MoneraKingdom ismem Class; MoneraKingdom has label = "Monera", comment = <A biological kingdom including bacteria, blue green algae, and prochlorophytes (recently discovered). All members are prokaryotes - their cells lack a nuclear membrane and other internal organelles.>, guid = "bd58cb4b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MoneraKingdom rel isu BiologicalKingdom, iss ProkaryoticCell, iss Organism-Whole; MonetaryExchangeOfUserRights ismem Class; MonetaryExchangeOfUserRights has label = "monetary exchange of user rights", comment = <The collection of events in which two #$Agents (#$exchangers) perform two #$TransferringPossessions with each other, one of which is a #$MoneyTransfer. The #$buyer gains possession (i.e., some #$UserRightsAttribute) of the #$objectPaidFor from the #$seller, who gains possession of the #$objectTendered. Note that #$Renting, as well as #$Buying, is a #$MonetaryExchangeOfUserRights>, guid = "bffb86d0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MonetaryExchangeOfUserRights rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss MoneyTransaction, iss ExchangeOfUserRights, xor Bartering; MonetaryFlowRate ismem Class; MonetaryFlowRate has label = "monetary flow rate", comment = <A collection of rates; a subset of #$ScalarInterval. Each element of #$MonetaryFlowRate is a rate at which money is earned, spent, transferred, lost, invested, etc. It is a measurable quantity, expressed as a rate of units of money per unit of time, such as #$DollarsPerHour (see #$UnitOfMonetaryFlowRate). #$MonetaryFlowRate includes generic intervals, such as those which describe (in a particular context) #$HighIncomeLevel, #$LowIncomeLevel, etc.>, guid = "bd58eb7f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MonetaryFlowRate rel isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss MoneyRate, iss Rate; Money ismem Class; Money has label = "money", comment = <The collection of amounts of currency or debt, by which payments, wealth, capital, assets, etc., are measured. An instance of #$Money may be considered as either (1) an amount of actual, valuable tangible goods (such as gold) or (2) a purely abstract quantity. That is, from one perspective, elements of #$Money represent the amount of a debt (or credit), while from another perspective, they represent what is actually transferred to create or discharge a debt. In either case it is an abstract thing. Either (a) money is a backed claim for a certain amount of precious physical wealth payable by the government on demand (e.g., the gold standard), or (b) money is a legally enforced means of debt payment without any backing. In the past, money was created by national governments; today some currencies like the Euro or the CFA Franc are created by multi-government entities. Elements of #$Money in Cyc may be either a fixed amount, such as five U.S. dollars, or a range, such as `the price of a 1997 Mazda Protege&apos;. See #$UnitOfMoney for the units used by Cyc to measure instances of #$Money. Note: The tangible coins, bills, checks, etc., that represent certain amounts of #$Money (but which as physical objects may have little value) are elements of #$TenderObject, not of #$Money. Elements of #$TenderObject which also belong to #$Currency are typically associated with some instance of #$UnitOfMoney (e.g., #$Dollar-UnitedStates) and have a fixed value.>, guid = "bd58d4d8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Money rel isu FundamentalNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; MoneyRate ismem Class; MoneyRate has label = "money rates", comment = <A collection of rates; a subset of #$ScalarInterval. Each element of #$MoneyRate is a measurement applied to something that is measured by money-per-amount; e.g., $1.14 per gallon, $10,000 per acre, $250 per week, $0.89 per pound. Important subsets of #$MoneyRate include: #$MoneyPerVolumeRate, #$MoneyPerAreaRate, #$MoneyPerMassRate, #$MonetaryFlowRate. The units for #$MoneyRate measures are terms such as #$DollarsPerSquareFoot, #$DollarsPerHour, Yen per kilo, etc.>, guid = "bd58d145-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MoneyRate rel isu AttributeType, isu DerivedNumericAttributeType, iss ScalarInterval; MoneyTenderType ismem Class; MoneyTenderType has label = "money tender type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$MoneyTenderType is a collection of objects of a type commonly offered in payment for goods, services, fees, wage-work, etc. Examples include #$Currency, #$CreditCard, #$TravellersCheck, #$MoneyOrder, #$PostageStamp, #$Check-TenderObject, etc.>, guid = "bd58d8e4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MoneyTenderType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ExistingObjectType; MoneyTransaction ismem Class; MoneyTransaction has label = "money transactions", comment = <A collection of events. Each element of #$MoneyTransaction is an event in which a transfer of money occurs. Thus, buying something, investing, making a donation, executing a bequest and exchanging currency, are all examples of #$MoneyTransaction events.>, guid = "bd589db3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MoneyTransaction rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss CommercialActivity, iss MoneyTransfer; MoneyTransfer ismem Class; MoneyTransfer has label = "money transfer", comment = <The most generic collection of events in which #$Money changes hands. Thus, in an instance of #$MoneyTransfer, there is some way in which money transfers possession -- though `ownership&apos; of the funds may or may not be transferred from and/or to the agents involved. E.g., an ATM withdrawal from the user&apos;s own account, a utility payment made at one&apos;s local grocery store, buying a newspaper, getting change for a dollar from a cashier, are all examples of #$MoneyTransfer events. Compare this collection with its subset #$MoneyTransaction; in money #$Transactions, which are also elements of #$CommercialActivity, not only is there a transfer of money, but it is done as part of an agreement (explicit or implicit) between the two participating agents that one will do something for the other -- something more than bookkeeping -- contingent upon the transfer of funds.>, guid = "bd590a32-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MoneyTransfer rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss ChangeInUserRights, iss TransferringPossession, iss PurposefulAction; MonotonicallyFalse isu CycHLTruthValue; MonotonicallyFalse has label = "monotonically false", guid = "bd58f8bc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MonotonicallyTrue isu CycHLTruthValue; MonotonicallyTrue has label = "monotonically true", guid = "bd58f87a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MonsoonForest isu TerrainAttribute; MonsoonForest has label = "monsoon forest", comment = <Attribute of deciduous forest areas in eastern India, in parts of Southeast Asia, and in northeastern Australia. Growth is associated with the #$MonsoonClimateCycles prevailing in those regions. Source: The Times Atlas of the World (1995).>, guid = "c0ec4f7a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MonthOfYearType ismem Class; MonthOfYearType has label = "month of year type", comment = <A collection of #$Collections. Instances of #$MonthOfYearType are the canonical subsets of #$CalendarMonth. There are twelve of these in the #$JulianCalendar; for example, #$September is the set of all Septembers.>, guid = "bd58ce5e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MonthOfYearType rel ismem CollectionType, isu CyclicalIntervalGroupType, isu SiblingDisjointCollection, isu MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection, ismem CoreConstant, iss AnnualEventType, iss ConventionalClassificationType; Morning ismem Class; Morning has label = "mornings", comment = <A #$Morning is an #$Event where the #$Sun apparently `rises&apos; and `moves&apos; to its `highest&apos; position in the daily cycle, i.e. from a #$Sunrise or #$MidnightSun to the ensuing noon (the latter of which is the #$startingPoint of a #$TimeOfDay-NoonHour) Each instance of #$Morning is #$contiguousAfter an #$Overnight or #$startsDuring a #$MidnightSun. An #$Afternoon is #$contiguousAfter each #$Morning, and if the #$Morning #$startsDuring a #$MidnightSun, that #$Morning is #$contiguousAfter an #$Afternoon as well.>, guid = "bd588885-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Morning rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss QualitativeTimeOfDay; Motorboat ismem Class; Motorboat has label = "motorboats", comment = <The collection of all boats usually powered by motors (including in-board and out-board motors). If a boat is primarily a #$Sailboat, but has a back-up motor to use when becalmed or piloting, that is not enough to make it a Motorboat. To be more precise, this collection is the intersection of #$Watercraft-Surface, #$InternalCombustionPoweredDevice and #$TransportationDevice-Vehicle.>, guid = "bd58d72d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Motorboat rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss TransportationDevice-Vehicle, xor Rowboat; Motorcycle ismem Class; Motorcycle has label = "motorcycles", comment = <The collection of all motorcycles, two-wheeled motorized personal transport devices. A motorcycle lacks a cab or compartment to protect the driver from wind and weather. Since motorcycles are used both on and off road, this is not a spec of #$RoadVehicle.>, guid = "bd590474-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Motorcycle rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss TransportationDevice-Vehicle, iss RoadVehicle; Mountain ismem Class; Mountain has label = "mountains", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each element of #$Mountain is a topographical region on the planet Earth of significantly higher elevation than its surrounding area. Mountains may occur individually or as part of a chain (see #$MountainRange). Examples: #$MountWhitney, #$DiamondHead-Mountain, #$MountKosciusko, #$AyersRock, #$MountOlympus.>, guid = "bd58ce0d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mountain rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LandTopographicalFeature; MountainRange ismem Class; MountainRange has label = "mountain ranges", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each element of #$MountainRange is a natural group of mountains. Examples: the #$RockyMountains, #$Andes-Mountains, #$Alps-Mountains.>, guid = "bd58e52f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MountainRange rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LandTopographicalFeature; Mouth ismem Class; Mouth has label = "mouths", comment = <The collection of all animal mouths. A mouth is a container #$AnimalBodyPart of an #$Animal. It has an opening (a #$Portal) to the region outside the organism. Through that opening, the animal ingests tangible substances from the environment, such as food, water, air, etc. Additional activities, such as #$Chewing, may occur in the #$Mouth, and it may participate in other activities such as talking, kissing, etc.>, guid = "bd589d87-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Mouth rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss BiologicalLivingObject, iss AnimalBodyPart; Movement-NonPeriodic ismem Class; Movement-NonPeriodic has label = "non-periodic movements", comment = <#$Movement-NonPeriodic is a subset of #$MovementEvent. Each element of this collection is an #$Event in which the #$objectMoving does not return to a previous location or orientation (either not at all or only in a chaotic fashion). E.g., the motion of a basketball being dribbled by Magic Johnson as he runs downcourt. For contrast, see #$Movement-Periodic.>, guid = "bd5dac56-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Movement-NonPeriodic rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss MovementEvent; Movement-Periodic ismem Class; Movement-Periodic has label = "movement - periodic", comment = <A collection of events, and a subset of #$MovementEvent. An element of this collection is an #$Event in which the #$objectMoving returns repeatedly to a certain location or orientation at more or less regular time intervals. E.g., the motion of a seesaw one afternoon; the dribbling of a basketball in place by Magic Johnson; the motion of a slinky going down a staircase as it periodically changes its orientation through a fixed, repetive series of orientations.>, guid = "bd658729-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Movement-Periodic rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss MovementEvent; Movement-Rotation ismem Class; Movement-Rotation has label = "rotations", comment = <#$Movement-Rotation is a subset of #$MovementEvent. Elements of #$Movement-Rotation are those moving events in which the #$primaryObjectMoving is an #$objectRotating, i.e., it rotates about an axis that spatially intersects it (or that goes through a hole in it). For example, the daily rotation of the #$PlanetEarth on its axis, or the rotation of a clock hand about its fastened end. A negative example is the orbiting of #$PlanetEarth around the #$Sun - the axis does not spatially intersect the object.>, guid = "bd58cb0a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Movement-Rotation rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss MovementEvent; Movement-TranslationEvent ismem Class; Movement-TranslationEvent has label = "movements from one place to another", comment = <This collection is a subset of #$MovementEvent. An element of this set is an #$Event in which the center of mass of the #$objectMoving changes location, with respect to the relevant frame of reference. Moreover, the whole moving object travels along some #$motionPathway-Complete from its origin (#$fromLocation) to its stopping place (#$toLocation) and must, at some point during the movement, be in a different location than it was at the start of motion (even if it ultimately returns to the origin). The moving object need not move completely out of its original spatial extent, thus a building moving one foot to the left undergoes a #$Movement-TranslationEvent. So: One special subset of translational movements includes those in which the movement ends in the same place it started from (e.g., one lap of a race car around the Indianapolis race track; a trip to the grocery store and back); this subset is #$Translation-NoLocationChange (including its subset #$Translation-RoundTrip). The other case is where the #$fromLocation and #$toLocation of a #$Movement-TranslationEvent are different; in that case, the movement event is also an element of #$Translation-LocationChange (e.g., the movement of the baseball during a home run hit by Roger Maris.) Note that a #$Stationary object cannot be an #$objectMoving in a #$Movement-TranslationEvent, because it has a zero translational velocity. A swinging pendulum does not translate as a whole, because there is a part of the pendulum (the fulcrum) that stays in the same place. However, some parts of the pendulum (e.g. the weight at the bottom) do undergo translation.--BillJ, Feb 25, 1999>, guid = "bd588e70-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Movement-TranslationEvent rel ismem Class, isu TemporalObjectType, iss Translocation; Movement-TranslationProcess ismem Class; Movement-TranslationProcess has label = "movement processes", comment = <#$Movement-TranslationProcess is the subset of #$Movement-TranslationEvent whose elements can be pragmatically considered to be continuous processes. In any instance of #$Movement-TranslationProcess, all time-slices of that process are also themselves elements of #$Movement-TranslationProcess. Note that walking is a type of #$Movement-TranslationProcess, even though it involves some nonzero accelerations and jerks. A non-example would be a plot of the various residences you&apos;ve lived in (``moved to&apos;&apos;) over the course of your lifetime; another non-example would be Captain Kirk beaming up to the Enterprise; another would be the ``tunneling&apos;&apos; of an electron in a tunnel diode. Note: If you believe in quantum mechanics, then ultimately all physical motion is series of discrete, discontinous ``hops&apos;&apos;. This is where ``PRAGMATICALLY&apos;&apos; continuous vs. discontinuous comes in; i.e., in a quantum physics context some particular motion might be considered discontinuous, whereas in some naive everyday context that same motion is considered continuous.>, guid = "bd588e2f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Movement-TranslationProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Movement-TranslationEvent, iss MovementProcess; MovementEvent ismem Class; MovementEvent has label = "moves", comment = <#$MovementEvent is the collection of events which are principally about an object or set of objects going from one place or set of places to another place or set of places, or from one rotational orientation to another rotational orientation. Note that shape changes (see #$ShapingSomething) are not a kind of #$MovementEvent. Each instance of #$MovementEvent is a rotation or translation of some instance of #$PartiallyTangible, where movement occurs relative to a frame of reference which is not part of the #$objectMoving. Thus, Neil Armstrong&apos;s stepping onto the Moon&apos;s surface from the lunar landing module is an element of #$MovementEvent. Such movements may be periodic (e.g., the turning of the Earth on its axis 31 times during the month of August 1996) or complex (e.g., Li Xiaoshuang&apos;s compulsory floor exercise in the 1996 Olympics Men&apos;s Gymnastics Team Competition). Note: #$MovementEvent is the most generic collection for physical movements. For representing specific events, one or more of the following subsets of #$MovementEvent may be more precise: #$Movement-TranslationEvent, #$Movement-Rotation, #$Movement-Periodic, #$Movement-NonPeriodic, #$Translation-Flow, #$Translation-Complete, #$Translation-SingleTrajectory, #$Translation-MultiTrajectory. Some questions to consider in selecting the best collection to represent a physical movement include: (1) is the movement translational or rotational motion? (2) is it periodic or nonperiodic? (3) does it involve a discrete motion (i.e., an object&apos;s moving completely from one place to another) or a continuous flow? (4) does it involve a change of location or no location change? (5) does it involve a single pathway or more than one? Note on what is NOT included in #$MovementEvent: Consider a person&apos;s raising her hand and waving, or a tree&apos;s bending as its branches sway in a strong wind, while the person and the tree remain in the same place. The movements of the person and the tree do NOT qualify as instances of #$MovementEvent, because the `doer&apos; in any element of #$MovementEvent must rotate or translate as a whole. The hand movement and the movement of the branches do, however, qualify as objects moving in the proper sense. So, for example, an instance of #$WavingAHand (done by a person) would have#$subEvents which ARE elements of #$MovementEvent, in which the person&apos;s hand is the #$objectMoving.>, guid = "bd590401-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MovementEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss GeneralizedTransfer; MovementProcess ismem Class; MovementProcess has label = "movements", comment = <#$MovementProcess is a subset of #$MovementEvent. Its elements are those #$MovementEvents which can be considered as continuous motions. That is, (1) motion happens without interruption throughout a #$MovementProcess, and thus (2) every time-slice of a #$MovementProcess is also a #$MovementProcess.>, guid = "bd5890cd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MovementProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss MovementEvent; MultiDirectionalCommunication ismem Class; MultiDirectionalCommunication has label = "dialogues", comment = <A collection of complex information transfer events. Each element of #$MultiDirectionalCommunication is an event in which more than one agent is involved as a #$senderOfInfo. For example, a conversation or a debate, as opposed to a speech or lecture. The predicate #$infoContributed is used to correlate each sending agent with the information s/he transmits in such an event. For communication acts having only one sender, see #$CommunicationAct-Single.>, guid = "bd5891c4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MultiDirectionalCommunication rel ismem Class, iss Communicating, xor CommunicationAct-Single; Multigraph ismem Class; Multigraph has label = "multigraph", comment = <An instance of #$PathSystemType-Structural and a subcollection of #$PathSystem. Each instance of #$Multigraph is an instance of #$PathSystem in which the only points are nodes in the system and all paths are made of links (i.e., no intermediate points along links). Sometime such a system is called a graph or multi-graph in graph theory. A #$Multigraph consists of nodes interconnected by links, with loops on single nodes allowed, and with multiple links between the same two nodes also allowed. (For a graph with no parallel links and no loops, see #$SimpleGraph-GraphTheoretic.>, guid = "bde212ef-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Multigraph rel isu PathSystemType-Structural, iss PathSystem, iss RelationalStructure; MusclePoweredDevice ismem Class; MusclePoweredDevice has label = "muscle powered devices", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$MusclePoweredDevice is a device which is powered by animal muscle power (including human labor); e.g., hammers, horse-drawn carriages, etc.>, guid = "bd5893ed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MusclePoweredDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss KineticEnergyPoweredDevice; MuscleTissue ismem Class; MuscleTissue has label = "muscle", comment = <The collection of all instances of muscle tissue, considered as an #$OrganicStuff; that is, the collection of all tissue composing the biological organs that convert chemical energy into mechanical energy. E.g., the elements of #$Biceps, #$Triceps, #$Heart, #$Stomach, all consist of some type of #$MuscleTissue.>, guid = "bd58cc38-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MuscleTissue rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; MuscularSystem ismem Class; MuscularSystem has label = "musculatures", comment = <The collection of all animals&apos; muscle systems. A #$MuscularSystem of an animal is composed of all its muscles, considered as a functional whole. As a system, they work together to enable foot motions in locomotion, pumping in circulation, breathing in respiration, biting and chewing and swallowing in eating, etc.>, guid = "bd58e6af-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MuscularSystem rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; Music ismem Class; Music has label = "musica", comment = <A collection of sounds; a subset of #$SoundInformationBearingThing. Each element of #$Music is a sound produced by actions such as singing, whistling, playing an instrument, playing recorded music, etc. Music has certain features that distinguish it from random noise (though recognizing them may depend upon a specific cultural background); such features usually include variations of pitch over time (i.e., melody), multiple (somehow) related pitches sounding at one time (i.e., some kind of harmony), and/or some regular temporal pattern to the component sounds (i.e., rhythm). Examples of #$Music include: the debut performance of Beethoven&apos;s Fifth Symphony; Leonard Bernstein&apos;s rendition of the Ninth Symphony with the BPO in Berlin in 1989; a particular playing of a particular CD of Bernstein&apos;s 1989 Ninth in Berlin; the Messiah sing-in in Austin, TX, in 1995.>, guid = "bd58ce26-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Music rel ismem Class, isu TemporalStuffType, iss AudibleSound, iss SoundInformationBearingThing; MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection ismem Class; MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection has label = "mutually disjoint interval collection", comment = <A collection of collections. Any element, X, which is an element of #$MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection is a collection of interval types X1, X2, X3,..., whose instances are #$temporallyDisjoint; that is, each instance of X1 has no temporal intersection with any instance of X2 or X3 or...; each instance of X2 has no temporal intersection with any instance of X1 or X3 or...; etc. For example, consider #$DayOfWeekType, whose instances are #$Monday, #$Tuesday,... It is true that (#$isa #$DayOfWeekType #$MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection), because no Monday can temporally intersect any Tuesday or Wednesday or....; no Tuesday can temporally intersect any Monday or Wednesday or...; etc. Other elements of #$MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection include #$DayOfWeekType, #$CalendarSeasonType, #$HourOfDayType, and so on. See also #$TemporallyDisjointIntervalType.>, guid = "be0111d4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; MutuallyDisjointIntervalCollection rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType; NLPhraseType ismem Class; NLPhraseType has label = "n l phrase type", guid = "bf03912a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NLPhraseType rel ismem CollectionType, iss LinguisticObjectType; NTupleInterval ismem Class; NTupleInterval has label = "n tuple interval", comment = <A collection of mathematical objects; a subset of #$Tuple. Each element of #$NTupleInterval is a tuple (an ordered list of items) whose items are intervals. For example, vectors and complex numbers, as well as scalar intervals (which are one-tuples). Note that intervals in Cyc may be numerical, or they may be intervals along any scale with distinguishable gradations (e.g., riskiness, alertness, roughness of texture).>, guid = "bd58ec55-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NTupleInterval rel isu ObjectType, iss AttributeValue, iss Tuple; NamedRoadway ismem Class; NamedRoadway has label = "named roadways", comment = <The collection of named parts (stretches or segments) of roadways. (Not roadway the stuff.) Instances are named pieces of roadways (or highways or streets) which have names and lengths, and (usually) intersect with other roads. >, guid = "bd589614-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NamedRoadway rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Street-Generic; Narrative ismem Class; Narrative has label = "narratives", comment = <The collection of all #$PropositionalConceptualWorks that recount a sequence of events (in chronological order or in such a manner that their temporal order can be ascertained) involving some agent or agents. Instances of #$Narrative may be fictional or factual and, accordingly, may involve #$Persons or #$FictionalCharacters. Important specializations of #$Narrative include #$Novel-CW and #$Biography.>, guid = "bd58886c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Narrative rel isu ExistingObjectType; NationalOrganization ismem Class; NationalOrganization has label = "national organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$NationalOrganization is an organization which has nationwide `scope&apos; -- that is, nationwide distribution (throughout some #$Country) of members and/or activities, as opposed to to local, state-wide or international organizations. Examples: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Daughters of the American Revolution in the United States; the Red Guards and the Young Pioneers in China (PROC).>, guid = "c0fde577-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NationalOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; NationalPostalService ismem Class; NationalPostalService has label = "national postal services", comment = <A collection of national postal services run by the governments of their particular countries. The United States Postal Service would be an example, but United Parcel Service, since it is a private business, wouldn&apos;t be.>, guid = "bd590797-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NationalPostalService rel isu ExistingObjectType; NationalTaxAgency ismem Class; NationalTaxAgency has label = "national tax agencies", comment = <A collection of government organizations. An element of #$NationalTaxAgency is a revenue agency that is part of the government of a #$Country and which is concerned primarily with collecting tax money (from national taxes) from the residents of that #$Country. This collection does NOT include customs agencies and agencies that collect minor fees only.>, guid = "bd58d47a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NationalTaxAgency rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LegalGovernmentOrganization; Nationality ismem Class; Nationality has label = "nationalities", comment = <A collection of collections. Each #$Nationality is the set of people resident in (or visiting for a long term) some country -- e.g., #$AmericanPerson, #$TrinidadAndTobagoPerson, etc.>, guid = "bd58961d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nationality rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType; NaturalLanguage ismem Class; NaturalLanguage has label = "languages", comment = <The collection of languages which are used for human communication and evolved naturally. This includes dead languages such as Ancient Greek and Latin but excludes concocted languages such as Esperanto.>, guid = "bd58f37a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NaturalLanguage rel isu ObjectType; NaturalTangibleStuff ismem Class; NaturalTangibleStuff has label = "natural tangible stuff", comment = <A collection of naturally occurring things which are at least partly tangible. Each element of #$NaturalTangibleStuff is a naturally occurring tangible thing, including, for example, elements of its subsets #$EarthStuff, #$Wood, and #$Air. Man-made materials are NOT included in #$NaturalTangibleStuff.>, guid = "bd58d55a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NaturalTangibleStuff rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor ArtificialMaterial; NavalShipBase ismem Class; NavalShipBase has label = "naval bases", comment = <The collection of all naval bases with facilities for #$ModernNavalShips, or operated by a #$Navy.>, guid = "bd624901-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NavalShipBase rel isu ExistingObjectType; Navigating ismem Class; Navigating has label = "navigating events", comment = <The collection of all events in which the performer determines the location of an object in some frame of reference, and determines the direction the object should travel to reach some destination. Navigating usually involves using some devices (compass, clock, etc.) as aids>, guid = "c0fd6e5f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Navigating rel isu TemporalStuffType; NavigationDevice ismem Class; NavigationDevice has label = "navigational devices", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$NavigationDevice is a device used for #$Navigating, i.e., for taking the bearings and plotting the course of someone or something travelling through some medium, usually in some transportation device. Instances include the simplest elements of #$Compass, but also sophisticated GPS (geopositioning systems utilizing satellites.)>, guid = "bd58db99-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NavigationDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice; Navy ismem Class; Navy has label = "navies", comment = <A collection of military organizations. An element of #$Navy is a military organization, modern or historical, composed mainly of seaborne forces and/or forces responsible for military operations on water and adjacent coastal areas. Includes battleships and aircraft carriers (with their battle groups), submarines, shore patrol vessels, and special forces, as well as the support personnel of naval bases.>, guid = "bf23bde1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Navy rel isu ExistingObjectType, xor Army-BranchOfService; NavyPersonnel ismem Class; NavyPersonnel has label = "naval people", comment = <A collection of people, a subset of #$MilitaryPerson. Each element of this collection is somebody who works for a #$Navy.>, guid = "bd58b598-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NavyPersonnel rel isu OccupationType, iss MilitaryPerson; NegativeInteger ismem Class; NegativeInteger has label = "negative integers", comment = <#$NegativeInteger is a subset of #$Integer. Each element of #$NegativeInteger is a whole number less than zero; thus, -4, but not 0 or 4 or -4.3.>, guid = "c0fe031d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NegativeInteger rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss Integer, iss NegativeNumber, xor NonNegativeInteger; NegativeNumber ismem Class; NegativeNumber has label = "negative numbers", comment = <#$NegativeNumber is a subset of #$RealNumber. Each element of #$NegativeNumber is a real number that is less than zero; thus, it includes -0.17, but not 0 or 5 or 0.17.>, guid = "c0fe03e3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NegativeNumber rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss RealNumber, xor NonNegativeNumber; Negotiating ismem Class; Negotiating has label = "negotiations", comment = <A collection of #$Communicating events. In a #$Negotiating, an #$Agent communicates facts and changes in the #$Agent&apos;s attitude or conditions to another #$Agent, with the (ostensible) purpose of their reaching an #$Agreement.>, guid = "bd58edff-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Negotiating rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss MultiDirectionalCommunication, iss SocialOccurrence; Nerve ismem Class; Nerve has label = "nerves", comment = <The collection of all nerves. Each #$Nerve is a bundle of many nerve fibers (#$Axons) covered with a wrapping of #$ConnectiveTissue. #$SensoryNerves carry nerve impulses to the CNS; #$MotorNerves carry impulses to the #$Muscles. Most #$Nerves are mixed, containing #$Axons of both motor and sensory neurons.>, guid = "c0fde592-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nerve rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss Tree-PathSystem, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss CordlikeObject, iss SimplePathSystem; NervousSystem ismem Class; NervousSystem has label = "nervous systems", comment = <The collection of all #$Animals&apos; nervous systems. A #$NervousSystem is composed of all the #$Nerves, #$Brain, and #$SpinalCord of an animal, and enables the animal to sense (#$perceives) things and react to them reflexively (from the spine), by instinct (in the #$BrainStem, #$Cerebellum, or #$Cerebrum), and or by deliberation (in the #$Cerebrum).>, guid = "bd5893fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NervousSystem rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss ConnectedPathSystem, iss BiologicalLivingObject, iss AnimalBodyPart; Nervousness ismem Class; Nervousness has label = "jitters", comment = <Feeling of nervousness and excitability. One can be nervous ABOUT something in particular, or one can have undirected feelings of anxiety. For the former, state an assertion of the form (#$feelsTowardsObject ?AGT ?OBJ #$Nervousness ?DEGREE) or (#$feelsTowardsEvent ?AGT ?EVNT #$Nervousness ?DEGREE); but for the latter (undirected feelings of anxiety) use (#$feelsEmotion ?AGT #$Nervousness). Note: This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness. A more specialized #$FeelingAttributeType than #$Nervousness is #$Panic.>, guid = "bd58c25a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nervousness rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Neutron ismem Class; Neutron has label = "neutrons", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$Nucleon. Each instance of #$Neutron is a nucleon which has an #$ElectricalCharge of 0.>, guid = "bd588216-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Neutron rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Nucleon; News ismem Class; News has label = "news", comment = <A collection of abstract (intangible) informational items. Each element of #$News consists of some factual information about recent events in the world (or #$geographicalSubRegions thereof). News is commonly embodied in newspapers and communicated through radio and television news broadcasts. Note that #$News does not include any #$NewsArticle. Rather, an element of #$News might be the content of a #$NewsArticle, and could be the content of distinct #$NewsArticles>, guid = "bd58dbd1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; News rel ismem Class, iss AbstractInformationalThing; Night ismem Class; Night has label = "nights", comment = <#$Night is the temporal complement of #$DaytimeHours: each #$Night is #$contiguousAfter one #$DaytimeHours, and vice versa. Each #$Night intersects two different #$CalendarDays. Each #$Night is #$temporallyStartedBy a #$Dusk, #$temporallyFinishedBy a #$Dawn, #$contiguousAfter a #$Sunset, and has a #$Sunrise which is #$contiguousAfter it.>, guid = "bd589e0b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Night rel ismem Class, isu TemporalObjectType, iss QualitativeTimeOfDay; NobleGas ismem Class; NobleGas has label = "inert gases", comment = <All pieces of all substances that are comprised of one type of noble gas>, guid = "bd58c01f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NobleGas rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss ElementStuff; NonExclusiveUserRights isu UserRightsAttribute; NonExclusiveUserRights has label = "non exclusive user rights", comment = <An attribute of an object with respect to an #$Agent, meaning that the #$Agent has non-exclusive use of the object. All #$Agents can claim this use-right to an object if any #$Agent can. This attribute is not the same as #$GroupUserRightsAttribute, as there is no specific group to which #$Agents must belong in order to claim this right. This is typically used for things so fundamental we hardly consider them `rights.&apos; E.g., the right to breathe air, use public parking lots, walk the streets as a free person, drive on public roads, etc. If you think about it, though, you&apos;ll realize that there is an implicit `group&apos; that can exercise each of those rights. So think of it this way: one can define the group explicitly as a group, and then assert that each member has #$GroupUserRightsAttribute (e.g., the group of licensed drivers has the right to drive on public roads), or one could define a context, a #$Microtheory, in which performers of actions defaulted to members of that group, and in that context the right (e.g., the right to drive on a public road) would be a #$NonExclusiveUserRights.>, guid = "bd58e39b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonLeapYear ismem Class; NonLeapYear has label = "non leap year", comment = <The collection of #$CalendarYears which are not leap years; i.e., calendar years in which February has 28 days>, guid = "bd58b979-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonLeapYear rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss CalendarYear, xor LeapYear; NonNegativeInteger ismem Class; NonNegativeInteger has label = "non-negative integers", comment = <#$NonNegativeInteger is the subset of #$Integer that excludes the negative integers. Each element of #$NonNegativeInteger is a whole number greater than or equal to zero, e.g., 0, 1, 2, 3, ....>, guid = "bd58bf69-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonNegativeInteger rel ismem Class, isu MeasurableAttributeType, ismem CoreConstant, iss Integer, iss NonNegativeNumber, xor NegativeInteger; NonNegativeNumber ismem Class; NonNegativeNumber has label = "non-negative numbers", comment = <#$NonNegativeNumber is the subset of #$RealNumber that excludes the negative reals. Each element of #$NonNegativeNumber is a number greater than or equal to zero, e.g., 0, 0.173, Pi, 4, 101, .... Quantities measured in units e.g. (#$SecondsDuration 4), (#$Mile 42) are not elements of #$NonNegativeNumber but are elements of its superset #$NonNegativeScalarInterval.>, guid = "bd58f22b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonNegativeNumber rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss RealNumber, iss NonNegativeScalarInterval, xor NegativeNumber; NonNegativeScalarInterval ismem Class; NonNegativeScalarInterval has label = "non negative scalar interval", comment = <For a measurable non-negative quantity, the ordered sequence of possible values may be thought of as a line. #$NonNegativeScalarIntervals are the line segments (or points) on such a line, representing a range of consecutive values, all equal to or greater than 0. An important subset is #$NonNegativeNumber the elements of which correspond to the non-negative part of the Real Number Line. Elements of #$NonNegativeNumber are either contiguous sets of points there (i.e., a range of numbers) or just single points there (i.e., a number). Elements of #$NonNegativeScalarInterval for which there is some unit of measure (e.g. meters, seconds, volts) are not elements of #$NonNegativeNumber.>, guid = "bf7a1c90-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonNegativeScalarInterval rel isu ObjectType, ismem CoreConstant, iss ScalarInterval; NonPersonAnimal ismem Class; NonPersonAnimal has label = "non-human animals", comment = <The collection of all #$Animals that are not #$Persons.>, guid = "bd58e066-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonPersonAnimal rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Animal, xor Person; NonPhysicalPartPredicate ismem Class; NonPhysicalPartPredicate has label = "nonphysical part predicates", comment = <A collection of predicates. Instances of #$NonPhysicalPartPredicate are used to describe the relationship between a #$PartiallyIntangible and its non-physical parts.>, guid = "bd588411-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonPhysicalPartPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss PartPredicate; NonPoweredDevice ismem Class; NonPoweredDevice has label = "non-powered devices", comment = <A collection of tangible objects; a subset of #$PhysicalDevice. An instance of #$NonPoweredDevice is a device which is `inert&apos; as opposed to being powered in any way. Non-powered devices do not need to have any kind of energy supplied to them in order to function -- not even kinetic energy supplied by a user (except perhaps to move them into place). E.g., a coat hanger. Once you hang a coat up on it, it does its function without any motion, without any energy being converted or used, etc. So this collection is a much smaller collection that than consisting merely of devices which don&apos;t require fuel or electricity (e.g., a hammer). It should be noted that an inert device need not be #$Stationary during use (though many are); for example, tires are inert devices in the sense that once they are placed on a vehicle they don&apos;t require any energy input to do their job, which is, in essence `hanging onto a wheel no matter what!&apos;. A steering wheel, on the other hand, is not a #$NonPoweredDevice. Further examples of #$NonPoweredDevices include a table, a floor mat, a bookshelf, an auto ramp, a bookmark, a support column, and a shirt.>, guid = "bd59041c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonPoweredDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice, xor PoweredDevice; NonProfitCorporation ismem Class; NonProfitCorporation has label = "non-profit corporations", comment = <A collection of corporations; a subset of both #$LegalCorporation and #$NonProfitOrganization. An element of #$NonProfitCorporation is a #$LegalCorporation which is engaged in non-profit or not-for-profit activities. Typically, (unlike commercial corporations,) non-profit corporations have no shareholders or owners, although they are commonly governed by a board (cf. #$BoardOfDirectors). Many non-profit organizations are incorporated, including charities, political action groups, clubs, and political parties. Most have official non-profit standing with a government. Because they are non-profit organizations, non-profit corporations do not pay corporate income taxes. For the broader class of non-profit entities, see #$NonProfitOrganization.>, guid = "bd589d6b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonProfitCorporation rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss LegalCorporation, iss NonProfitOrganization; NonProfitEmployee ismem Class; NonProfitEmployee has label = "non profit employee", comment = <A collection of persons; a subset of #$Professional. Each element of #$NonProfitEmployee is a worker who is employed by a non-profit organization such as a college, museum, or charity foundation.>, guid = "bd58f621-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonProfitEmployee rel isu OccupationType, iss Professional; NonProfitOrganization ismem Class; NonProfitOrganization has label = "non profits", guid = "bd58aee8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonProfitOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization, xor CommercialOrganization; NonPublishedText ismem Class; NonPublishedText has label = "unpublished texts", comment = <A collection of information bearing things (IBTs). #$NonPublishedText is that subset of #$TextualMaterial whose elements are text that has not yet been published (such as a rejected book manuscript) and may not even be intended for publication (such as a memo or personal letter).>, guid = "bd58c599-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonPublishedText rel isu ObjectType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss TextualMaterial, xor PublishedMaterial; NonVerbalCommunicating ismem Class; NonVerbalCommunicating has label = "nonverbal communicating", comment = <A collection of information transfer events; a subset of #$Communicating. Each element of #$NonVerbalCommunicating is a transmission of information by means of some bodily movement other than speaking. Subsets include #$ShakingHands and #$Cuddling, since such actions by definition are communications involving two actors. (Note that #$MakingAGesture (q.v.) is NOT a subset of #$NonVerbalCommunicating; instances of #$MakingAGesture are merely information-encodings. They may or may not be #$subEvents of #$NonVerbalCommunicating events.)>, guid = "bd588f6b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonVerbalCommunicating rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss Communicating; NonlexicalLinguisticObject ismem Class; NonlexicalLinguisticObject has label = "nonlexical linguistic objects", comment = <The collection of linguistic objects which are not morphemes, but which nonetheless make up part of a language system; e.g., the parts of speech.>, guid = "bd588258-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NonlexicalLinguisticObject rel ismem LinguisticObjectType, iss LinguisticObject; North-Directly isu GeographicalDirection; North-Directly has label = "north - directly", comment = <Due North, an element of #$TerrestrialDirection.>, guid = "bd58fb02-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; North-Generally isu GeographicalDirection; North-Generally has label = "Norths", comment = <The general direction of North. The element of #$VectorInterval that comprises the cone-shaped set of vectors pointing (from some reference point) within approximately forty-five degrees of #$North-Directly.>, guid = "bd588776-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NorthEast-Directly isu GeographicalDirection; NorthEast-Directly has label = "north east - directly", comment = <The precise Northeast direction from any geographic point other than a pole.>, guid = "bd588d73-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NorthEast-Generally isu GeographicalDirection; NorthEast-Generally has label = "Northeasts", comment = <The general direction of NorthEast. The #$VectorInterval comprising the cone-shaped set of vectors pointing (from some reference point) within approximately forty-five degrees of pointing in the same direction as #$NorthEast-Directly.>, guid = "c107ca50-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NorthWest-Directly isu GeographicalDirection; NorthWest-Directly has label = "north west - directly", comment = <The precise Northwest direction from any geographic point other than a pole.>, guid = "bd588aad-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NorthWest-Generally isu GeographicalDirection; NorthWest-Generally has label = "northwest", comment = <The general direction of NorthWest. The #$VectorInterval comprising the cone-shaped set of vectors pointing (from some reference point) within approximately forty-five degrees of pointing in the same direction as #$NorthWest-Directly.>, guid = "c090ff2d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nose ismem Class; Nose has label = "noses", comment = <Facial organ used in smelling and breathing>, guid = "bd58826c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nose rel isu UniqueAnatomicalPartType, isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss AnimalBodyPart, iss BiologicalLivingObject; NoteAboutArgIsaCycIndexedTerm isu SharedNote; NoteAboutArgIsaCycIndexedTerm has label = "note about arg isa cyc indexed term", comment = <Warning! Any time that you make the argIsa of a predicate #$CycLIndexedTerm or any spec of #$CycLIndexedTerm (#$CycLAssertion or #$CycLReifiableDenotationalTerm), it will be concluded that that argument place is a #$quotedArgument, i.e., it is the term itself that is being referred to in that argument place, not what the term denotes. If you don&apos;t think this should be the cases write an exception (see #$exceptFor) to the relevant rule. See also #$opaqueArgument.>, guid = "c0ac6b00-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteAboutGivingGenericValueFunctionsNumericValues isu SharedNote; NoteAboutGivingGenericValueFunctionsNumericValues has label = "note about giving generic value functions numeric values", comment = <In some contexts, users may wish to ground elements of #$GenericValueFunction by linking them to numeric `real world&apos; measurements. E.g. In a driving-on-the-highway-context, one might wish to define (#$MediumAmountFn #$Speed) as `between 50 and 60 miles per hour&apos;. The way to assert this is as follows: (#$and (#$minQuantValue (#$MediumAmountFn #$Speed) (#$MilesPerHour 50))(#$maxQuantValue (#$MediumAmountFn #$Speed)(#$MilesPerHour 60))).>, guid = "c030907d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteAboutPredicateCategories isu SharedNote; NoteAboutPredicateCategories has label = "note about predicate categories", comment = <Predicates in Cyc are organized into collections. While some, like #$BinaryPredicate, are logically well-founded and are referenced in axioms and in the code which implements Cyc, others, though based on some intuitively plausible criteria, are involved in few (if any) axioms and are therefore not integral to Cyc&apos;s ontology. Collections which fall into the latter class are generally under review at this time and are flagged with this #$sharedNotes.>, guid = "bf8a0b3b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteAboutPurposeSpecificationSlots isu SharedNote; NoteAboutPurposeSpecificationSlots has label = "note about purpose specification slots", comment = <An instance of #$PurposeSpecificationSlot is a #$BinaryPredicate that is used to state the purpose of an instance of #$Plan or an instance of #$Event in a planning context. More specifically, instances are used to indicate what is supposed to be maintained, insured, prevented, stopped, achieved, interrupted, upheld, or thwarted in the #$Plan or #$Event in question. An instance of #$PurposeSpecificationSlot does NOT state success criteria for the #$Plan or #$Event in question (for identifying success criteria, see #$SuccessCriterionSlot). Also, instances of #$PurposeSpecificationSlot do not state necessary conditions for instances of #$Plan and #$Event, but only goals: an instance of #$Plan may be executed, or an instance of #$Situation may &apos;happen&apos;, even though the goal is not achieved.>, guid = "beab908e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteAboutScalarIntervalMaxAndMin isu SharedNote; NoteAboutScalarIntervalMaxAndMin has label = "note about scalar interval max and min", comment = <If there are two arguments to a #$UnitOfMeasure function, as in (#$Meter 5 6), the first number is interpreted as the (inclusive) minimum, and the second number as the (inclusive) maximum. Thus, (#$Meter 5 6) means `between 5 and 6 meters long, inclusive&apos;. If only one argument follows an element of #$UnitOfMeasure, as in (#$Meter 3), it is interpreted as a shorthand for (#$Meter 3 3). In other words, (#$Meter 3 3) means `exactly 3 meters&apos;. When a function belonging to #$UnitOfMeasure is applied to a single argument, the value it returns must be an element of #$ScalarPointValue.>, guid = "bd72a273-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteAboutStatingExceptionsInCycL isu SharedNote; NoteAboutStatingExceptionsInCycL has label = "note about stating exceptions in cyc l", comment = <The formula (#$exceptWhen P(?x0 ... ?xn) Q(?x0 ... ?xn))) states that, in situations where assertion Q would apply to a set of bindings for variables ?x0 ... ?xn, the conclusion is allowed `except when&apos; P(?x0 ... ?xn) is true for these variable bindings. The formula (#$exceptFor [term] Q(?x0)) states that, in situations where assertion Q would apply to a variable ?x0, the conclusion is allowed `except for&apos; the situations where [term] is the binding for ?x0. To be well-formed, Q must be a rule with exactly one free variable. By definition, #$exceptFor is merely syntactic sugar: (#$exceptFor [term] Q(?x0)) &lt;=&gt; (#$exceptWhen (equals ?x0 [term]) Q(?x0)) Since an #$exceptWhen statement is a meta-statement about some rule Q(?x0 ... ?xn), the statement is not well-formed if Q(?x0 ... ?xn) is not already an assertion in the KB. Also, strictly speaking, P and Q in the #$exceptWhen merely must share some variables rather than all variables as it&apos;s been written above. These constructs replace `abnormal&apos; at the EL (epistemological level). Old assertions of the form: (#$implies P(?x0 ... ?xn) (abnormal R(?x0 ... ?xn) Q(?x0 ... ?xn))) become: (#$exceptWhen P(?x0 ... ?xn) Q(?x0 ... ?xn)) The predicate `abnormal&apos; has not actually gone away, but was modified for use as the HL (Heuristic Level) implementation of #$exceptWhen. Like #$termOfUnit, `abnormal&apos; should be viewed as an inference-maintained predicate, and human beings should not be manually asserting things using `abnormal.&apos; ;;; ;; EXAMPLES ;;; Rule1: `birds fly&apos; (#$implies (#$isa ?BIRD #$Bird) (#$behaviorCapable ?BIRD #$Flying-FlappingWings #$performedBy)) Exception1: `for penguins, the ``birds fly&apos;&apos; rule does not apply&apos; (#$exceptWhen (#$isa ?BIRD #$Penguin) [Rule1]) Exception2: `the ``birds fly&apos;&apos; rule does not apply to Tweety&apos; (#$exceptFor Tweety [Rule1]) Exception3: `for an animal with an injured wing, the ``birds fly&apos;&apos; rule does not apply&apos; (#$exceptWhen (#and (#$anatomicalParts ?BIRD ?WING) (#$isa ?WING #$Wing-AnimalBodyPart) (#$hasPhysiologicalAttributes ?WING #$Injured)) [Rule1]) Rule2: ``dogs who like the same cat like each other&apos;&apos; (#$implies (?and (#$isa ?DOG1 #$Dog) (#$isa ?DOG2 #$Dog) (#$isa ?CAT #$Cat) (#$likesAsFriend ?DOG1 ?CAT) (#$likesAsFriend ?DOG2 ?CAT)) (#$likesAsFriend ?DOG1 ?DOG2)) Exception3: `Rex does not like other dogs according to ``Rule2&apos;&apos;&apos; (#$exceptWhen (#$equals ?DOG1 Rex) [Rule2]) Exception4: `Fifi is not liked by other dogs according to `Rule2&apos;&apos;&apos; (#$exceptWhen (#$equals ?DOG2 Fifi) [Rule2]) Exception5: `Morris is not such a cat according to ``Rule2&apos;&apos;&apos; (#$exceptWhen (#$equals ?CAT Morris) [Rule2])>, guid = "be660580-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteAboutSuccessCriterionSlots isu SharedNote; NoteAboutSuccessCriterionSlots has label = "note about success criterion slots", comment = <An instance of #$SuccessCriterionSlot is a #$BinaryPredicate that is used to give a criterion for success for an instance of #$Plan or an instance of #$Event in a planning context. More specifically, instances are used to indicate what must be maintained, insured, prevented, stopped, achieved, interrupted, upheld, or thwarted in the #$Plan or #$Event in question, in order for it to count as a &apos;success&apos;. An instance of #$SuccessCriterionSlot does NOT give the purpose or goal of the instance of #$Plan or #$Event in question, nor does it say anything explicitly about that goal or purpose, if it exists (for identifying planning purposes, see #$PurposeSpecificationSlot). Also, instances of #$SuccessCriterionSlot do not state necessary conditions for instances of #$Plan and #$Event, but only criteria for success: an instance of #$Plan may be executed, or an instance of #$Situation may &apos;happen&apos;, even though not all of the success criteria are met. It does seem to be the case that known preconditions for an #$Event instance would count as success criteria, and success criteria in general may be considered necessary conditions for &apos;authorities&apos; believing that a plan&apos;s execution was &apos;successful&apos;.>, guid = "beafa170-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteAboutTrajectoriesTraversalsAndPaths isu SharedNote; NoteAboutTrajectoriesTraversalsAndPaths has label = "note about trajectories traversals and paths", comment = <#$Trajectory, #$Traversal, and #$Path-Generic need to be understood as separate concepts. A motion through space always has a #$Trajectory, indicated by #$trajectory-Complete. The trajectory may or may not follow some pre-existing or pre-defined #$Path-Generics. If the #$Trajectory does in fact follow a sequence of one or more #$Path-Generics, it #$traverses-Complete the #$Traversal made of those paths. A #$Traversal corresponds to a sequence of #$Path-Generics linked end-to-end. Thus if a car drives along a road and then a highway, it traverses the #$Traversal consisting of the road and the highway linked end-to-end. A #$Path-Generic cannot cross itself, go back along itself, or go around a cycle several times, but a #$Trajectory or #$Traversal can do these things. A #$Path-Generic may have no (begin-to-end) direction associated with it, but a #$Traversal always has one particular direction from beginning to end. A motion&apos;s #$Trajectory (#$trajectory-Complete) may follow a particular #$Traversal (#$traverses-Complete) of paths within a network made of #$Path-Generics. If the motion goes along a #$Traversal consisting of just one #$Path-Generic, then #$motionPathway-Complete is used to relate the motion to the pre-existing path. (One way of representing a particular #$Traversal of a path system is to represent it with a #$PathChain.) A #$Path-Generic can be part of a specified #$PathSystem, or it be part of some (formally-unspecified) #$CustomarySystemOfLinks in the real world.>, guid = "c1302845-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteForUnitOfMeasureWithPrefixAndNoPrefix isu SharedNote; NoteForUnitOfMeasureWithPrefixAndNoPrefix has label = "note for unit of measure with prefix and no prefix", comment = <Elements of #$UnitOfMeasureNoPrefix denote units of measure that don&apos;t have a multiplicative prefix (e.g. `kilo&apos;, `micro&apos;, `billion&apos;). #$Inch and #$MetersPerSecond are such elements. On the other hand, elements of #$UnitOfMeasureWithPrefix do have multiplicative prefixes; examples include #$CentimetersPerSecond, (#$Micro #$Gram), #$KiloWatt, and #$GramsPerMilliliter. We need these constants in order to prevent references to terms such as ((#$Micro (#$Micro #$Gram)) 5) or ((#$Kilo (#$CentimetersPerSecond)) 3.2). If we didn&apos;t have these restrictions, equal quantities would allow for an undesirable level of possible names for a quantity, e.g. ((#$Micro (#$Kilo #$Gram)) 1) would refer to the same quantity as ((#$Kilo (#$Micro #$Gram)) 1) would refer to the same quantity as (#$Gram .001), etc.>, guid = "c03dd762-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteOnArgumentTypingAndPropertiesOfRelations isu SharedNote; NoteOnArgumentTypingAndPropertiesOfRelations has label = "note on argument typing and properties of relations", comment = <The five collections which share this note are defined so that a binary predicate being evaluated for, e.g., asymmetry, anti-reflexivity, etc., must NOT have argument types which are disjoint with each other. The restriction to non-disjoint argument types (i.e., arg-Isa constraints) is to facilitate heuristic expediency in the inference engine. (March 1997) Contact Keith #$Goolsbey if you have questions about this restriction.>, guid = "bd65bbc6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteOnCycMergedOntologyConstants isu SharedNote; NoteOnCycMergedOntologyConstants has label = "note on cyc merged ontology constants", comment = <This constant represents an important concept in the SENSUS Ontology developed by ISI, and has been tentatively adopted to fit into the CYC Merged Ontology for the DARPA HPKB Project. These terms are not necessarily completely integrated into the Upper Cyc Ontology as of yet (12/97).>, guid = "c02ee79d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteOnOrganismClassification isu SharedNote; NoteOnOrganismClassification has label = "note on organism classification", comment = <There are two organism classification techniques in CYC. One uses #$BiologicalTaxons (#$BiologicalClass, #$BiologicalDivision, #$BiologicalFamily, #$BiologicalGenus, #$BiologicalKingdom, #$BiologicalOrder, #$BiologicalPhylum, #$BiologicalSpecies, #$BiologicalSubclass, #$BiologicalSubdivision, #$BiologicalSubkingdom, #$BiologicalSubspecies) while types that cannnot be set within this classification system can be instances of the broader concept, #$OrganismClassificationType. If an organism&apos;s #$scientificName has been defined (in #$AnimalClassificationLexicalMt or #$PlantClassificationLexicalMt) then the #$Collection should be an instance of the appropriate #$BiologicalTaxon. It may be appropriate to define organism types as instances of #$OrganismClassificationType in the #$BaseKB and as instances of the appropriate #$BiologicalTaxon in #$BiologyMt. Not all #$OrganismClassificationTypes are also #$BiologicalTaxons. #$TropicalFish, #$AirBreathingVertebrate, #$FemaleAnimal, and #$Pachyderm would not be #$BiologicalTaxons, while #$BettaSplendens, #$Mammal, #$Hippopotamus, and #$Anthrax-Bacterium would be. If the knowledge enterer does not know if something is a #$BiologicalSpecies or a #$BiologicalGenus (and can not easily find out), the concept should be made an instance of #$BiologicalTaxon (if it is known to be one).>, guid = "bde1b771-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NoteOnTypeLevelVsInstanceLevel isu SharedNote; NoteOnTypeLevelVsInstanceLevel has label = "note on type level vs instance level", comment = <Quite often we have a property that applies to all instances of a collection. The way we represent this in Cyc is by a rule saying: &apos;if ?X is an instance of this collection, then it has this property&apos;. It is useful and common to describe such properties at the collection level, but we do not want to create a type level dual for each instance level predicate. That is why we have #$RuleMacroPredicates. These predicates (along with a axioms defining them, and, eventually, coded support for quick inferencing), allow one to state those rules more tersely and make reasoning at the collection level possible.>, guid = "c128342c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Noun ismem Class; Noun has label = "nouns", comment = <The collection of all nouns.>, guid = "be88cb3a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Noun rel isu SpeechPart, ismem LinguisticObjectType; November ismem Class; November has label = "November", comment = <The collection of all Novembers, the eleventh month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c0a5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; November rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; Now isu TimePoint; Now has label = "the present", comment = <#$Now is a special #$TimePoint which denotes the current moment from the perspective of the instantiation of #$CycTheCollection that is currently being run (i.e. #$Cyc). If one asks (#$indexicalReferent #$Now ?X) one will get an answer in which ?X is bound to whatever the time is according to the central processing unit of #$Cyc. Thus the referent of #$Now does not vary with the #$Microtheory in which one asks (#$indexicalReferent #$Now ?X). Instead the referent of #$Now varies from moment to moment down to the resolution of #$Cyc&apos;s central processing unit. See also #$Now-Generally which is not necessarily a #$TimePoint. See #$RealTimeMt for a microtheory in which #$Now-Generally #$temporallySubsumes #$Now.>, guid = "bd58a068-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NuclearPoweredDevice ismem Class; NuclearPoweredDevice has label = "nuclear powered device", comment = <A collection of physical devices; a subset of #$PoweredDevice. An instance of #$NuclearPoweredDevice is a device which uses nuclear fission or nuclear fusion reactions as a source of power. Examples include elements of #$NuclearSubmarine and #$NuclearWeapon.>, guid = "c1009f53-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NuclearPoweredDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PoweredDevice, xor KineticEnergyPoweredDevice; Nucleon ismem Class; Nucleon has label = "nucleons", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$SubAtomicParticle. Each instance of #$Nucleon is a subatomic particle normally found in some atomic nucleus. #$Nucleon has two subsets, #$Proton and #$Neutron. Every instance of #$AtomicNucleus is composed of some number of #$Nucleons.>, guid = "bd588191-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nucleon rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SubAtomicParticle; Number-General ismem Class; Number-General has label = "numbers", comment = <A collection of mathematical objects. This is the most general class of numbers, including #$RealNumbers, #$ComplexNumbers, various values of infinity such as Aleph Null, and whatever else might count as a number in mathematics.>, guid = "bf1c02f9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Number-General rel isu ObjectType, iss MathematicalObject; NumericComparison ismem Class; NumericComparison has label = "numeric comparison", comment = <A collection comprising the predicates used to compare elements of #$ScalarInterval. Examples: #$greaterThanOrEqualTo, #$greaterThan, #$numericallyEqual. Note that `less than&apos; and `less than or equal to&apos; are simply inverses of #$greaterThan and #$greaterThanOrEqualTo. E.g., in Cyc `A is less than B&apos; is written as (#$greaterThan B A).>, guid = "bd588cf9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; NumericComparison rel isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss Property; Nurse ismem Class; Nurse has label = "nurses", comment = <The class of health professionals who provide various aspects of hands-on health care to patients. Nurses do not usually diagnose or decide on treatments, but they administer medicines and treatments, perform medical tests, give regular care to hospitalized patients, etc.>, guid = "bd5895de-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nurse rel isu MedicalSpecialtyType, isu OccupationType, iss MedicalCareProfessional; Nutrient ismem Class; Nutrient has label = "nutrients", comment = <A collection of tangible stuff. Each element of #$Nutrient is a substances considered necessary or beneficial in the diet of a person or animal. Nutrients in food or pills are often listed on the package label. Some types of #$Nutrient include its subsets #$EdibleSodium, #$Protein, #$EdibleCalcium, #$EdibleIron, #$Vitamin.>, guid = "bd58d3c5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Nutrient rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss EdibleStuff; ObjectType ismem Class; ObjectType has label = "types of objects", comment = <A collection of collections. If COL is an element of #$ObjectType, and ITEM is any element of COL, then if you conceptually divide ITEM into two pieces, you do NOT generally end up with two elements of COL. Similarly, for most specs SPEC of COL, if you conceptually divide any instance of it in two, you do not end up two instances of COL. Another way of thinking of this is: If you take several elements of COL, and put them together, the result is generally not another element of COL. A collection can be spatially object-like temporally stuff-like (e.g. #$Automobile -- the set of all cars) or spatially stuff-like and temporally object-like (e.g. a total eclipse). See the comment for #$StuffType to find out more about the distinctions between, and the need for, these four collections: #$StuffType, #$ObjectType, #$ExistingStuffType, and #$ExistingObjectType.>, guid = "bd58ab9d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ObjectType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class; ObtainingPermission ismem Class; ObtainingPermission has label = "obtaining permission", comment = <The collection of events in which one #$Agent gets permission from another #$Agent to do something.>, guid = "bd58ee41-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; ObtainingPermission rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss Transaction; OccupationType ismem Class; OccupationType has label = "occupations", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$OccupationType is a collection of workers, based on their kinds of work; each of those workers is an element of (#$isa) #$Professional. Elements of #$OccupationType represent all kinds of jobs, not just the kinds of occupations colloquially considered `professional&apos;. Elements of #$OccupationType include the collections #$ComputerProgrammerProfessional, #$FoodServiceEmployee, #$MedicalCareProfessional, #$BaseballUmpire, #$SalesRepresentative, #$Brewer, #$Gymnast, and many others. Also see #$Professional, #$PositionType.>, guid = "bd58a2d9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OccupationType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss PersonByActivityType, iss PositionType; Ocean ismem Class; Ocean has label = "oceans", comment = <A collection of topographical features. Each instance of #$Ocean is one of the oceans of the world. This includes #$TheOceanSea, the interconnected expanse of salt water covering 71% of the Earth&apos;s surface, and of which the other oceans are subregions. Examples: #$AtlanticOcean, #$ArcticOcean, #$IndianOcean, #$PacificOcean.>, guid = "bd58e4b6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ocean rel isu SpatiallyDisjointRegionType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Sea; OceanLiner ismem Class; OceanLiner has label = "ocean liner", comment = <The subcollection of #$Ship that contains all ocean liners, i.e., ships that by design can transport a large number of people across oceans.>, guid = "c10088c3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OceanLiner rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Ship; OctagonShaped isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; OctagonShaped has label = "octagon shaped", comment = <This is the shape attribute shared by all eight sided two dimensional figures.>, guid = "c14d55f8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; October ismem Class; October has label = "October", comment = <The collection of all Octobers, the tenth month of the year in the #$JulianCalendar.>, guid = "bd58c0ef-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; October rel isu MonthOfYearType, ismem CoreConstant, iss CalendarMonth; OddNumber ismem Class; OddNumber has label = "odd numbers", comment = <The set of all odd numbers (integers) including positive and negative odd numbers, but not including any infinite &apos;numbers&apos;.>, guid = "becb081f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OddNumber rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss Integer, xor EvenNumber; Offering-CommunicationAct ismem Class; Offering-CommunicationAct has label = "offers", comment = <A collection of actions, many of which are speech acts. In each element of this collection, somebody offers to do something, furnish something, make something the case, etc. See also the #$IllocutionaryForce associated with these actions, #$Offer.>, guid = "bd58eb0b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Offering-CommunicationAct rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss CommunicationAct-Single; OfficialDocument ismem Class; OfficialDocument has label = "official documents", comment = <A collection of #$InformationBearingObjects (IBOs). Each element of #$OfficialDocument is a document that can be used as the basis, proof, or support of some fact (such as a person&apos;s nationality, marital status, credit, or qualifications; or the ownership or transfer of property; etc.). Official documents are typically generated, issued, and/or certified by the relevant institutions (as with #$Passports or #$StockCertificates), but they also include unique personal documents (such as wills [#$WillAndTestament]) which meet certain standards to be accepted in support of facts. Examples of #$OfficialDocument: #$BirthCertificates, #$TaxReturns, insurance policies, #$PostageStamps, receipts, #$PackingSlips, student ID cards, etc.>, guid = "bd58971b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OfficialDocument rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TextualMaterial, iss InformationBearingObject; Oil ismem Class; Oil has label = "oil", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Oil is a piece of some type of typically viscous, primarily hydrophobic liquid hydrocarbon. For example, portions of #$HeatingOil, #$MotorOil, #$PeanutOil, #$OliveOil, etc. NB: This constant should NOT be used to refer to #$Petroleum-CrudeOil or #$PetroleumProducts (q.v.).>, guid = "bd58d9e9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Oil rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss LiquidTangibleThing, iss PartiallyTangibleProduct, iss OrganicStuff; Omnivore ismem Class; Omnivore has label = "omnivores", comment = <The collection of organisms that feed on both plants and animals, and possibly other things. Subsets of #$Omnivore include, for example, #$Person, #$Pig, and #$Bear.>, guid = "bd58a5e1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Omnivore rel isu ExistingObjectType; OneDimensional isu ShapeAttribute; OneDimensional has label = "one dimensional", comment = <The shape attribute (see #$ShapeAttribute) shared by all objects that have only one dimension, i.e. objects which have some discernible form but whose only relevant dimension is length (#$lengthOfObject). Note that both curved lines and straight physical linear objects can have this attribute as can line segments and geometric lines. Also note that the dimension of some things may be deemed to be one, two or three dimensional depending upon the context. For instance, we may deem a thin wire to be one-dimensional insofar as its diameter or thickness are many orders of magnitude smaller than its length. In one microtheory the wire might be deemed to be one-dimensional. However, we might also imagine contexts in which the other dimensions of the wire are relevant and in such contexts the wire might have the attribute of being cylindrical.>, guid = "be482e94-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OneStoryBuilding ismem Class; OneStoryBuilding has label = "one story buildings", comment = <Collection of all one story buildings.>, guid = "bd58c60d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OneStoryBuilding rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Building, xor ThreeStoryBuilding, xor TwoStoryBuilding; Opaque isu PhysicalAttribute; Opaque has label = "opaque", comment = <#$Opaque is a #$PhysicalAttribute representing a specific degree of #$Transparency. #$Opaque objects do not transmit light. See also #$transparencyOfObject.>, guid = "bd58fa7e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrderOfMagnitudeInterval ismem Class; OrderOfMagnitudeInterval has label = "magnitudes", comment = <#$OrderOfMagnitudeInterval, a subset of #$ScalarInterval, is the collection of intervals which represent significant differences in quantity, for the various types of measurable properties. The most familiar case is for numbers, in which orders of magnitudes typically correspond with powers of 10; thus, in any given numerical quantity, the 100&apos;s dominate the 10&apos;s or the units, which are negligible with respect to the hundreds. In Cyc, we can identify the significant intervals for any measurable property. For example, for #$Time-Quantity, some intervals which represent orders of magnitude are: #$AFewSecondsDuration, #$AFewMinutesDuration, #$AFewHoursDuration, #$AFewDaysDuration, #$AFewWeeksDuration, etc. Similar scales could be identified for any measurable property. Moreover, orders of magnitude for the same measurable property may differ between microtheories; e.g., the orders of magnitude for #$Time-Quantity in a `GeologicalTimeMt&apos; would be much larger than those listed above, which are relevant for human perceptions and activities. Any two attributes which represent amounts of the same kind of property (e.g., time, distance) and which are also elements of #$OrderOfMagnitudeInterval will be assumed to differ so substantially in size that the smaller one (and values associated with it) will be insignificant compared to the larger interval (and values associated with it). That is, in general and as a default, if ORD1 and ORD2 are two different elements of #$OrderOfMagnitudeInterval which are also elements of the same type of #$AttributeValue (e.g., #$Speed, #$Mass, #$Density), then one is negligible with respect to the other. To know which dominates the other, we need additional knowledge about their relative size, e.g., that ORD2 is a #$followingValue of (i.e., &apos;bigger&apos; than) ORD1. See also #$negligibleWRT, #$followingValue. The predicate #$orderOfMagnitude (q.v.) is used to relate particular quantities to the appropriate element of #$OrderOfMagnitudeInterval. For example, two days -- in Cyc, (#$DaysDuration 2) -- has the #$orderOfMagnitude #$AFewDaysDuration.>, guid = "bd58c38a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrderOfMagnitudeInterval rel isu ObjectType, iss ScalarInterval; Ordering-CommunicationAct ismem Class; Ordering-CommunicationAct has label = "orders", comment = <A collection of actions, many of which are speech acts. In each element of this collection, somebody orders somebody to do something. See also the #$IllocutionaryForce associated with this action, #$Command.>, guid = "bd58a938-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ordering-CommunicationAct rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss Requesting-CommunicationAct, iss HumanActivity; Organ ismem Class; Organ has label = "organs", comment = <The collection of all the #$Organs of #$Animals; i.e., the #$AnimalBodyParts that have specialized physiological functions and which are more or less localized in the animal. For example: a heart, a kidney, etc. A borderline case of this is a person&apos;s (whole) skin; in some contexts, it is treated as a sense organ, and in some contexts it is excluded because it is distributed over their entire body.>, guid = "c0fde25a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Organ rel isu AnimalBodyPartType, iss SemiSolidTangibleThing, iss AnimalBodyPart; OrganicStuff ismem Class; OrganicStuff has label = "organic substances", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$OrganicStuff is a tangible thing composed of one or more types of organic #$Molecule. Instances of #$OrganicStuff usually have their origin in the bodies (or other products) of living things. Since some organic substances can be synthesized, #$OrganicStuff is not a subset of #$NaturalTangibleStuff. Chemically, instances of #$OrganicStuff have fairly (or very) complex carbon-based structures. Examples include the elements of the collections #$Oil, #$DNA, #$Alcohol-Compound, #$Ivory, #$AnimalBodyPart.>, guid = "bd58c3d0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganicStuff rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor InorganicStuff; Organism-Whole ismem Class; Organism-Whole has label = "organisms", comment = <The collection of all elements of #$BiologicalLivingObject which are wholes, not parts of other biological living objects (BLOs). Most members of #$Organism-Whole are capable of existing and reproducing while physically separate from other organisms (with allowances for sexual reproduction). Abnormal BLOs which are nonetheless considered to belong to #$Organism-Whole include elements of #$Virus, as well as sterile hybrids and colony organisms like those in slime molds or the elements of #$PortugueseManOfWar. All of those organisms operate by DNA- and RNA-controlled mechanisms.>, guid = "bd58c4d6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Organism-Whole rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BiologicalLivingObject, xor OrganismPart; OrganismClassificationType ismem Class; OrganismClassificationType has label = "types of organism", comment = <A collection of collections; #$OrganismClassificationType is the collection of all biological types used to classify animals, plants, or other elements of #$Organism-Whole. The scientific types in #$OrganismClassificationType may or may not correspond to naive categories of organisms, and, in addition, although they are scientific, they might not be officially accepted biological taxons at the standard taxonomic levels. (#$Invertebrate is an example.) Compare #$BiologicalTaxonType. Note that #$OrganismClassificationType is NOT an element of #$SiblingDisjointCollection since there are scientific classifications along different dimensions. Many specs of #$OrganismClassificationType are, however, specs of #$SiblingDisjointCollection.>, guid = "bd58dfe4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganismClassificationType rel ismem CollectionType, iss ExistingObjectType, iss ConventionalClassificationType; OrganismPart ismem Class; OrganismPart has label = "organism part", comment = <The collection of all the anatomical parts of all living organisms. It includes gross anatomical parts and microscopic anatomical parts of every individual of every species.>, guid = "c1005766-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganismPart rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BiologicalLivingObject, xor Organism-Whole; OrganismTypeByHabitat ismem Class; OrganismTypeByHabitat has label = "organism type by habitat", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$OrganismTypeByHabitat is a collection of organisms characterized by the sort of habitat in which they live. For example, #$AquaticOrganism or #$TerrestrialOrganism.>, guid = "bd58a35d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganismTypeByHabitat rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, iss ExistingObjectType; Organization ismem Class; Organization has label = "organizations", comment = <The collection of all organizations. Each element of the collection #$Organization is a group whose #$groupMembers are instances of #$IntelligentAgent, and which is established such that certain known relationships and obligations exist between the members, and/or between the organization and its members, and/or between the organization and `outsiders&apos; (individuals or groups). #$Organization includes both informal and legally constituted organizations. Organizations can act as agents --- specifically, group agents, not individuals (cf. #$IndividualAgent) --- to undertake projects, enter into agreements, own property, etc. Most organizations have names. Almost all have at least two members. Examples: #$Cycorp, #$NASA, #$FreeSoftwareFoundation, #$UnitedStatesArmy, #$KMart-TheCompany. Note the specialization #$OrganizationOfPeopleOnly, whose instances have only human members, e.g., an instance of #$Family-Human such as Joseph Kennedy&apos;s family. Other kinds of #$Organization have organizations as their #$groupMembers, e.g., the #$OrganizationOfAmericanStates.>, guid = "bd58d54f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Organization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss SocialBeing, iss Agent, xor EdibleStuff, xor BiologicalLivingObject; OrganizationPolicy ismem Class; OrganizationPolicy has label = "policies", comment = <A collection of microtheories; a subset of #$Agreement. Each element of #$OrganizationPolicy is a microtheory which contains the terms of some policy of a particular organization. For example, U.S. Federal government hiring policies; a policy governing a corporation&apos;s charitable or political donations; or a school dress code.>, guid = "bd58f5fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganizationPolicy rel isu MicrotheoryType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Agreement; OrganizationWithBusinessCustomers ismem Class; OrganizationWithBusinessCustomers has label = "organizations with business customers", comment = <A collection of #$Organizations. An instance of #$OrganizationWithBusinessCustomers sells goods and/or services to #$customers, most of whom are businesses or other #$Organizations, rather than individual #$Persons.>, guid = "bd58ed04-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganizationWithBusinessCustomers rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; OrganizationWithIndividualCustomers ismem Class; OrganizationWithIndividualCustomers has label = "organizations with individual customers", comment = <A collection of #$Organizations. An instance of #$OrganizationWithIndividualCustomers sells goods and/or services to #$customers, most of whom are individual #$Persons, rather than businesses or other #$Organizations.>, guid = "bd58c049-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganizationWithIndividualCustomers rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; OrganizationalChart ismem Class; OrganizationalChart has label = "organizational charts", comment = <A collection of information bearing objects (IBOs); a subset of #$StructuredInformationSource. Each element of #$OrganizationalChart is an IBO that graphically or in outline fashion depicts information about the control structure or resource use structure of an organization. E.g., a diagram of Exxon Corporation&apos;s top managers showing their reporting structure.>, guid = "bd58fe7e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganizationalChart rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss StructuredInformationSource, iss IndexedInfoSource; OrganizationalTransfer ismem Class; OrganizationalTransfer has label = "organizational transfer", comment = <A collection of events. An #$OrganizationalTransfer occurs when some #$IntelligentAgent changes membership with respect to some #$Organization. This can involve becoming a member of the organization, ceasing to be a member of it, or switching from one organization to another. An #$OrganizationalTransfer may be voluntarily undertaken by the transferee but may also be #$performedBy some other agent. Examples include: joining a club, being transferred from one division of a company to another, and being excommunicated. Negative examples include: transfer of objects or information between organizations (since the transferred items aren&apos;t #$IntelligentAgents), two or more organizations joining together in a temporary partnership.>, guid = "bf9ddb52-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganizationalTransfer rel isu TemporalObjectType; OrganizationalTransferIn ismem Class; OrganizationalTransferIn has label = "organizational transfer in", comment = <A subcollection of #$OrganizationalTransfer such that elements necessarily have some thing which becomes the member of the &apos;to organization&apos;. Exemplars include hiring someone to a company, pledging a fraternal organization, admitting a nation to NATO. The event of leaving one organization to join another is also an element of #$OrganizationalTransferIn as well as #$OrganizationalTransferOut. Negative exemplars include layoffs, expulsions, and excommunications which do not involve &apos;from organizations&apos;.>, guid = "c09a7d92-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganizationalTransferIn rel ismem Class, isu TemporalObjectType, iss OrganizationalTransfer; OrganizationalTransferOut ismem Class; OrganizationalTransferOut has label = "organizational transfer out", comment = <A subcollection of #$OrganizationalTransfer such that elements necessarily have some thing which stops being the member of the &apos;from organization&apos;. Exemplars include laying someone off, expulsions, and excommunications. The event of leaving one organization to join another is also an element of #$OrganizationalTransferIn as well as #$OrganizationalTransferOut. Negative exemplars include &apos;admitting a nation to NATO&apos;, &apos;hiring someone&apos;, and &apos;pledging a fraternal organization&apos;.>, guid = "c0b4e100-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrganizationalTransferOut rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss OrganizationalTransfer; OrientationAttribute ismem Class; OrientationAttribute has label = "orientations", comment = <The collection of attributes which characterize an object&apos;s orientation relative to whatever instance of #$FrameOfReference is being used in the current context. In most contexts, orientation is taken with respect to the #$TerrestrialFrameOfReference.>, guid = "c0fbab60-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OrientationAttribute rel isu AttributeType, iss AttributeValue; OutdoorLocation ismem Class; OutdoorLocation has label = "outdoor locations", comment = <A collection of geographical regions. Each element of #$OutdoorLocation is a region of outdoor space, i.e., a region which is directly subject to atmospheric weather. Objects found in an outdoor location are #$in-ImmersedFully in the atmosphere of Earth. Thus, as defined here, #$OutdoorLocation does NOT include elements of #$UnderwaterLocation or places that are #$Underground. #$OutdoorLocations include large geographical regions. Among the elements of #$OutdoorLocation are instances of the subsets #$Lawn, #$Meadow, #$SkiSlope, #$Beach, #$Swamp (and many others). Note: #$OutdoorLocation is a collection of places, rather than an attribute; to represent the concept of being outside, see #$Outdoors-ExposedToWeather. Of course, elements of #$OutdoorLocation have the #$locationState attribute of being #$Outdoors-ExposedToWeather.>, guid = "bd58b186-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OutdoorLocation rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss GeographicalRegion, xor HumanOccupationConstruct; OuterGarment ismem Class; OuterGarment has label = "outer garments", comment = <A collection of objects; a subset of #$ClothingItem. Each element of #$OuterGarment is a piece of clothing that is worn outside of other garments. A common purpose of outer garments is protection (e.g., the subsets #$RainCoat, #$Apron). An outer garment may also be a robe of office or position, such as an academic gown or a bishop&apos;s mantle.>, guid = "c0f46c1c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OuterGarment rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType; Ovum ismem Class; Ovum has label = "ova", comment = <A subset of #$Cell. #$Ovum is the collection of specialized gamete cells produced by meiosis in the reproductive tract of female animals. Each ovum usually has half the number of chromosomes that regular body cells do, and when fertilized by a spermatozoon, it becomes a zygote and continues to develop into a mature individual. Also called &apos;egg&apos;. See also #$FemaleAnimal, #$SexualReproductionEvent.>, guid = "bd58bd8a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Ovum rel isu ExistingObjectType; OxidationProcess ismem Class; OxidationProcess has label = "oxidations", comment = <A collection of events. In each instance of this collection, some amount of #$Oxygen reacts with (`reduces&apos;) another substance and releases energy in the process.>, guid = "be010767-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; OxidationProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TransformationProcess; Oxide ismem Class; Oxide has label = "oxide", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Oxide is a portion of stuff in which each molecule consists of a combination of oxygen atoms with one or more atoms of another element. For example, instances of #$Water (H2O), pieces of rust (#$IronOxide), portions of #$CarbonDioxide.>, guid = "bd58be91-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Oxide rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, iss InanimateThing; PacificOcean isu Entity; PacificOcean has label = "the Pacific Ocean", comment = <The main body of salt water in the #$EasternHemisphere-Region, bordering on five continents (Western coast of North and South Americas, Australia, Antarctica, and Eastern coast of Asia).>, guid = "bd58e0bb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pants ismem Class; Pants has label = "pants", comment = <A collection of objects. Every element of #$Pants is a clothing item worn on the lower torso and legs. The collection #$Pants includes the subsets #$ShortPants and #$LongPants. There are also very specialized subsets, e.g., #$FootballPants.>, guid = "c0fbc8c8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pants rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType; Paper ismem Class; Paper has label = "paper", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Paper is a portion of paper, considered as a &apos;stuff&apos; out of which things can be made, like metal or plastic. Thus, this collection includes the collection #$SheetOfPaper, but is wider. Important sources from which paper may be #$derivedFrom include wood pulp, cotton, papyrus, rice. Examples: business stationery, #$MaxiPads, paper currency, toilet paper, newsprint, paper coffee filters, notebook paper.>, guid = "bd589b34-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Paper rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, isu ExistingStuffType, isu ProductType, iss Product, iss SolidTangibleProduct; ParallelogramShaped isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; ParallelogramShaped has label = "parallelogram shaped", comment = <#$ParallelogramShaped is the instance of #$ShapeAttribute shared by all closed two-dimensional objects that have two edges parallel.>, guid = "c05d0ef0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartOfBuilding ismem Class; PartOfBuilding has label = "parts of a building", comment = <A collection of parts of a building that are &apos;built-in&apos;, that is, built with the intention of remaining as part of the building.>, guid = "bd589e2e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartOfBuilding rel isu ExistingObjectType; PartOfRoomInAConstruction ismem Class; PartOfRoomInAConstruction has label = "part of room in a construction", comment = <A collection of all parts of all instances of #$RoomInAConstruction. This includes both solid parts, like #$Mantels, and enclosed regions such as are contained by cabinets and #$Cupboards. Instances should be features which are &apos;built-in&apos;, that is, built with the intention of remaining as part of the room.>, guid = "bd58efed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartOfRoomInAConstruction rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartOfBuilding; PartPredicate ismem Class; PartPredicate has label = "part predicates", comment = <A collection of predicates. Instances of #$PartPredicate are used to describe the relationship between an #$Individual and its #$parts.>, guid = "bd588496-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate, iss Property; PartTime isu WorkStatus; PartTime has label = "part time", comment = <An attribute; an element of #$WorkStatus. The attribute of being a part-time worker.>, guid = "bd588230-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartialCloudCover isu WeatherAttribute; PartialCloudCover has label = "partial cloud cover", comment = <#$PartialCloudCover is a #$WeatherAttribute representing a specific degree of #$Cloudiness. This attribute describes a location as having some cloud cover but not enough to completely block out all direct sunlight. Direct sunlight comes and goes as clouds occluding the sun pass.>, guid = "bd58e862-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartialOrdering ismem Class; PartialOrdering has label = "partial ordering", comment = <The collection of all those #$MathematicalOrderings ORDER in which the ordering relation R is a reflexive, transitive and antisymmetric relation on the #$baseSet S of ORDER. R is reflexive on S if and only if for each X in S, R(X X). R is transitive on S if and only if for each X, Y and Z in S, R(X Y) and R(Y Z) imply R(X Z). R is antisymmetric on S if and only if for each X and Y in S, R(X Y) and R(Y X) imply X = Y. For example, if you take a set of #$Lists and take the #$sublists relation restricted to this set, then you have a #$PartialOrdering because #$sublists relation is reflexive, transitive and antisymmetric. Since the ordering relation in each #$PartialOrderings reflexive and transitive, the collection #$PartialOrdering is a subcollection of #$QuasiOrdering. Subcollections of #$PartialOrdering include #$TreeOrdering, #$TotalOrdering and #$Lattice-LatticeTheoretic. If you want a #$MathematicalOrdering in which the ordering relation is irreflexive, see #$PartialOrdering-Strict.>, guid = "c135aad5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartialOrdering rel isu ObjectType, iss QuasiOrdering; PartialOrdering-Strict ismem Class; PartialOrdering-Strict has label = "strict partial order", comment = <The collection of all those #$MathematicalOrderings ORDER in which the ordering relation R is an irreflexive and transitive relation on the #$baseSet S of ORDER, i.e., for each X in S, R(X X) does not hold, and for each X, Y and Z in S, R(X Y) and R(Y Z) imply R(X Z). For example, if you take the set of all people in the states today and take the relation &apos;__ is older than ...&apos; on this set, you get a #$PartialOrdering-Strict since the relation &apos;__ is older than ...&apos; is irreflexive and transitive. Note that the important difference between a #$PartialOrdering and a #$PartialOrdering-Strict is that the ordering relation of the former is reflexive while that of the latter is irreflexive. Note also that although we did not state in the definition that the ordering relation R of a #$PartialOrdering-Strict ORDER must be antisymmetric or asymmetric on the #$baseSet S of ORDER, R is in fact antisymmetric (i.e., for each X and Y in S, R(X Y) and R(Y X) imply X = Y) and asymmetric (i.e., for each X and Y in S, R(X Y) and R(Y X) can never be both true) on S. This is because both antisymmetry and asymmetry follow from transitivity and irreflexivity.>, guid = "be73e9fb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartialOrdering-Strict rel isu ObjectType, iss MathematicalOrdering; PartiallyCommutativeRelation ismem Class; PartiallyCommutativeRelation has label = "partially commutative relation", comment = <The collection of #$Relationships which are commutative with respect to some but not all of their arguments. Instances of #$PartiallyCommutativeRelation must therefore have an #$arity of at least 3. See #$CommutativeRelation.>, guid = "beaad779-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartiallyCommutativeRelation rel ismem CoreConstant, isu RelationshipType, iss Relation, xor CommutativeRelation, xor BinaryRelation, xor UnaryRelation; PartiallyIntangible ismem Class; PartiallyIntangible has label = "partially intangible", comment = <The collection of things which have at least some intangible part. This includes things which are purely intangible -- for example, instances of #$Collection, #$Number-General and #$Agreement. It also includes things which have some tangible part but also have an intangible component, such as a newspaper (information content) or a person (life).>, guid = "bd58f7b6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartiallyIntangible rel isu ObjectType, iss entity, xor TangibleThing; PartiallyIntangibleIndividual ismem Class; PartiallyIntangibleIndividual has label = "partially intangible individual", comment = <The collection of things which have at least some intangible component and which are also #$Individuals. Instances of #$PartiallyIntangibleIndividual either have a tangible part, and thus are instances of #$CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject; or are fully #$Intangible, and thus are instances of #$IntangibleIndividual, such as the number 42 and the agreement between a person and his or her employer.>, guid = "c0139b34-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartiallyIntangibleIndividual rel isu ObjectType, iss entity, iss PartiallyIntangible; PartiallyTangible ismem Class; PartiallyTangible has label = "tangible things", comment = <Elements of #$PartiallyTangible have some tangible (i.e., material) part and also have a temporal extent (i.e., they exist in time). They may or may not also have an intangible part; e.g., a book is made of matter, has a temporal extent, and also has intangible content which is the information content of the text that the author wrote.>, guid = "bd58f6ed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartiallyTangible rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss entity, iss SomethingExisting, xor Intangible; PartiallyTangibleProduct ismem Class; PartiallyTangibleProduct has label = "goods", comment = <A collection of spatial objects; a subset of #$Product. Each element of #$PartiallyTangibleProduct is a product that has some tangible component and may, but need not, have an intangible component (e.g., information). (See also #$PartiallyTangible.) Examples of #$PartiallyTangibleProduct: a newspaper, a photograph, a videotape of `Star Wars&apos;, a sack of flour, lumber, a mobile home.>, guid = "bd59045b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PartiallyTangibleProduct rel isu ProductType, iss PartiallyTangible, iss Product; Particle ismem Class; Particle has label = "particles", comment = <A collection of tangibles; a subset of #$TangibleThing. Each element of #$Particle is a smallish liquid or solid tangible thing, at least small enough to be blown about by ordinary gusts of wind, and possibly much smaller. Examples include elements of the collections #$CornMeal, #$SandParticle, #$Sawdust, #$DustParticle, #$Sugar-Table.>, guid = "bd58f47e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Particle rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss InanimateThing, iss PartiallyTangible, xor GaseousTangibleThing; Partnership ismem Class; Partnership has label = "partnerships", comment = < A collection of #$Organizations that have been formally organized as partnerships pursuant to partnership agreements. In the #$UnitedStatesOfAmerica, most instances of #$Partnership are organized pursuant to specific statutes. #$GeneralPartners of a #$Partnership are jointly and severally liable for the debts and other liabilities of the #$Partnership. The liability of #$LimitedPartners is limited in accordance with the governing partnership agreement. The #$PartnershipPartners of an instance of #$Partnership may be individuals or entities. For example, an instance of #$LimitedPartnership may have an instance of #$LegalCorporation as its #$GeneralPartner and individuals as its #$LimitedPartners.>, guid = "bd58a949-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Partnership rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; PartsFormat isu Format; PartsFormat has label = "parts format", comment = <Argument positions of Cyc predicates may have specified formats that constrain how many and what kind of terms may occupy that position, given some fixed list of terms in the other argument positions of the predicate. If a predicate P has #$PartsFormat for argument position N, then given some particular list of terms that occupy the other argument positions of P, there may be multiple assertions with different terms in position N (keeping the other arguments fixed), but only so long as the terms in position N are all #$physicalParts of the same #$PartiallyTangible. For example, the #$arg1Format of #$physicalParts is #$PartsFormat. This allows us to represent that JosephsRightThumbnail is a #$physicalParts of JosephsRightThumb, of JosephsRightHand, and of Joseph. This is more restrictive than #$SetTheFormat, which allows multiple unrelated values. In contrast, specifying only (#$arg1Format #$physicalParts #$SetTheFormat) would not prevent JosephsRightThumb from being a #$physicalParts of both JosephsRightHand and of JamesRightHand.>, guid = "c0fb3343-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Party-Celebration ismem Class; Party-Celebration has label = "parties", comment = <The collection of party events and other similar celebrations such as baby showers. #$Persons gather intentionally at a location in order to communicate or share some experience, and to enjoy themselves, but (unlike a #$MeetingTakingPlace) business is rarely transacted at a #$Party-Celebration, or at least is beside the official point of the party. Note: as with most collection worth naming, there are borderline cases here; e.g., Tupperware parties.>, guid = "bd588af1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Party-Celebration rel ismem Class, iss SocialGathering; Passport ismem Class; Passport has label = "passports", comment = <A collection of official documents. Each element of #$Passport is a document issued to a person by a national government in order to identify that person as a citizen of said country while s/he is travelling across or outside of that country&apos;s borders.>, guid = "c10afd58-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Passport rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss IDDocument; Paste-Form isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Paste-Form has label = "paste - form", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Paste-Form is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute which describes solids that are pastelike in texture and consistency. They are very easily deformed, and they tend to remain in the deformed shape afterwards, provided that they don&apos;t collapse under their own weight. Things having #$Paste-Form don&apos;t exhibit much elastic deformation at all - they don&apos;t &apos;&apos;jiggle&apos;&apos;.>, guid = "be0104a9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pasteurization ismem Class; Pasteurization has label = "pasteurizations", comment = <The heating of a milk product in order to kill off microorganisms that might make it spoil.>, guid = "be00cc5d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pasteurization rel ismem Class, iss PreservingFood; Path-Customary ismem Class; Path-Customary has label = "routes", comment = <The collection of all existing objects that are commonly paths, or are normally used as paths or conduits for people, animals, vehicles, material or information. A #$Path-Customary is either designed as a path or it has a significant known function as a path for movement. Examples include roads, railroads, sea-lanes, cowpaths, boardwalks, tubes, channels, blood vessels, fibers, wires, communication links, etc. It is often a #$Path-Spatial. The collection #$Path-Customary does not include all the things that may be used as paths in some particular #$PathSystems, but are otherwise not ordinarily viewed as paths (though the latter are still instances of #$Path-Generic). If a #$Path-Customary is an instance of a certain #$PathType, it may be assumed to be part of a system (not explictly given) of such paths, called a #$CustomarySystemOfLinks. Or, on the other hand, it may be asserted to be part of a particular specified #$PathSystem using the predicate #$pathInSystem. A #$Path-Customary is either a #$Path-Simple (with two distinct ends, not forming a cycle) or else a #$Path-Cyclic.>, guid = "bee87cc9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Path-Customary rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Path-Spatial; Path-Cyclic ismem Class; Path-Cyclic has label = "cyclic paths", comment = <The collection of all cyclic paths, i.e. paths that form cycles, circles, loops or circuits. An instance of #$Path-Cyclic is a #$Path-Generic that can be described as a cycle, i.e., a thing like a #$Path-Simple except that the ends of the path join at one point. A #$Path-Cyclic cannot cross itself (as in a figure-eight) nor double back along itself. More formally, let PATH1 and PATH2 be two #$Path-Simples. Suppose that each end-point of PATH1 is an end point of PATH2 and vice versa, and for each X, X is a point on both PATH1 and PATH2 only if X is an end point of both paths. Then PATH1 and PATH2 together form a #$Path-Cyclic. We allow &apos;loops&apos;; a loop is a cycle with only one point on it, looping from the point right back to itself. Each loop of a path system is a special instance of #$Path-Cyclic. For differences between a cycle and a loop in the same #$PathSystem, see #$loopInSystem and #$cycleInSystem.>, guid = "bfa3129f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Path-Cyclic rel ismem Class, iss Path-Generic, xor ConvexTangibleObject, xor Path-Simple; Path-Generic ismem Class; Path-Generic has label = "generic paths", comment = <A collection of #$Things that are paths or can be considered paths. Each #$Path-Generic is either a #$Path-Simple or a #$Path-Cyclic, i.e., either a non-self-crossing path or a cycle. A #$Path-Generic may be abstract (as in Graph Theory), or it may be concrete such as a #$Path-Customary, for example a road, railroad, sea-lane, cowpath, pipe, blood vessel, fiber or wire, or on the other hand it could be anything that is used as a path in some #$PathSystem. If a #$Path-Generic is a #$Path-Customary, then it may or may not have a specified #$PathSystem in which it is a path; if the #$Path-Generic is not a #$Path-Customary, then it can only be a path in some given #$PathSystem. For example, an orange is not a customary path, but it can be a path for ants in a specified ant path system. For any #$Path-Generic, there can be a #$Traversal of something moving along that path; a single #$Traversal can cross itself, double back along itself, and/or go back and forth along some part of a #$Path-Generic any number of times.>, guid = "c110820b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Path-Generic rel ismem Class, iss sentence; Path-Simple ismem Class; Path-Simple has label = "paths", comment = <A collection of non-cyclic paths, broadly conceived. Each instance of #$Path-Simple has two ends and it forms a #$pathBetween them. It can be a road, railroad, air lane, sea lane, channel, blood vessel, part of an electric circuit, part of a pipe system, or even some abstract chain of connections among people or a &apos;path&apos; in Graph Theory. A #$Path-Simple cannot cross itself, return to the same point, nor double back along itself. Each #$Path-Simple has two distinct ends that do not &apos;overlap&apos; each other. But in general a path may have more than two things that are its &apos;end-points&apos; -- for example, a path between Austin and Pittsburgh can also be a path between Texas and Pennsylvania. In such an example Texas and Pennsylvania are required to be spatially disjoint. (To prohibit multiple things being an end-point of a path simultaneously, specify a #$PathSystem, because in a specified #$PathSystem a path&apos;s two end points in the system are unique. The predicate #$pathBetweenInSystem is restricted to a set of paths and points specified for the particular #$PathSystem.) For a #$Path-Simple, any points on it (e.g., #$pointOnPath X PATH) are connected: &apos;#$pathConnects&apos; is true of them. Any number of intersections may occur along a #$Path-Simple. A path with no intersections along it is a #$SimpleSegmentOfPath. A path may have #$subPaths. A path is different from a #$Traversal or a #$Trajectory: a #$Traversal is the trace of an object moving along paths, often in a #$PathSystem, and the #$Traversal can cross itself and/or double back along itself any number of times. While a path is fixed and may have no direction, a #$Traversal has a particular direction. Many distinct traversals may traverse the same underlying path (see #$Traversal and #$traversalInSystem), since a traversal can go back and forth across the same part of a path any number of times. A #$Trajectory (the space of a motion), if is goes along paths, determines a particular #$Traversal of those paths.>, guid = "bd588e69-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Path-Simple rel ismem Class, iss Path-Generic, xor Path-Cyclic; Path-Spatial ismem Class; Path-Spatial has label = "spatial paths", comment = <The collection of all paths (instances of #$Path-Generic) that have spatial extent, and that join spatially located things. This includes roads, corridors, wires, blood vessels, nerves, etc. and it excludes purely abstract paths such as those in kinship diagrams, mathematics, etc. A #$Path-Spatial may be a pre-existing path in a #$CustomarySystemOfLinks (like a road, nerve, etc.), or it may be a path in some specially specified #$PathSystem which consists of spatial paths. A motion (a #$Movement-TranslationEvent) may follow an existing #$Path-Spatial or it may not; contrast this with the #$Trajectory of the motion, which is generated by every #$Movement-TranslationEvent.>, guid = "c095e890-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Path-Spatial rel ismem Class, iss SomethingExisting, iss Path-Generic; PathArtifact ismem Class; PathArtifact has label = "path artifact", comment = <A collection of artifacts. Each element of #$PathArtifact is a path made by agents, whether animal or human. Elements of #$PathArtifact range from deer trails to superhighways. Such paths connect places that animals or people are found in and/or between which they want to travel. Examples: #$ErieCanal, #$WellandShipCanal, #$ChampsElysee, #$WallStreet, USHighway80, #$Highway101CA. Note that each of these artifacts is a single, particular path; -- to refer to a whole system of #$PathArtifacts, use #$PathArtifactSystem.>, guid = "bd588ea2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PathArtifact rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss ConstructionArtifact, iss Path-Customary, xor RoomInAConstruction, xor ShelterConstruction; PathArtifactSystem ismem Class; PathArtifactSystem has label = "path artifact system", comment = <The collection of all artifical systems of #$PathArtifacts. These are the systems rather than the paths that comprise them: each #$PathArtifactSystem is a composite individual typically made up of many interconnected #$PathArtifacts. Examples would include a instance of a #$GutterSystem, #$ComputerNetwork, various road and highway systems, etc.>, guid = "be60aba5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PathArtifactSystem rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss CustomarySystemOfLinks, xor RoomInAConstruction, xor ShelterConstruction; PathChain ismem Class; PathChain has label = "path chain", comment = <The collection of all path chains, or lists of points and paths alternating. A path chain is a #$List LIST = (X(1) Y(1) X(2) Y(2) ... X(n) Y(n) X(n+1)) satsifying the following conditions: (i) each X(k) is a #$Thing and each Y(k) is a #$Path-Generic, i.e., the length of LIST is an odd number greater than 2, every even-numbered position in LIST is a #$Path-Generic and every odd-numbered item is a #$Thing. (ii) Each #$Path-Generic in the list joins the points just before and after it. That is to say, (iia) if the kth item PATH in LIST is a #$Path-Simple, and if A is the (k-1)th item and B is the (k+1)th item in LIST, then (#$pathBetween PATH A B) holds, and (iib) if the kth item CYCLE is a #$Path-Cyclic, and if A is the (k-1)th item and B is the (k+1)th item in LIST, then (#$pointOnCycle A CYCLE) holds and A = B. Note that the concatenation of all the paths (simple or cyclic) in such a list results in a #$Traversal. For example, letting PATH1 and PATH2 be instances of #$Path-Simple and CYCLE a #$Path-Cyclic, if (#$pathBetween PATH1 A B), (#$pathBetween PATH2 B C) and (#$pointOnCycle C CYCLE), then (#$TheList A PATH1 B PATH2 C CYCLE C) is a #$PathChain. Note that although each instance of #$PathChain determines a unique instance of #$Traversal that is from X(1) to X(n+1), many different #$PathChains may determine the same #$Traversal.>, guid = "c0bb98f7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PathChain rel isu ObjectType, iss List; PathForWheeledVehicles ismem Class; PathForWheeledVehicles has label = "roads", comment = <Each instance of #$PathForWheeledVehicles is an instance of #$PathArtifact, whose primary function is to serve as a place along which wheeled vehicles may move or park. Usually but not necessarily they are paved.>, guid = "bd59029a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PathForWheeledVehicles rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PathArtifact, iss FixedStructure, iss SurfaceOnTangibleObject, iss OutdoorLocation; PathSystem ismem Class; PathSystem has label = "path system", comment = <The collection of all specified systems of paths and links. An instance of #$PathSystem may consist of real-world (#$PartiallyTangible) things, or #$Intangibles like a graph (or #$Multigraph) in Graph Theory, in which nodes are linked by links. But unlike a graph in Graph Theory, there can be many path-points on a path between designated nodes. These non-node path-points can be discrete, dense or even continuous. Such a path system does not have to be &apos;connected&apos; (in the sense that for any points X and Y in the system, there must be a path connecting them, see #$ConnectedPathSystem). Each instance SYS of #$PathSystem consists of a nonempty set of &apos;points&apos;, a subset of it called &apos;nodes&apos;, a set of &apos;links&apos;, and optionally a set of &apos;loops&apos;. Here, &apos;point&apos; is a nonempty set of #$Things called &apos;points in SYS&apos; (see #$pointInSystem). The set &apos;node&apos; is a nonempty subset of &apos;point&apos; (see #$nodeInSystem). Link is a (possibly empty) set of (primitive) paths whose elements are called &apos;links in SYS&apos; (see #$linkInSystem). Loop is a (possibly empty) set of (primitive) cycles whose elements are called &apos;loops in SYS&apos; (see #$loopInSystem). To finish your definition of a path system SYS, you need to specify, using the predicates below (other than the four mentioned above), which link is between which two nodes, and which point is on which link, and which node is on which loop, etc. The rest should be determined by your set-up of the system. For example, #$pathBetween can be used to specify the &apos;end points&apos; of each link, #$pointOnPath can be used to specify which point is on which link, #$pointOnCycle specifies which node is on which loop, and, when more points than the end-points of a link are desired to be on the link, #$betweenOnPath can be used to specify the relative positions of all points on a link. But there are more convenient ways to set up your SYS. For example, if you use #$linkBetweenInSystem which is a combination of other predicates, it will give you what you need when using #$linkInSystem, #$pathBetween, #$nodeInSystem, #$pointOnPath to setup your system (except that this will not give you those assertions about isolated nodes or points on a link between its end points). See #$pointInSystem, #$nodeInSystem, #$linkInSystem, #$linkBetweenInSystem (an abbreviation), #$pathInSystem, #$pathBetweenInSystem (an abbreviation), #$pointOnPath, #$betweenOnPath, #$loopInSystem, #$pointOnCycle, #$junctionInSystem, #$deadEndInSystem, #$isolatedNodeInSystem and #$connectedInSystem. Note that a path system may satisfy further condition in addition to those determined by the conditions on these predicates. For example, links and loops may have &apos;directions&apos;. When further conditions are added to some path systems, we expect different kinds of path systems. For some particular kinds of path systems, see #$Semi-DirectedPathSystem, #$DirectedPathSystem, or #$PathSystemType-Structural in general. For subsystem relation between path systems, see #$subPathSystems.>, guid = "bfd62da4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PathSystem rel ismem Class, iss sentence; PathSystemType-Structural ismem Class; PathSystemType-Structural has label = "path system type - structural", comment = <A collection of collections. Instances of #$PathSystemType-Structural are collections of path systems, including #$PointFinitePathSystem, #$NodeFinitePathSystem, #$LinkFinitePathSystem, #$FinitaryJunctionPathSystem, #$SimplePathSystem, #$Multigraph, #$FiniteMultigraph, #$SimpleGraph-GraphTheoretic, #$ConnectedPathSystem, #$Semi-DirectedPathSystem, #$DirectedPathSystem, #$BidirectedPathSystem, #$DirectedAcyclicPathSystem, #$BoundedDirectedPathSystem, #$DirectedMultigraph, #$DirectedGraph, #$DirectedAcyclicGraph, #$BoundedDirectedAcyclicGraph, #$NetworkFlowSystem-Bounded, etc.>, guid = "befbfb9f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PathSystemType-Structural rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class; PathType ismem Class; PathType has label = "path type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each instance of #$PathType is a collection that is a subcollection of #$Path-Generic. There are several types of path, according to the medium or surface the path goes through or over. In addition, the collection #$PathArtifact can be broken down into more specific #$PathTypes. At a #$JunctionOfPaths, the joined paths all have at least one #$PathType in common.>, guid = "bd58ce38-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PathType rel isu SiblingDisjointCollection, ismem CollectionType, iss ObjectType; Paying ismem Class; Paying has label = "payments", comment = <A collection of events; a subset of#$MoneyTransfer. Each element of #$Paying is an event in which one agent pays money to another agent. The payer is the #$fromPossessor; the recipient is the #$toPossessor. In all payings, the payer gives the payee #$FullUseRights to the money. Some types of payings: (1) all instances of #$Buying and #$Renting contain (at least one) #$subEvents which are elements of #$Paying; (2) making charitable contributions; (3) paying off one&apos;s gambling debts; (4) paying an employee&apos;s salary or a child&apos;s allowance. Writing a check or offering a credit card in payment are #$firstSubEvents of paying events; such payings are successful only if the check is not lost or stolen, if it clears the bank, etc. On the other hand, filling out a pledge card, e.g., for United Way, is NOT considered a #$Paying event or part of one, because it does not involve or initiate any legal reassignment of rights to the money.>, guid = "bd590a1d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Paying rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss MoneyTransaction, iss TransferringOwnership, iss PurposefulAction; PayingCasualUseFee ismem Class; PayingCasualUseFee has label = "collections of fees for use", comment = <#$PayingCasualUseFee is the collection of events in which one agent pays a fee to another in exchange for the right to use something that the latter controls Examples: paying a parking fee, paying a bridge or highway toll, paying an admissions fee to an art museum. #$PayingCasualUseFee covers usage that is temporary and possibly not exclusive. For longer-term use arrangements, see #$Renting. Note: events in #$PayingCasualUseFee are both payings and collectings (cf. #$Buying). The agent doing the paying is the #$buyer, and the agent doing the collecting is the #$seller. The object accessed is the #$objectPaidFor.>, guid = "be3b796b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PayingCasualUseFee rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss MonetaryExchangeOfUserRights; Pensive ismem Class; Pensive has label = "pensive", comment = <A feeling of deep thoughtfulness, reflection, or introspection, and sometimes melancholia. This is a #$Collection --- for an explanation of that, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "be00fb74-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pensive rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; PentagonShaped isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; PentagonShaped has label = "pentagon shaped", comment = <This is the shape attribute shared by all five sided two dimensional figures.>, guid = "bf3e6140-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Perceiving ismem Class; Perceiving has label = "perceptions", comment = <#$Perceiving is the collection of sensory-perceptual events in which a #$PerceptualAgent perceives, i.e. acquires information, using its senses.>, guid = "bd58c31c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Perceiving rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss SingleDoerAction; Perceiving-Involuntary ismem Class; Perceiving-Involuntary has label = "perceiving - involuntary", comment = <A collection of mental events, a subset of #$Perceiving. Each element of this collection is a perceptual event in which the agent involuntarily receives senory information. Thus, if I am in a room, and a light is turned on, I would see the light reflected off of the walls, but without any effort on my part. On the other hand, actively searching for something with my eyes would not be a member of this collection.>, guid = "bfc2df3a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Perceiving-Involuntary rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Perceiving, xor PurposefulAction; Perceiving-Voluntary ismem Class; Perceiving-Voluntary has label = "perceiving - voluntary", comment = <A collection of mental events, a subset of #$Perceiving. Each element of this collection is a perceptual event in which the agent does not merely passively receive sensory information, but is actively filtering or directing how he is perceiving. Thus, searching for a set of lost keys would be an element of this collection, as would straining to hear something, but merely hearing a balloon pop next to you would not.>, guid = "be7798b4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Perceiving-Voluntary rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Perceiving, iss PurposefulAction; PerceivingSlot ismem Class; PerceivingSlot has label = "perceiving slot", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$PerceivingSlot is a binary predicate relating a perceiver and an object or event (not a sense-datum) that s/he perceives in the mode specified by the predicate; e.g., #$sees, #$hears, #$smells, #$perceivesByTouching, #$tastes. Assertions that use a predicate belonging to #$PerceivingSlot imply that some perception event occurs during the time that the assertion holds. See also #$Perceiving and its subsets.>, guid = "bd588eba-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PerceivingSlot rel isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory; PerceptualAgent ismem Class; PerceptualAgent has label = "perceptual agent", comment = <The collection of all sentient agents. Elements of #$PerceptualAgent are beings capable of doing instances of #$Perceiving. Furthermore, in many cases the information that a perceptual agent gathers is input that can influence its other actions.>, guid = "bd58a72d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PerceptualAgent rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss IndividualAgent; PeriodicallyFloodedTerrain isu TerrainAttribute; PeriodicallyFloodedTerrain has label = "periodically flooded terrain", comment = <Attribute of regions characterized by periodic seasonal flooding, such that instances can veritably be said to become standing bodies of water during the flood season. In some cases the periodic flooding may be the deliberate work of human agents.>, guid = "c14962a3-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Permission ismem Class; Permission has label = "permits", comment = <A collection of agreements. Each element of #$Permission is an agreement specifying some rights or privileges which have been granted to an #$Agent. A permission may be an informal agreement between individuals, but many instances are formal and involve permissions granted by a government authority to some agent. E.g., a driver&apos;s license, a marriage license, a visa for entering the U.S., a license to practice medicine.>, guid = "bd58afda-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Permission rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Agreement; Person ismem Class; Person has label = "people", comment = <The collection of all human beings. The collection #$Person constitutes the species Homo Sapiens; thus, #$Person is an instance of #$BiologicalSpecies in the #$BiologyMt. (See also #$HomoGenus, of which Homo Sapiens is the only nonextinct species.) Persons constitute the most intelligent subset of #$Primate, and it is the only class whose elements are known to be naturally capable of speaking a language. All cultural activity requires participation of persons. #$Person excludes non-human legal persons; see #$Agent.>, guid = "bd588092-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Person rel isu BiologicalSpecies, isu OrganismClassificationType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Omnivore, iss Animal, iss HumanOccupationConstructResident, iss Primate, iss LegalAgent, xor NonPersonAnimal; PersonByActivityType ismem Class; PersonByActivityType has label = "person by activity type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$PersonByActivityType is a collection which classifies people by some kind of activity that an individual does regularly. Some examples are: #$Student, #$Tourist, and #$HornPlayer. If the differentiating activity is one that can be done as a career or job, it is preferable to make that collection an element of the more specific #$OccupationType (q.v.).>, guid = "bd68312d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PersonByActivityType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss ExistingObjectType; PersonTypeByCulture ismem Class; PersonTypeByCulture has label = "person type by culture", comment = <A collection of collections. Each instance of #$PersonTypeByCulture is the set of all persons who participate (see #$cultureParticipants) in some particular human culture. Examples include #$FrenchPerson and #$EthnicGroupOfAustralianAborigines.>, guid = "c0fcd06c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PersonTypeByCulture rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ExistingObjectType, iss ConventionalClassificationType; PersonalCheck ismem Class; PersonalCheck has label = "personal checks", comment = <A spec of #$Check-TenderObject. #$PersonalChecks are issued to individual persons who have a #$CheckingAccount with a bank. Each instance of #$PersonalCheck will include the checking account number and personal information, such as name and address.>, guid = "bf0a7279-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PersonalCheck rel isu MoneyTenderType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Check-TenderObject; PersonalProduct ismem Class; PersonalProduct has label = "personal products", comment = <A collection of products. Each element of #$PersonalProduct is a service or tangible product designed for the physical body of a person, including clothing, accessories, personal care products (e.g., deodorant, hand soap) and devices (e.g., razors, heating pads), cosmetics, and personal services such as massages and manicures. These are products or services which a person would seek out or apply to him/herself; i.e., it excludes products used on the body of a person by physicians (e.g., scalpels), dentists (e.g., dental drills), or morticians.>, guid = "bd5906f2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PersonalProduct rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Product, xor Place; PersonalityAttribute ismem Class; PersonalityAttribute has label = "personality attributes", comment = <The collection of attributes which describe aspects of a person&apos;s personality. E.g., #$Dependability-Personality. Note that #$Gentleness, #$Viciousness, and other emotive traits common to both humans and other animals, appear under #$TemperamentAttribute, which is a superset of #$PersonalityAttribute.>, guid = "bd58ad60-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PersonalityAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType; Pharmacist ismem Class; Pharmacist has label = "pharmacists", comment = <The collection of professionals who are trained and licensed to prepare and distribute legal drugs.>, guid = "bd58ddbb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pharmacist rel isu MedicalSpecialtyType, isu OccupationType, iss MedicalCareProfessional; Pharmacy ismem Class; Pharmacy has label = "pharmacies", comment = <The collection of (local-level) organizations which sell mainly prescription drugs, but usually also carry non-prescription drugs and other medical supplies that might be needed by a family or individual. (i.e. not a supplier to hospitals). Sometimes these are free-standing stores, sometimes departments within other stores like drugstores and supermarkets.>, guid = "c0fd4a67-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pharmacy rel isu MedicalFacilityType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss SingleSiteLocalOrganizationWithClients, iss CommercialOrganization, xor MedicalCareInstitution, xor EducationalOrganization; PharmacyProductType ismem Class; PharmacyProductType has label = "pharmacy products", comment = <The collection of pharmaceutical product types, including drugs and pharmaceutical devices.>, guid = "c0fdf171-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PharmacyProductType rel ismem CollectionType, ismem Class, iss ProductType; PhoneNumber ismem Class; PhoneNumber has label = "phone numbers", comment = <A collection of strings. Each element of #$PhoneNumber is a string that represents a telephone number.>, guid = "bd58ecee-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhoneNumber rel isu IDStringType; PhysicalAmountSlot ismem Class; PhysicalAmountSlot has label = "measures", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$PhysicalAmountSlot is a slot (i.e., a binary predicate) used in assertions that state (perhaps roughly) `how much&apos; of an object there is. These can be viewed as different ways of stating the size of an object; e.g., #$lengthOfObject, #$volumeOfObject, #$massOfObject, #$depthOfObject, #$interiorFloorSpace.>, guid = "bd58ee60-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalAmountSlot rel isu PredicateCategory, iss IntervalBasedQuantitySlot, iss PhysicalAttributeDescriptionSlot; PhysicalAttribute ismem Class; PhysicalAttribute has label = "physical attributes", comment = <A collection of attribute values. Each element of #$PhysicalAttribute is an attribute value could in theory be measured using physical instruments. Subsets of this collection include #$Density, #$Speed, #$Rigidity, #$Mass, etc. Elements include #$ColdToBitterlyCold, (#$MediumAmountFn #$Visibility), and #$AFewYearsDuration.>, guid = "bd590a22-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalAttribute rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss AttributeValue, xor PhysicalStructuralAttribute, xor RationalNumber; PhysicalAttributeDescriptionSlot ismem Class; PhysicalAttributeDescriptionSlot has label = "physical attribute description slot", comment = <A collection of predicates. #$PhysicalAttributeDescriptionSlot is a subset of both #$BinaryPredicate and #$PhysicalFeatureDescribingPredicate. Each element of #$PhysicalAttributeDescriptionSlot relates some spatial thing to an instance of #$PhysicalAttribute which characterizes that object. The attribute may or may not be a quantifiable property. Examples of #$PhysicalAttributeDescriptionSlot: #$objectEmitsOdor, #$viscosityOfSubstance, #$colorOfObject, #$diameterOfObject, #$physicalParts, #$shape, #$xzCrossSectionShapeType.>, guid = "bd58b9c4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalAttributeDescriptionSlot rel isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss ExtensionalRepresentationPredicate, iss Property, iss PhysicalFeatureDescribingPredicate; PhysicalConductingMedia ismem Class; PhysicalConductingMedia has label = "physical conducting media", comment = <A collection of tangible stuff. Each element of #$PhysicalConductingMedia is a physical thing that can serve as a conductor, e.g., for heat or electricity. Examples include power lines, pieces of superconductor materials, ceramic, etc.>, guid = "bd58887d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalConductingMedia rel isu ExistingStuffType; PhysicalContactLocation ismem Class; PhysicalContactLocation has label = "physical locations", comment = <A collection of locations; a subset of #$HumanShelterConstruction. An instance of #$PhysicalContactLocation is the principal place(s) where an #$Agent can be physically found. For people, that would (probably) be their home and/or office. For an organization, it would be the location of their place of business, their headquarters, etc. Note that a purely procedural method for getting in touch with someone, such as their Post Office Box number in a certain city, is not a #$PhysicalContactLocation.>, guid = "c10ad9b0-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalContactLocation rel isu ContactLocationType, iss ContactLocation, iss HumanShelterConstruction; PhysicalContactSituation ismem Class; PhysicalContactSituation has label = "physical contact situation", comment = <The collection of all temporal situations in which two or more tangible objects are touching (see #$touches) for at least part of the situation&apos;s duration. This includes an object&apos;s rubbing against another, objects colliding, as well as static touching configurations. Note that, although most types of #$PhysicalEvents involve some kind of touching, only those types for which contact is salient should be subcollections of #$PhysicalContactSituation.>, guid = "bfffa642-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalContactSituation rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss Situation-Temporal; PhysicalDevice ismem Class; PhysicalDevice has label = "devices", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each #$PhysicalDevice is an #$Artifact which is designed for a specific use or to perform a specific function. Thus, the collections #$Tool, #$Condom, #$BathTub, and #$TransportationDevice-Vehicle are all subsets of this collection, as are many other collections. Excluded are artifacts which can only be &apos;used&apos; in a very loose or metaphorical sense, such as instances of #$Sculpture, #$FlowerBed, or #$Advertisement-IBT. Also, an instance of #$PhysicalDevice should have a relatively rigid, set shape (which doesn&apos;t exclude it having moving parts!); hence, #$GasolineFuel or #$AntiFreeze are not subsets of #$PhysicalDevice.>, guid = "bd58c72f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalDevice rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Artifact, iss PartiallyTangibleProduct, iss SolidTangibleProduct, xor EdibleStuff; PhysicalEvent ismem Class; PhysicalEvent has label = "physical events", comment = <A collection of localized spatial events each instance of which involves one or more physical objects or stuffs. #$PhysicalEvents typically involve interaction among #$PartiallyTangibles. But note that a physical event might consist in the creation, destruction, movement, or a change in some physical feature of a single salient physical object. (See #$PhysicalCreationEvent, #$PhysicalDestructionEvent, #$MovementEvent and #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvent.) For a contrasting (though not necessarily disjoint) collection, see #$StrictlyMentalEvent. For events that have both physical and mental components, see the specialization #$CompositePhysicalAndMentalEvent.>, guid = "bd58e98d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalEvent rel isu TemporalStuffType, ismem Class; PhysicalFeatureDescribingPredicate ismem Class; PhysicalFeatureDescribingPredicate has label = "physical feature describing predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Each element of #$PhysicalFeatureDescribingPredicate is a predicate used in assertions that describe spatiophysical aspects of individual objects. Examples: #$above-Directly, #$physicallyContains, #$touchesDirectly, #$colorOfObject, #$temperatureOfObject, #$spans-Bridgelike.>, guid = "bd58b982-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalFeatureDescribingPredicate rel isu RelationshipType, isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; PhysicalPartPredicate ismem Class; PhysicalPartPredicate has label = "physical part predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Instances of #$PhysicalPartPredicate are used to describe the relationship between a #$PartiallyTangible and its #$physicalParts.>, guid = "bd58a601-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalPartPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss PartPredicate, iss CotemporalPredicate; PhysicalSeries ismem Class; PhysicalSeries has label = "physical series", comment = <Each #$PhysicalSeries is a #$Group of #$PartiallyTangibles which is ordered in a linear fashion, most likely according to some spatial relationship. For example, a group of people in line at a ticket booth, or the vertebrae in one person&apos;s spine.>, guid = "c04cb9b8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalSeries rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Series, iss PartiallyTangible, iss Group; PhysicalStateChangeEvent ismem Class; PhysicalStateChangeEvent has label = "physical state change events", comment = <#$PhysicalStateChangeEvent is the collection of events in which some piece of matter changes from one of the physical states of matter to another. Such changes of state can be induced by changes in temperature (or the equivalent in the manipulation of kinetic energy). Each particular instance of #$Boiling, #$Freezing, #$Evaporating, #$Condensing, #$Melting, etc. is an instance of #$PhysicalStateChangeEvent. Note: Most Cyc microtheories distinguish four states of matter, namely, #$SolidStateOfMatter, #$PlasmaStateOfMatter, #$LiquidStateOfMatter, #$GaseousStateOfMatter. See #$StateOfMatter-SolidLiquidGaseous and its individual state constants.>, guid = "bd5884ff-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalStateChangeEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, iss TransformationEvent, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent; PhysicalStructuralAttribute ismem Class; PhysicalStructuralAttribute has label = "physical structural attributes", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute is a physical attribute that determines or describes the structure of a tangible object. These attributes are qualitative, not measurable; in that way, they are unlike those described by the elements of #$Density, #$Mass, #$Elasticity, #$ThermalConductivity, and other attributes which belong to #$ScalarInterval. Examples of #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute: #$Granular, #$Powdery, #$Paste-Form, #$Brittle, #$Collapsible, #$Hollow, #$Woven, #$Burnt. An individual object&apos;s #$PhysicalStructuralAttributes are indicated with the predicate #$physicalStructuralAttributes.>, guid = "bd58fce5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalStructuralAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, iss AttributeValue, xor PhysicalAttribute; PhysicalUrgeType ismem Class; PhysicalUrgeType has label = "urges", comment = <A collection of collections, and also a subset of #$SensoryReactionType (qv). Its elements are distinct from #$SensoryReactionType because they necessarily have a value on #$urgeTypeSatisfied. An element of #$PhysicalUrgeType is an #$AttributeType that describes one class of urges (to do something) that animals have. The elements of #$PhysicalUrgeType are rather earthy; some examples are: #$UrgeToYawn, #$UrgeToScratch, #$UrgeToVomit, #$UrgeToUrinate, etc. >, guid = "bd5886eb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicalUrgeType rel ismem CollectionType, isu PrimitiveAttributeType, iss SensoryReactionType; PhysicallyAttackingAnAgent ismem Class; PhysicallyAttackingAnAgent has label = "attacks", comment = <The collection of events in which one #$Agent (or a small group of #$Agents) physically attacks another #$Agent (or small group of #$Agents.) Each assassination attempt is an example of such an event.>, guid = "bd5889bc-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysicallyAttackingAnAgent rel ismem Class; PhysiologicalAttribute ismem Class; PhysiologicalAttribute has label = "physiological attributes", comment = <The collection of attributes related to a plant or animal organism&apos;s physiological characteristics. Some examples include #$Flexed, #$Deaf, #$Injured, #$Fertile, #$Swollen, #$AcidIndigestion, etc.>, guid = "c0fd4a6e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysiologicalAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, isu SiblingDisjointAttributeType, iss AttributeValue; PhysiologicalCondition ismem Class; PhysiologicalCondition has label = "physiological conditions", comment = <The collection of #$Events in which an organism undergoes (as #$bodilyDoer) some physiological state or process, which may be normal or abnormal. An instance of #$PhysiologicalCondition is, especially, a dynamic physiological state that (1) has important temporal aspects, such as a developmental condition or a progressive disease, and/or (2) affects the organism&apos;s physiological condition for a significant period of time, such that (a) the condition may be thought of as an `episode&apos; in the life of the organism or even (b) a permanent aspect of the organism&apos;s ongoing life. #$PhysiologicalCondition is the most general collection of such states. In representing particular cases, one of the various subsets of #$PhysiologicalCondition is likely to be more useful; these include: #$Pregnancy, #$BacterialPneumonia, #$Cancer, #$KidneyStoneCondition, #$HeartAttack, #$AllergicReaction, #$Phobia, #$ChronicCondition, #$Asthma, #$Dwarfism, etc.>, guid = "c10c3859-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysiologicalCondition rel ismem Class, iss BiologicalEvent; PhysiologicalConditionType ismem Class; PhysiologicalConditionType has label = "health conditions", comment = <A collection of collections. Each #$PhysiologicalConditionType is a coherent set of #$PhysiologicalConditions characterizing some non-instantaneous aspect of an organism. Some sample elements are: #$Menopause, #$SickleCellAnemia, #$Infection, #$Malnutrition, etc.>, guid = "c10c16fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysiologicalConditionType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss TemporalObjectType, xor FeelingAttributeType; PhysiologicalFunction ismem Class; PhysiologicalFunction has label = "physiological function", comment = <The collection of those #$PhysiologicalProcesses that serve some end for their doers, which may be cells, tissues, or whole organisms; for example, #$Photosynthesis-Plant.>, guid = "bd58ecdb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysiologicalFunction rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType, iss PhysiologicalProcess; PhysiologicalProcess ismem Class; PhysiologicalProcess has label = "physiological processes", comment = <The collection of events in which an organism does (typically unconsciously) some process which involves alteration of that agent&apos;s physiological state. A #$PhysiologicalProcess is normally one that is done by organisms (or parts of organisms) in the course of living. A large subset of #$PhysiologicalProcess is #$BodilyFunctionEvent, including its subsets #$Respiration, #$DigestingInStomach, and #$Heartbeating. (Compare this collection with #$PhysiologicalCondition, whose elements are more episodic than process-like.) >, guid = "bd58f396-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PhysiologicalProcess rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalStuffType; Pipe-GenericConduit ismem Class; Pipe-GenericConduit has label = "pipes", comment = <The collection of all enclosed tubular fluid conduits with openings at both ends. #$Pipe-GenericConduit encompasses both human-made pipes as well as natural pipes, found naturally occurring in the environment, or found in an organism&apos;s body, like #$BloodVessels.>, guid = "bd5899fd-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pipe-GenericConduit rel isu ExistingObjectType; PipeEndToCavityJunction ismem Class; PipeEndToCavityJunction has label = "pipe end to cavity junction", comment = <The collection of junctions, in each of which some #$Pipe-GenericConduit ends at a #$Cavity of larger diameter than the pipe, allowing flow or access between them. The flange where a water pipe enters a water tank is one example, as is the junction of the esophagus and the stomach in animals. See also the predicate #$pipeEndsAtCavity.>, guid = "bffab025-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PipeEndToCavityJunction rel isu RegionType, iss Configuration, iss Portal; Pity ismem Class; Pity has label = "pity", comment = <Feeling sorry for another agent on account of the undesirable state of affairs s/he is in. This is a collection; for an explanation of a typical #$FeelingAttributeType, see #$Happiness.>, guid = "c0fba7c4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Pity rel isu FeelingAttributeType, iss FeelingAttribute; Place ismem Class; Place has label = "places", comment = <The collection of #$SpatialThings that have a relatively permanent location. Thus, every #$Place is stationary in the frame of reference of the current microtheory.>, guid = "bd58d3b4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Place rel isu ExistingStuffType, iss SpatialThing, iss SomethingExisting, xor PersonalProduct, xor PortableObject, xor Agent, xor BiologicalLivingObject, xor GeneralizedTransfer, xor PublishedMaterial; PlanActionRestrictionPredicate ismem Class; PlanActionRestrictionPredicate has label = "plan action restriction predicate", comment = <A collection of predicates. Instances are used to express durationalconstraints, constraints relating to temporal ordering, and subeventual commitments relating to reified #$PurposefulActions that are represented in the deontic contexts of #$Plans.>, guid = "bddb7e84-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PlanActionRestrictionPredicate rel isu PredicateCategory, iss Predicate; Planet ismem Class; Planet has label = "planets", comment = <A collection of planetary bodies. Each element of #$Planet is a planet either in Earth&apos;s solar system or elsewhere in the universe. Examples: #$PlanetJupiter, #$PlanetVenus.>, guid = "bd58d12f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Planet rel isu ExistingObjectType; Plant ismem Class; Plant has label = "plants", comment = <#$Plant is the collection of all plants; it is a member of the #$BiologicalKingdom and contains the primary subjects of #$Biology. Plants are typically stationary, living, whole organisms; the cells of plants generally lack cholesterol and have cell walls that include substances of #$Cellulose. Most, though not all, plants are capable of making sugars by #$Photosynthesis-Plant processes and have green parts. Some example subsets of #$Plant are the collections #$RoseBush, #$SpruceTree, and #$Moss.>, guid = "bd58c6e1-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Plant rel isu BiologicalKingdom, isu OrganismClassificationType, iss Organism-Whole, iss VegetableMatter, iss PlantBLO, xor Animal; Plant-NonWoody ismem Class; Plant-NonWoody has label = "herbaceous plants", comment = <The collection of non-woody, herbaceous #$Plants. Those #$Plants such as grasses, herbs, wildflowers, etc. which are fairly low-growing, often annual, and don&apos;t grow woody stems. Excludes large, hard bamboos, and Balsa.>, guid = "c10adb62-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Plant-NonWoody rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Plant; Plant-Woody ismem Class; Plant-Woody has label = "woody plants", comment = <The collection of #$Plants that have woody or hard trunks, stems or branches (and usually roots). includes large, hard bamboos, and balsa.>, guid = "c0fde301-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Plant-Woody rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss TerrestrialOrganism, iss Plant; PlantBLO ismem Class; PlantBLO has label = "plants or plant parts", comment = <A subset of #$BiologicalLivingObject. #$PlantBLO includes the elements of #$Plant and of #$PlantPart.>, guid = "c0fe06bb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PlantBLO rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss BiologicalLivingObject; PlantPart ismem Class; PlantPart has label = "plant parts", comment = <The collection of all physical parts of #$Plants of all kinds. In the traditional view, plant organs are of four types: leaves, stems, roots and flowers. It seems useful to have a category for smaller plant parts which display a similar level of organization (they have vascular tissue, ground tissue, and an epidermis) but have not been included in the traditional view.>, guid = "bd58ee6f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PlantPart rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PlantBLO, iss OrganismPart, xor AnimalBodyPart; PlantPhysiologicalAttribute ismem Class; PlantPhysiologicalAttribute has label = "plant physiological attribute", comment = <The collection of attributes referring to the physiological properties of plants. At the very least, these include seasonal stages, physical properties, and plant health. These attributes apply to entire #$Plants rather than just to certain parts of them.>, guid = "bd61e030-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PlantPhysiologicalAttribute rel isu AttributeType, iss PhysiologicalAttribute; PlantProduct ismem Class; PlantProduct has label = "plant products", comment = <The collection of #$Products that are plants or plant parts (individually or in bulk), or substances derived from plants, which are produced by people or countries and made available for use, sale or exchange.>, guid = "bd58923e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PlantProduct rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingStuffType, iss VegetableMatter, iss PartiallyTangibleProduct; Plastic ismem Class; Plastic has label = "plastics", comment = <A collection of tangible things. Each element of #$Plastic is a piece of some type of plastic. This collection includes plastics of all kinds: artifical, mostly polymeric, inedible, organic moldable hydrocarbons. Some common types are rayon, nylon, polyethylene, etc.>, guid = "bd58f496-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Plastic rel isu TangibleStuffCompositionType, isu ExistingStuffType, isu ProductType, iss ArtificialMaterial; Playa isu TerrainAttribute; Playa has label = "playa", comment = <A collection of desert basins with limited drainage. Each instance is capable of becoming the bed of a shallow lake during the rainy season.>, guid = "bf2ed2f5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PlumbingFixture ismem Class; PlumbingFixture has label = "plumbing fixtures", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$PlumbingFixture is any object which is -- or was or will be or could be -- part of some plumbing system. Types of #$PlumbingFixture include pipes, sinks, and toilets, as well as faucets and drain plugs. It must be a functional part (so sewage doesn&apos;t count) and a significant part (so a label on a pipe doesn&apos;t count) and a specialized part (so an individual screw doesn&apos;t count, nor does an individual iron atom that&apos;s part of a faucet) and a relatively long-lived and localized part (so the water flowing through a pipe doesn&apos;t count.)>, guid = "bd58f57a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PlumbingFixture rel isu ExistingObjectType, isu ProductType, iss PartOfBuilding, iss PhysicalDevice; PointyEnded isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; PointyEnded has label = "pointy ended", comment = <Includes anything which tapers to a pointy or sharp end--pens, pencils, needles, pins, nails, and wood-screws, but not wires (no taper). Most knives would be included, but only because they have pointy ends. A knife with a rounded ended and a sharp blade would not be included.>, guid = "c10060b6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PolarAttributeType ismem Class; PolarAttributeType has label = "polar attribute type", comment = <A collection of collections, a subset of #$PrimitiveAttributeType. Each element of #$PolarAttributeType is a collection of attributes which can be possessed either to a positive or to a negative degree. Thus, #$ElectricalCharge would be an instance of this collection, whereas #$Wetness and #$BedSize would not be.>, guid = "bf55f890-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PolarAttributeType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss PrimitiveAttributeType; PolishingSomething ismem Class; PolishingSomething has label = "polishing events", comment = <The subset of #$Cleaning processes in which something is polished by rubbing it. For example, consider the event in which Aladdin polished his magic lamp for the first time. Polishing can be done to leather, wood, metal, etc. A #$PolishingSomething may be performed either by a person or by a machine.>, guid = "bd58ead9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PolishingSomething rel isu TemporalStuffType, isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, ismem Class, iss Cleaning, iss TransformationEvent; PoliticalDispute ismem Class; PoliticalDispute has label = "skirmishes", comment = <The class of all political disputes, including serious political controversies and skirmishes between individuals, organizations or countries. Such a dispute involves some question of public policy, as opposed to purely personal or commercial issiues.>, guid = "bd58e019-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PoliticalDispute rel isu DefaultDisjointScriptType, isu TemporalObjectType, iss DisputeEvent; PoliticalOrganization ismem Class; PoliticalOrganization has label = "political organizations", comment = <A collection of organizations. An element of #$PoliticalOrganization is an organization whose members share some common political, social, or economic values and goals, and the #$MainFunction of their organization is to achieve those goals by influencing governmental powers or by helping persons who favor their views and interests to win elections or otherwise obtain governmental power. The collection #$PoliticalOrganization includes instances of #$PoliticalParty and also of #$PoliticalInterestGroup. Note that governmental bodies (such as a #$CityCouncil) are not considered #$PoliticalOrganizations. Although such governmental bodies often act in political arenas, that is not their primary function.>, guid = "bd588dcb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PoliticalOrganization rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Organization; PoliticalParty ismem Class; PoliticalParty has label = "political parties", comment = <A collection of political organizations. An element of #$PoliticalParty is an organization that primarily seeks to elect candidates to public office or have members continue holding public office, and which are identified as party affiliations by persons holding or seeking public office.>, guid = "bd58fcda-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PoliticalParty rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PoliticalOrganization; Politician ismem Class; Politician has label = "politicos", comment = <A collection of persons. Each element of #$Politician is a person who is involved in politics. Subsets of #$Politician include #$HeadOfState, #$PresidentialCandidate, and #$HeadOfPoliticalParty.>, guid = "bd58e7b6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Politician rel isu PersonByActivityType, iss PublicSectorEmployee, iss Person; Polygon3DShaped isu ThreeDimensionalShapeAttribute; Polygon3DShaped has label = "polygon 3 d shaped", comment = <This is the attribute (see #$ShapeAttribute) shared by all three dimensional objects all of whose surfaces (see #$objectSurfaces) are polygons (see #$PolygonShaped).>, guid = "bed8e16e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PolygonShaped isu TwoDimensionalShapeAttribute; PolygonShaped has label = "polygon shaped", comment = <This is the attribute shared by all two-dimensional objects that are polygon shaped. The sides of such objects are defined by line segments that are joined and define a closed shape.>, guid = "c0bd3427-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Porosity ismem Class; Porosity has label = "porosity", comment = <A collection of attributes; a subset of #$PhysicalAttribute. Each element of #$Porosity represents a specific porosity of some physical object. Different porosities may be represented using #$GenericValueFunctions. Porosities of objects are indicated with the predicate #$porosityOfObject.>, guid = "be00c216-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Porosity rel iss ScalarInterval; PortableObject ismem Class; PortableObject has label = "portable objects", comment = <A collection of objects. An instance of #$PortableObject is something that is not `fastened down&apos; and which is light enough for an average human (or more to the point: for its average intended user) to move it easily. For many #$PortableObjects, portability is important for them to fulfill their primary functions; for example, an article of clothing (a #$SomethingToWear), a hand-guided tool (a #$HandTool), a coin or dollar bill (an instance of #$Currency), a flashlight (a #$Flashlight), etc. would be pretty useless if they weren&apos;t portable. In other cases, making a device portable, or making a portable version of a device, simply provides a convenience, as with the subsets #$PortableTelevision and #$PortableStereoSystem. Note that #$Tool is not a subset of #$PortableObject, since many tools are heavy and/or stationary. A borderline example would be a heart/lung machine; although the beneficiary of its primary function is in no position to move it around, the physicians and nurses who also are `using&apos; it can and do exactly that. The same goes for a playpen; the kids in it had better NOT be able to move it around, but the adults who set it up and put them there can and do move it. A borderline non-example would be a car; even though its user can make it move around, that is more a controlling action than a transporting action --- i.e., the car is doing the transporting in that case, not the driver. A borderline example is a cat; even though it moves under its own power, it is light enough for its owner to pick it up and move around. A borderline example is a bed or a dresser; though too heavy to lift, its owners can generally move it around (by sliding, disassembling and reassembling, etc.)>, guid = "bd588131-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PortableObject rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PartiallyTangible, xor Place; Portal ismem Class; Portal has label = "portals", comment = <The collection of all openings, as in a surface, through a tube, etc., with or without a covering. This includes doors, mouths, doughnut-holes, etc.>, guid = "bd58d597-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Portal rel isu RegionType, iss Path-Simple, iss SomethingExisting, iss Cavity; PortalCovering ismem Class; PortalCovering has label = "portal covering", comment = <A collection of tangible objects. Each element of #$PortalCovering is something that covers a portal (e.g., window, door, hatch). Portal coverings may be either flexible or rigid; they may be either fixed in place or removable. Examples include windows (in buildings or automobiles), doors, shutters, screens, draperies, window blinds, convertible tops, lids, corks.>, guid = "bd589d69-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PortalCovering rel isu ProductType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss SolidTangibleThing; Portugal isu IndependentCountry; Portugal has label = "Portugal", comment = <The nation of Portugal as it has existed throughout time; includes both its physical and its political aspects.>, guid = "bd590a03-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PortugueseLanguage isu LivingLanguage; PortugueseLanguage has label = "Portuguese Language", comment = <Indigenous language of #$Portugal and #$Brazil.>, guid = "bd590836-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PositionType ismem Class; PositionType has label = "position type", comment = <A collection of collections. Each element of #$PositionType is a collection which represents a type of position filled by people within an organization. Examples of #$PositionType: #$Mayor, #$CampaignManager, #$Director-Movie, #$Chairman, #$Resident-Medical.>, guid = "c10af93a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PositionType rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss ExistingObjectType; PositiveInteger ismem Class; PositiveInteger has label = "positive integers", comment = <#$PositiveInteger is the subset of #$Integer that excludes the negative integers and zero. Each element of #$PositiveInteger is a whole number greater than zero; thus, it includes 5, but not -5 or 0.>, guid = "bd589ed9-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PositiveInteger rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, ismem CoreConstant, iss PositiveNumber, iss NonNegativeInteger, iss Integer; PositiveNumber ismem Class; PositiveNumber has label = "positive number", comment = <#$PositiveNumber is a subset of #$RealNumber. Each instance of #$PositiveNumber is a #$RealNumber that is #$greaterThan zero; thus, it includes 42 and 0.17 but not 0 or -5.>, guid = "bf6afb32-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PositiveNumber rel isu MeasurableAttributeType, iss Number-General, iss RealNumber, iss NonNegativeNumber; PostalCode ismem Class; PostalCode has label = "postal codes", comment = <A collection of character strings. Each element of #$PostalCode is a string used by a postal service to designate a particular geographic area. For example, the code used by the #$USPostalService for central downtown Austin, TX, is `78701&apos;. Most countries have their own kind of #$PostalCodes. For example, see #$ZipCode, a specialization of #$PostalCode, which is specific to the UnitedStatesOfAmerica.>, guid = "c10ada49-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PostalCode rel isu IDStringType, xor ContactLocation; Posture ismem Class; Posture has label = "positions", comment = <The collection of postures, which are types of attributes that describe bodily configurations and/or orientations of #$Animals. Some #$Postures are: #$UprightPosture, #$KneelingPosture, #$LyingOnBackPosture, #$PronePosture, #$LeaningOnKnucklesPosture, #$ForwardFlyingPosture.>, guid = "bd59076d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Posture rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, isu SiblingDisjointAttributeType, iss AnimalPhysiologicalAttribute, iss BodyPartPosition; Pourable isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Pourable has label = "pourable", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Pourable is the structural attribute of a tangible thing that is capable of flowing. #$Pourable things don&apos;t have intrinsic shape, but instead take the shape of their containers. When acted on by a force, a #$Pourable thing changes shape at a rate proportional to the force. (In addition, #$Pourable things may be easily separated into multiple pieces; however, such a separation is not a breaking or shearing.) Mobs of particles, such as portions of sand or snow, are #$Pourable; but a gelatin-like semisolid is not. See also #$SemiSolidTangibleThing.>, guid = "bd58914b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Powdery isu PhysicalStructuralAttribute; Powdery has label = "powdery", comment = <A physical attribute. #$Powdery is the #$PhysicalStructuralAttribute which describes a solid that has the form of a powder. #$Powdery stuff is #$Pourable and composed of multiple granules of solids.>, guid = "bd58d489-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PoweredDevice ismem Class; PoweredDevice has label = "mechanisms", comment = <A collection of physical devices. An instance of #$PoweredDevice is any device which requires some power input in order to perform its function. The power supplied may be muscle power, kinetic energy, fuel, electricity, etc. This is much more general than #$ElectricalDevice (qv), which is one of its subsets. #$PoweredDevice and #$NonPoweredDevice partition #$PhysicalDevice.>, guid = "bd589472-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PoweredDevice rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss PhysicalDevice, xor NonPoweredDevice; PrecipitationCloud ismem Class; PrecipitationCloud has label = "precipitation clouds", comment = <The collection of clouds that emit #$PrecipitationParticles in instances of #$PrecipitationProcess.>, guid = "bd58a995-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PrecipitationCloud rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss InanimateThing-Natural, iss CloudInSky; PrecipitationParticle ismem Class; PrecipitationParticle has label = "precipitation particle", comment = <The collection of particles of liquid or solid water emitted by clouds in instances of #$PrecipitationProcess.>, guid = "bd58f4fb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PrecipitationParticle rel isu ExistingObjectType, iss Particle; PrecipitationProcess ismem Class; PrecipitationProcess has label = "precipitation processes", comment = <A collection of physical processes; a subset of #$WeatherEvent. Elements of #$PrecipitationProcess are meteorological processes in which atmospheric clouds precipitate rain, snow, or other forms of H2O precipitation.>, guid = "bd58fece-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PrecipitationProcess rel isu TemporalStuffType, iss ImmediateWeatherProcess; Predicate ismem Class; Predicate has label = "predicates", comment = <The set of all Cyc predicates. Each element of #$Predicate is a relationship in Cyc which takes some number of arguments to yield a well-formed CycL formula; each of those arguments must be of some particular type. For example, the predicate #$genls, which represents the subset/superset relation between collections, takes two arguments; each argument must be an element of #$Collection. The numbers and types of arguments to particular predicates are specified by explicit assertions using #$arity, #$arg1Isa, #$arg2Isa, etc., #$arg1Genl, #$arg2Genl, etc. Our example #$genls has #$arity 2, and both its #$arg1Isa and its #$arg2Isa have the value #$Collection. Informally, you can think of elements of #$Predicate as functions that always return either true or false. More formally, when an element of #$Predicate is applied to the legal number and type of arguments, an expression is formed which is a well-formed formula (wff) in CycL. Such expressions are called `atomic formulas&apos; if they contain variables, and `gafs&apos; (short for `ground atomic formulas&apos;) if they contain no variables. Quantifiers and logical operators are excluded from #$Predicate; see #$Quantifier, #$LogicalConnective. Currently (March 2000), the KB includes predicates of arity 1-7, inclusive. The KB also includes some predicates of variable arity (see #$VariableArityRelation). Unary predicates, which take just one single argument (e.g., `-- is a person&apos; or `-- is white&apos;, are usually represented in Cyc by elements of #$Collection or #$AttributeValue, rather than of #$Predicate; but see also #$UnaryPredicate. Naming strings for elements of #$Predicate always begin with a lowercase letter.>, guid = "bd5880d6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; Predicate rel ismem Class, ismem CoreConstant, isu PredicateCategory, iss TruthFunction, xor Function-Denotational; PredicateCategory ismem Class; PredicateCategory has label = "predicate category", comment = <A collection of collections; a subset of #$RelationshipType. Each element of #$PredicateCategory is a collection of Cyc #$Predicates. Examples: #$TemporalPartSlot, #$IntervalBasedQuantitySlot, #$FunctionalSlot, #$InterActorSlot, #$TransitiveBinaryPredicate, #$PropositionalAttitudeSlot. See also the comment on #$Predicate.>, guid = "bd5888fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PredicateCategory rel ismem Class, ismem CollectionType, iss RelationshipType; PregnancyEndingEvent ismem Class; PregnancyEndingEvent has label = "pregnancy ending event", comment = <The collection of events which terminate a pregnancy, including birth, abortion, and miscarriage.>, guid = "c0fd51d2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PregnancyEndingEvent rel isu TemporalObjectType, iss IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, iss BiologicalEvent, iss AnimalActivity; PrepaidTelephoneCard ismem Class; PrepaidTelephoneCard has label = "telephone cards", comment = <The collection of all #$Cards that allow a user to make telephone calls by debiting the price of the call from the value remaining on the card. The value on the card may be encoded on a magnetic strip on the card, or kept track of by the company that issued the card.>, guid = "bf363fb2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PrepaidTelephoneCard rel isu MoneyTenderType, isu ExistingObjectType, iss Plastic, iss TenderObject, iss Card; PreparationAttribute ismem Class; PreparationAttribute has label = "preparation attribute", comment = <A collection of attributes. Each element of #$PreparationAttribute is a characteristic of a piece of material (e.g., food) indicating (1) a type of physical preparation which that stuff has already undergone, and (2) something about its current, resulting condition. Examples of #$PreparationAttribute which are applicable to food include: #$Baked, #$Fried, #$Toasted, #$Fermented, #$Grilled, #$Frozen, #$Dried, #$Raw.>, guid = "bd58f055-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270"; PreparationAttribute rel isu UnorderedAttributeType, iss Attribute